255 relations: A36 steel, Activation energy, Aerospace, Alexander the Great, Allotropes of iron, Allotropy, Alloy, Alloy steel, Aluminium, American Iron and Steel Institute, Anatolia, Andhra Pradesh, Annealing (metallurgy), Anuradhapura, ArcelorMittal, Archaeological site, Architecture, Armour, ASM International (society), Assembly line, ASTM International, Austenite, Base (chemistry), Basic oxygen steelmaking, Basil Brooke (metallurgist), Benjamin Huntsman, Bessemer process, Blast furnace, Bloomery, Body piercing jewellery, Boron, Bravais lattice, British Geological Survey, Bronze Age, Building, Bunker buster, Business cycle, Car, Carbon, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon nanotube, Carbon steel, Case-hardening, Cast iron, Castability, Casting, Casting (metalworking), Cementation process, Cementite, Charcoal, ..., Chera dynasty, China Baowu Steel Group, Chromium, Classical antiquity, Clock, Coalbrookdale, Cobalt, Coke (fuel), Cold blast, Commodity market, Compression (physics), Continuous casting, Continuous track, Copper, Corporate average fuel economy, Corrosion, Crucible, Crucible steel, Crust (geology), Cubic crystal system, Cutlery, Damascus steel, Density, Dislocation, Dual-phase steel, Ductile iron, Ductility, Economic development, Eglin steel, Electric arc furnace, Electrical steel, Encarta, Eutectic system, Falcata, Fatigue (material), Finery forge, Forging, Galvanization, Geiger counter, Golkonda, Grain growth, Gun, Han dynasty, Hardening (metallurgy), Hardness, Heat treating, Heavy equipment, Hematite, Henry Bessemer, High-speed steel, High-strength low-alloy steel, Highliner, History of the steel industry (1970–present), Horace, Hot-dip galvanization, Hydraulic rescue tools, I-beam, Iberian Peninsula, Indian subcontinent, Infrastructure, Ingot, Intermetallic, Intermodal container, Iron, Iron in folklore, Iron ore, Japanese Industrial Standards, Kaman-Kalehöyük, Karnataka, Knife, Kodumanal, List of blade materials, List of steel producers, London Metal Exchange, Machinability, Machine, Magnetic core, Magnetism, Magnetite, Major appliance, Malleable iron, Manganese, Maraging steel, Martensite, Mass production, Melting, Melting point, Merv, Military of ancient Rome, Mining, Molybdenum, Nacre, Nail (fastener), Naples, Nature (journal), Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, Noric steel, Nuclear weapons testing, Nuremberg, Offshore construction, Oil, Open hearth furnace, Ore, Oregrounds iron, Oxygen, Passenger car (rail), Passivation (chemistry), Pearlite, Pelletizing, Phase transition, Phosphorus, Pig iron, Pipeline transport, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Porus, POSCO, Precipitation (chemistry), Precipitation hardening, Proto-Germanic language, Quenching, Radiation protection, Radioactive contamination, Radionuclide, Railroad car, Razor, Recovery (metallurgy), Recrystallization (metallurgy), Reinforced concrete, Robert Hadfield, Rolled homogeneous armour, Rolling (metalworking), Room temperature, Ruler, Rust Belt, SAE International, SAE steel grades, Samanala Dam, Sangam literature, Scrap, Screw, Second Industrial Revolution, Senna auriculata, Shagang Group, Shear stress, Sheet metal, Ship, Shipbuilding, Silicon, Sinhalese people, Slag, Smelting, Song dynasty, Spring (device), Sri Lanka, Stainless steel, Standards organization, Steel abrasive, Steel mill, Steel wool, Steelmaking, Stockholm, Structural steel, Sulfur, Surgical instrument, Sword, Tamahagane, Tamil Nadu, Tamilakam, Tamils, Tata Steel, Tata Steel Europe, Tempering (metallurgy), Tension (physics), Tetragonal crystal system, The Journal of Economic History, The Real News, Tin, Tinning, Tissamaharama Tamil Brahmi inscription, Titanium, Tool, Tool steel, Trace element, Track (rail transport), Tungsten, Ultimate tensile strength, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Publishing Office, Vanadium, Vehicle armour, Warring States period, Washing machine, Watch, Weapon, Weathering steel, Wire, Wootz steel, Work hardening, World Steel Association, Wrought iron, Yield (engineering), Zinc, Zosimos of Panopolis. Expand index (205 more) » « Shrink index
A36 steel is a common structural steel in the United States.
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Iron represents perhaps the best-known example for allotropy in a metal.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is an association of North American steel producers.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
Anuradhapura (අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.
ArcelorMittal S.A. is a Luxembourgish multinational steel manufacturing corporation headquartered in Luxembourg.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, is a professional organization for materials scientists and engineers.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF, or OSM), also known as Linz–Donawitz-steelmaking or the oxygen converter processBrock and Elzinga, p. 50.
Sir Basil Brooke (1576 – 31 December 1646), English metallurgist and recusant, inherited the manor of Madeley from his father.
Benjamin Huntsman (4 June 170420 June 1776) was an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
A bloomery is a type of furnace once used widely for smelting iron from its oxides.
Body piercing jewellery is jewellery manufactured specifically for use in body piercing.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
A bunker buster is a type of munition that is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground, such as military bunkers.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Castability is the ease of forming a quality casting.
Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.
The cementation process is an obsolete technology for making steel by carburization of iron.
Cementite (or iron carbide) is a compound of iron and carbon, more precisely an intermediate transition metal carbide with the formula Fe3C.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
China Baowu Steel Group Corp., Ltd., commonly referred to as Baowu Steel, is a state-owned iron and steel company headquartered in the Baosteel Tower in Pudong, Shanghai, China.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
Coalbrookdale is a village in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England, containing a settlement of great significance in the history of iron ore smelting.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Cold blast, in ironmaking, refers to a furnace where air is not preheated before being blown into the furnace.
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.
Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills.
Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are regulations in the United States, first enacted by the United States Congress in 1975, after the 1973–74 Arab Oil Embargo, to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) produced for sale in the United States.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.
Crucible steel is steel made by melting pig iron (cast iron), iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in Western culture.
Damascus steel was the forged steel composing the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
Dual-phase steel (DP steel) is a high-strength steel that has a ferritic–martensitic microstructure.
Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of graphite-rich cast iron discovered in 1943 by Keith Millis.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Eglin steel (ES-1) is a high-strength, high-performance, low-alloy, low-cost steel, developed for new generation of bunker buster type bombs, e.g. the Massive Ordnance Penetrator and the improved version of the GBU-28 bomb known as EGBU-28.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
Electrical steel (lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel, transformer steel) is a special steel tailored to produce specific magnetic properties: small hysteresis area resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
The falcata is a type of sword typical of pre-Roman Iberia.
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
A finery forge is a hearth used to fine (i.e., produce, refine) wrought iron, through the decarburization of the pig iron.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
Golkonda, also known as Golconda, Gol konda ("Round shaped hill"), or Golla konda, (Shepherd's Hill) is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.1518–1687), is situated west of Hyderabad.
Grain growth is the increase in size of grains (crystallites) in a material at high temperature.
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hardening is a metallurgical metalworking process used to increase the hardness of a metal.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Sir Henry Bessemer (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English inventor, whose steelmaking process would become the most important technique for making steel in the nineteenth century for almost one century from year 1856 to 1950.
High-speed steel (HSS or HS) is a subset of tool steels, commonly used as cutting tool material.
High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel.
The Highliner is a bilevel Electric Multiple Unit railcar.
The global steel industry has been going through major changes since 1970.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
Hot-dip galvanization is a form of galvanization.
Hydraulic rescue tools are used by emergency rescue personnel to assist vehicle extrication of crash victims, as well as other rescues from small spaces.
An -beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an or H-shaped cross-section.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure.
An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport, meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron has a long and varied tradition in the mythology and folklore of the world.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
specifies the standards used for industrial activities in Japan.
Kaman-Kalehöyük is a multi-period archaeological site in Kırşehir Province, Turkey, around 100 km south east of Ankara 6 km east of the town center of Kaman.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
A knife (plural knives) is a tool with a cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with most having a handle.
Kodumanal is a village located in the Erode district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Blade materials are those used to make the blade of a knife or other simple edged hand tool or weapon, such as a hatchet or sword.
This article summarizes the world steel production by company.
The London Metal Exchange (LME) is the futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals.
The term machinability refers to the ease with which a metal can be cut (machined) permitting the removal of the material with a satisfactory finish at low cost.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high magnetic permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, generators, inductors, magnetic recording heads, and magnetic assemblies.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is a large machine in home appliance used for routine housekeeping tasks such as cooking, washing laundry, or food preservation.
Malleable iron is cast as white iron, the structure being a metastable carbide in a pearlitic matrix.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Maraging steels (a portmanteau of "martensitic" and "aging") are steels (iron alloys) that are known for possessing superior strength and toughness without losing malleability, although they cannot hold a good cutting edge.
Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
The military of ancient Rome, according to Titus Livius, one of the more illustrious historians of Rome over the centuries, was a key element in the rise of Rome over “above seven hundred years” from a small settlement in Latium to the capital of an empire governing a wide region around the shores of the Mediterranean, or, as the Romans themselves said, ‘’mare nostrum’’, “our sea.” Livy asserts Titus Flavius Josephus, a contemporary historian, sometime high-ranking officer in the Roman army, and commander of the rebels in the Jewish revolt, describes the Roman people as if they were "born ready armed." At the time of the two historians, Roman society had already evolved an effective military and had used it to defend itself against the Etruscans, the Italics, the Greeks, the Gauls, the maritime empire of Carthage, and the Macedonian kingdoms.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Nacre (also), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls.
In woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped object of metal (or wood, called a tree nail or "trunnel") which is used as a fastener, as a peg to hang something, or sometimes as a decoration.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Noric steel was a steel from Noricum, a Celtic kingdom located in modern Austria and Slovenia.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Offshore construction is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Oregrounds iron was a grade of iron that was regarded as the best grade available in 18th century England.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A passenger car (known as a coach or carriage in the UK, and also known as a bogie in India) is a piece of railway rolling stock that is designed to carry passengers.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Pearlite is a two-phased, lamellar (or layered) structure composed of alternating layers of ferrite (88 wt%) and cementite (12 wt%) that occurs in some steels and cast irons.
Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material into the shape of a pellet.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) is a private research university in Pohang, South Korea dedicated to research and education in science and technology.
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
POSCO (formerly Pohang Iron and Steel Company) is a South Korean steel-making company headquartered in Pohang, South Korea.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Precipitation hardening, also called age hardening or particle hardening, is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminium, magnesium, nickel, titanium, and some steels and stainless steels.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A railroad car or railcar (American and Canadian English), railway wagon or railway carriage (British English and UIC), also called a train car or train wagon, is a vehicle used for the carrying of cargo or passengers on a rail transport system (a railroad/railway).
A razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving.
Recovery is a process by which deformed grains can reduce their stored energy by the removal or rearrangement of defects in their crystal structure.
Recrystallization is a process by which deformed grains are replaced by a new set of defects-free grains that nucleate and grow until the original grains have been entirely consumed.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
Sir Robert Abbott Hadfield, 1st Baronet FRS (28 November 1858 in Sheffield – 30 September 1940 in Surrey) was an English metallurgist, noted for his 1882 discovery of manganese steel, one of the first steel alloys.
Rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) is a type of armour made of a single steel composition hot-rolled to improve its material characteristics, as opposed to layered or cemented armour.
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device with equally spaced markings along its length, used in geometry, technical drawing, engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines.
The Rust Belt is a region of the United States, made up mostly of places in the Midwest and Great Lakes, though the term may be used to include any location where industry declined starting around 1980.
SAE International, initially established as the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a U.S.-based, globally active professional association and standards developing organization for engineering professionals in various industries.
The SAE steel grades system is a standard alloy numbering systems for steel grades maintained by SAE International.
The Samanala Dam (Sinhala: සමනලවැව වේල්ල) is a dam primarily used for hydroelectric power generation in Sri Lanka.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials.
A screw is a type of fastener, in some ways similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread).
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
Senna auriculata is a legume tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
Jiangsu Shagang Group Company Limited, Jiangsu Shagang Group, Shagang Group or Shasteel is located in Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu, China, an Economic Development Zone of the Yangtze River.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.
Steel abrasives are steel particles that are used as abrasive or peening media.
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.
Steel wool, also known as iron wool, wire wool or wire sponge, is a bundle of very fine and flexible sharp-edged steel filaments.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Structural steel is a category of steel used for making construction materials in a variety of shapes.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions or carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access for viewing it.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Tamahagane (玉鋼) is a type of steel made in the Japanese tradition.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tata Steel Limited (formerly Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO)) is an Indian multinational steel-making company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, and a subsidiary of the Tata Group.
Tata Steel Europe Ltd.
Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.
The Real News Network (TRNN) is a nonprofit news organization.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tinning is the process of thinly coating sheets of wrought iron or steel with tin, and the resulting product is known as tinplate.
Tissamaharama Tamil Brahmi inscription refers to a fragment of black and red ware flat dish inscribed in Tamil in the Tamil Brahmi script excavated at the earliest layer in southern town of Tissamaharama in Sri Lanka.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools.
A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount").
The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a device used to wash laundry.
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Weathering steel, often referred to by the genericized trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance after several years exposure to weather.
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal.
Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands, which are formed by sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix in higher carbon steel, or by ferrite and pearlite banding in lower carbon steels.
Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation.
World Steel Association, often abbreviated as worldsteel, is the international trade body for the iron and steel industry.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
The yield point is the point on a stress–strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning of plastic behavior.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zosimos of Panopolis (Ζώσιμος ὁ Πανοπολίτης; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Alchemista, i.e. "Zosimus the Alchemist") was an Egyptian alchemist and Gnostic mystic who lived at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century AD.
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