229 relations: Abbey Road Studios, Academy of Music (Philadelphia), Acoustic location, Alan Blumlein, Alexander Scriabin, Alfred Newman (composer), AM broadcasting, AM stereo, Ambiophonics, Ambisonics, American Broadcasting Company, Ampex, Amplitude modulation, Anna and the King of Siam (film), Antar (Rimsky-Korsakov), Anti-aircraft warfare, Anton Bruckner, Arturo Toscanini, Audio Fidelity Records, Audio signal, Audiophile, Balance, BBC, BBC Third Programme, Bell Labs, Ben-Hur (1959 film), Billboard (magazine), Binaural recording, Blue Network, Blumlein pair, Boston Symphony Orchestra, C-QUAM, Cable television, Camelot (film), Carmen, Carnegie Hall, Carousel (film), Carrier wave, Century of Progress, Charles Munch (conductor), Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, CinemaScope, Cinerama, Classical music, Clément Ader, Cleopatra (1963 film), Columbia University, Communication channel, Compact Disc Digital Audio, Crossfeed, ..., DAR Constitution Hall, Daventry, Decca Records, Decibel, Digital cinema, Digital multimedia broadcasting, Digital television, Dolby Atmos, Dolby Digital, Dolby Stereo, Dolby Surround 7.1, Dummy head recording, Duophonic, Eardrum, Electrophone (information system), EMI, Encoder, Equilateral triangle, Ernest Ansermet, Eurovision Song Contest, Fantasia (1940 film), Fantasound, Federal Communications Commission, Flexi disc, FM broadcasting, Franco Zeffirelli, Friday Night Videos, Germany, Glenn Miller, Greek language, Hamilton Harty, Harvey Fletcher, Hazard E. Reeves, HD Radio, Headphones, Hector Berlioz, Herbert von Karajan, High fidelity, Home cinema, House of Wax (1953 film), How Green Was My Valley (film), IMAX, Isaac Shoenberg, It Came from Outer Space, Joint (audio engineering), Judy Garland, Kiss Me Kate (film), La damnation de Faust, LaserDisc, Leopold Stokowski, Litton Industries, Longwave, Loudspeaker, Lounge music, Lowell Thomas, Ludwig van Beethoven, Magnetic cartridge, Magnetic field viewing film, Magnetophon, Manchester, Maurice Ravel, Media market, Medium wave, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Metropolitan Opera House (39th Street), Microphone, Microphone practice, Mike Todd, Millisecond, Modest Mussorgsky, Monaural, Motorola, MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, MTV, Multichannel television sound, My Fair Lady (film), NBC, NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York City, NICAM, NOS stereo technique, NTSC, Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française, One Hundred Men and a Girl, ORTF stereo technique, Palais Garnier, Panavision, Panning (audio), Paramount Pictures, Perspecta, Phase (waves), Phenomenon, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Orchestra, Phonograph record, Pictures at an Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Polaroid Corporation, Popular Science, Precedence effect, Prometheus: The Poem of Fire, Psychoacoustics, Quadraphonic sound, Radio France, RCA, RCA Records, Red Army, Reel-to-reel audio tape recording, Remington Records, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, RF modulator, Romeo and Juliet (1968 film), Satellite television, Schenectady, New York, Scientific American, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Signal, Simon & Garfunkel, Simulcast, Sleeping Beauty (1959 film), Sound, Sound localization, Sound recording and reproduction, South Pacific (1958 film), Spatial music, Standardization, Stereographic projection, Stereophonic sound, Stereoscopy, Subwoofer, Sun Valley Serenade, Surround sound, Sweet spot (acoustics), Swing era, Symphony No. 41 (Mozart), Tape bias, Televerket (Sweden), Théâtrophone, The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Graduate, The King and I (1956 film), The Lawrence Welk Show, The Movie Channel, The Proms, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, The Washington Post, This Is Cinerama, Thomas Beecham, Thor Johnson, Todd-AO, Transmission (telecommunications), Triangulation, United Kingdom, Universal Pictures, View-Master, Vincent Price, VistaVision, Visual field, Walt Disney, Walt Disney anthology television series, Walter Gieseking, Warner Bros., Wave field synthesis, Wave interference, Wavefront, West Germany, West Side Story (film), Western Electric, WGN (AM), WNBC, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, World War II, WUSN, ZDF, Zweikanalton, 20th Century Fox, 3D audio effect, 3D film, 70 mm film. Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
Abbey Road Studios (formerly known as EMI Recording Studios) is a recording studio at 3 Abbey Road, St John's Wood, City of Westminster, London, England.
The Academy of Music, also known as American Academy of Music, is a concert hall and opera house located at 240 S. Broad Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Acoustic location is the use of sound to determine the distance and direction of its source or reflector.
Alan Dower Blumlein (29 June 1903 – 7 June 1942) was an English electronics engineer, notable for his many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereophonic sound, television and radar.
Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин; –) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Alfred Newman (March 17, 1900 – February 17, 1970) was an American composer, arranger, and conductor of film music.
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.
AM stereo is a term given to a series of mutually incompatible techniques for radio broadcasting stereo audio in the AM band in a manner that is compatible with standard AM receivers.
Ambiophonics is a method in the public domain that employs digital signal processing (DSP) and two loudspeakers directly in front of the listener in order to improve reproduction of stereophonic and 5.1 surround sound for music, movies, and games in home theaters, gaming PCs, workstations, or studio monitoring applications.
Ambisonics is a full-sphere surround sound format: in addition to the horizontal plane, it covers sound sources above and below the listener.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Ampex is an American electronics company founded in 1944 by Alexander M. Poniatoff.
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.
Anna and the King of Siam is a 1946 drama film directed by John Cromwell.
Antar is a composition for symphony orchestra in four movements by the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Josef Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum and motets.
Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor.
Audio Fidelity Records, was a record company out of New York City, most active during the 1950s and 1960s.
An audio signal is a representation of sound, typically as an electrical voltage for analog signals and a binary number for digital signals.
An audiophile is a person who is enthusiastic about high-fidelity sound reproduction.
Balance, balanced or balancing may refer to.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The BBC Third Programme was a national radio service produced and broadcast by the BBC between 1946 and 1970.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Ben-Hur is a 1959 American epic religious drama film, directed by William Wyler, produced by Sam Zimbalist for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and starring Charlton Heston as the title character.
Billboard (styled as billboard) is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries.
Binaural recording is a method of recording sound that uses two microphones, arranged with the intent to create a 3-D stereo sound sensation for the listener of actually being in the room with the performers or instruments.
The Blue Network (previously the NBC Blue Network) was the on-air name of the now defunct American radio network, which ran from 1927 to 1945.
Blumlein pair is the name for a stereo recording technique invented by Alan Blumlein for the creation of recordings that, upon replaying through headphones or loudspeakers, recreate the spatial characteristics of the recorded signal.
The Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) is an American orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts.
C-QUAM is the method of AM stereo broadcasting used in Canada, the United States and most other countries.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
Camelot is a 1967 American musical comedy-drama film directed by Joshua Logan and starring Richard Harris as King Arthur, Vanessa Redgrave as Guenevere, and Franco Nero as Lancelot.
Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.
Carnegie Hall (but more commonly) is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States, located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east side of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street, two blocks south of Central Park.
Carousel is a 1956 film adaptation of the 1945 Rodgers and Hammerstein stage musical of the same name which, in turn, was based on Ferenc Molnár's non-musical play Liliom.
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
A Century of Progress International Exposition was a World's Fair registered under the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE), which was held in Chicago, as The Chicago World's Fair, from 1933 to 1934 to celebrate the city's centennial.
Charles Munch (born Charles Münch; 26 September 1891 – 6 November 1968) was an Alsacian, German-born symphonic conductor and violinist.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Cincinnati, Ohio.
CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, for shooting widescreen movies.
Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Clément Ader (2 April 1841 – 3 May 1925) was a French inventor and engineer who was born in Muret, Haute-Garonne (a distant suburb of Toulouse), and died in Toulouse.
Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film chronicling the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA) is the standard format for audio compact discs.
Crossfeed is the process of blending the left and right channels of a stereo audio recording.
DAR Constitution Hall is a concert hall located at 1776 D Street NW, near the White House in Washington, D.C. It was built in 1929 by the Daughters of the American Revolution to house its annual convention when membership delegations outgrew Memorial Continental Hall.
Daventry (historically) is a market town in Northamptonshire, England, with a population of 25,026.
Decca Records is a British record label established in 1929 by Edward Lewis.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film.
Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) is a digital radio transmission technology developed in South Korea as part of the national IT project for sending multimedia such as TV, radio and datacasting to mobile devices such as mobile phones, laptops and GPS navigation systems.
Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals.
Dolby Atmos is the name of a surround sound technology announced by Dolby Laboratories in April 2012 and released in June that year, first utilized in Disney and Pixar's animated film Brave.
Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories.
Dolby Stereo is a trademark of Dolby Laboratories, for its various stereo sound formats.
Dolby Surround 7.1 is a sound system by Dolby Laboratories which delivers theatrical 7.1 surround sound to movie-goers.
In acoustics, the dummy head recording (also known as artificial head, Kunstkopf or Head and Torso Simulator) is a method of recording used to generate binaural recordings.
Duophonic sound was a trade name for a type of audio signal processing used by Capitol Records on certain releases and re-releases of mono recordings issued during the 1960s and 1970s.
In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.
The Electrophone was a distributed audio system, which operated in the United Kingdom, primarily in London between 1895 and 1925.
EMI Group Limited (originally an initialism for Electric and Musical Industries and also referred to as EMI Records Ltd.) was a British multinational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London.
An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm or person that converts information from one format or code to another, for the purposes of standardization, speed or compression.
In geometry, an equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal.
Ernest Alexandre Ansermet (pronounced; 11 November 1883 – 20 February 1969)"Ansermet, Ernest" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
Fantasia is a 1940 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and released by Walt Disney Productions.
Fantasound was a stereophonic sound reproduction system developed by engineers of Walt Disney studios and RCA for Walt Disney's animated film Fantasia, the first commercial film released in stereo.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The flexi disc (also known as a phonosheet, Sonosheet or Soundsheet, a trademark) is a phonograph record made of a thin, flexible vinyl sheet with a molded-in spiral stylus groove, and is designed to be playable on a normal phonograph turntable.
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.
Franco Zeffirelli, KBE Grande Ufficiale OMRI (born 12 February 1923) is an Italian director and producer of operas, films and television.
Friday Night Videos (later becoming Friday Night and then Late Friday) is an American music video show that was broadcast on NBC from July 29, 1983 to May 24, 2002.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Alton Glenn Miller (March 1, 1904 – December 15, 1944) The website for Arlington National Cemetery refers to Glenn Miller as "missing in action since Dec.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Sir Herbert Hamilton Harty (4 December 1879 – 19 February 1941) was an Irish composer, conductor, pianist and organist.
Harvey Fletcher (September 11, 1884 – July 23, 1981) was an American physicist.
Hazard Earle Reeves, Jr. (July 6, 1906 – December 23, 1986) was an American pioneer in sound and sound electronics, and introduced magnetic stereophonic sound to motion pictures.
HD Radio is a trademarked term for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality).
Headphones (or head-phones in the early days of telephony and radio) are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.
Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.
Herbert von Karajan (born Heribert Ritter von Karajan; 5 April 1908 – 16 July 1989) was an Austrian conductor.
High fidelity (often shortened to hi-fi or hifi) is a term used by listeners, audiophiles and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound.
Home cinema, also called home theater or home theatre, refers to home entertainment audio-visual systems that seek to reproduce a movie theater experience and mood using consumer electronics-grade video and audio equipment that is set up in a room or backyard of a private home.
House of Wax is a 1953 American color 3-D horror film about a disfigured sculptor who repopulates his destroyed wax museum by murdering people and using their wax-coated corpses as displays.
How Green Was My Valley is a 1941 drama film directed by John Ford.
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors.
Sir Isaac Shoenberg (1 March 1880 – 25 January 1963) was an electronic engineer born in Russia who was best known for his role in history of television.
It Came from Outer Space is a 1953 American black-and-white science fiction horror film, the first in the 3D process from Universal-International.
In audio engineering, joint refers to a joining of several channels of similar information in order to obtain higher quality, a smaller file size, or both.
Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American singer, actress, and vaudevillian.
Kiss Me Kate is a 1953 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film adaptation of the Broadway musical of the same name.
La damnation de Faust (English: The Damnation of Faust), Op.
LaserDisc (abbreviated as LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978.
Leopold Anthony Stokowski (18 April 188213 September 1977) was an English conductor of Polish and Irish descent.
Named after inventor Charles Litton, Sr., Litton Industries was a large defense contractor in the United States, bought by the Northrop Grumman Corporation in 2001.
In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, and commonly abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band.
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Lounge music is a type of easy listening music popular in the 1950s and 1960s.
Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveler, best remembered for publicising T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia).
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
A magnetic cartridge, more commonly called a phonograph cartridge or phono cartridge or (colloquially) a pickup, is an electromechanical transducer used in the playback of analog sound recordings called records on a record player, now commonly called a turntable because of its most prominent component but formally known as a phonograph in the US and a gramophone in the UK.
Magnetic field viewing film is used to show stationary or (less often) slowly changing magnetic fields; it shows their location and direction.
Magnetophon was the brand or model name of the pioneering reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s, based on the magnetic tape invention by Fritz Pfleumer.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area (DMA), television market area, or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content.
Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting.
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (initialized as MGM or hyphenated as M-G-M, also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or simply Metro, and for a former interval known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, or MGM/UA) is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs.
The Metropolitan Opera House was an opera house located at 1411 Broadway in New York City.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
There exist a number of well-developed microphone techniques used for miking musical, film, or voice sources.
Michael "Mike" Todd (born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen, June 22, 1909 – March 22, 1958) was an American theater and film producer, best known for his 1956 production of Around the World in 80 Days, which won an Academy Award for Best Picture.
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".
Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened to mono) is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes incorrectly called Musicam or MUSICAM) is a lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).
MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks (a division of Viacom) and headquartered in New York City.
Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an analog NTSC-format audio carrier.
My Fair Lady is a 1964 American musical film adapted from the Lerner and Loewe eponymous stage musical based on the 1913 stage play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
The NBC Symphony Orchestra was a radio orchestra established by David Sarnoff, the president of the Radio Corporation of America, especially for the celebrated conductor Arturo Toscanini.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex (NICAM) is an early form of lossy compression for digital audio.
The NOS stereo technique is a method of capturing stereo sound.
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.
The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France.
One Hundred Men and a Girl is a 1937 American musical comedy film directed by Henry Koster and starring Deanna Durbin.
The ORTF stereo microphone system, also known as Side-Other-Side, is a microphone technique used to record stereo sound.
The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.
Panavision is an American motion picture equipment company specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California.
Panning is the distribution of a sound signal (either monaural or stereophonic pairs) into a new stereo or multi-channel sound field determined by a pan control setting.
Paramount Pictures Corporation (also known simply as Paramount) is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994.
Perspecta was a directional motion picture sound system, invented by the laboratories at Fine Sound Inc.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Philadelphia Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
Pictures at an Exhibition (Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, "Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann"; Tableaux d'une exposition) is a suite of ten pieces (plus a recurring, varied Promenade) composed for the piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Polaroid is an American company that is a brand licensor and marketer of its portfolio of consumer electronics to companies that distribute consumer electronics and eyewear.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
The precedence effect or law of the first wavefront is a binaural psychoacoustic effect.
Prometheus: The Poem of Fire, Op.
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology.
Quadraphonic (or Quadrophonic and sometimes Quadrasonic) sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another.
Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
RCA Records (formerly legally traded as the RCA Records Label) is an American record label owned by Sony Music, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Reel-to/open-reel audio tape recording is the form of magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording medium is held on a reel, rather than being securely contained within a cassette.
Remington Records was a low budget record label.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a private research university and space-grant institution located in Troy, New York, with two additional campuses in Hartford and Groton, Connecticut.
An RF modulator (or radio frequency modulator) is an electronic device whose input is a baseband signal which is used to modulate a radio frequency source.
Romeo and Juliet is a 1968 British-Italian romantic drama film based on the play of the same name (1591–1595) by William Shakespeare.
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.
Schenectady is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff (28 March 1943) was a Russian pianist, composer, and conductor of the late Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular in the Romantic repertoire.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Simon & Garfunkel were an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel.
Simulcast, a portmanteau of simultaneous broadcast, is the broadcasting of programs or events across more than one medium, or more than one service on the same medium, at exactly the same time (that is, simultaneously).
Sleeping Beauty is a 1959 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney based on The Sleeping Beauty by Charles Perrault.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Sound localization is a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
South Pacific is a 1958 American romantic musical film based on the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical South Pacific, which in turn based on James A. Michener's short-story collection Tales of the South Pacific.
Spatial music is composed music that intentionally exploits sound localization.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
In geometry, the stereographic projection is a particular mapping (function) that projects a sphere onto a plane.
Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
A subwoofer (or sub) is a woofer, or a complete loudspeaker, which is dedicated to the reproduction of low-pitched audio frequencies known as bass and sub-bass.
Sun Valley Serenade is a 1941 musical film directed by H. Bruce Humberstone and starring Sonja Henie, John Payne, Glenn Miller, Milton Berle, and Lynn Bari.
Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels).
The sweet spot is a term used by audiophiles and recording engineers to describe the focal point between two speakers, where an individual is fully capable of hearing the stereo audio mix the way it was intended to be heard by the mixer.
The swing era (also frequently referred to as the "big band era") was the period of time (1935–1946) when big band swing music was the most popular music in the United States.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completed his Symphony No. 41 in C major, K. 551, on 10 August 1788.
Tape bias is the term for two techniques, AC bias and DC bias, that improve the fidelity of analogue tape recorders.
Televerket, was a Swedish State authority acting as a state-owned corporation (public enterprise), responsible for telecommunications in Sweden between 1853-1993.
Théâtrophone ("the theatre phone") was a telephonic distribution system available in portions of Europe that allowed the subscribers to listen to opera and theatre performances over the telephone lines.
The Day the Earth Stood Still (a.k.a. Farewell to the Master and Journey to the World) is a 1951 American black-and-white science fiction film released by 20th Century Fox and produced by Julian Blaustein.
The Graduate is a 1967 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Mike Nichols and written by Buck Henry and Calder Willingham, based on the 1963 novel of the same name by Charles Webb, who wrote it shortly after graduating from Williams College.
The King and I is a 1956 American musical film made by 20th Century Fox, directed by Walter Lang and produced by Charles Brackett and Darryl F. Zanuck.
The Lawrence Welk Show was an American televised musical variety show hosted by big band leader Lawrence Welk.
The Movie Channel (TMC) is an American premium cable and satellite television network that is owned by the Showtime Networks, Inc. subsidiary of CBS Corporation.
The Proms is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall in central London.
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson is an American talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under the Tonight Show franchise from October 1, 1962 through May 22, 1992.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
This is Cinerama is a 1952 full-length film designed to introduce the widescreen process Cinerama, which broadens the aspect ratio so the viewer's peripheral vision is involved.
Sir Thomas Beecham, 2nd Baronet, CH (29 April 18798 March 1961) was an English conductor and impresario best known for his association with the London Philharmonic and the Royal Philharmonic orchestras.
Thor Martin Johnson (June 10, 1913 – January 16, 1975) was an American conductor.
Todd-AO is an American post-production company founded in 1953, providing sound-related services to the motion picture and television industries.
In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.
In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Universal Pictures (also known as Universal Studios) is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal.
View-Master is the trademark name of a line of special-format stereoscopes and corresponding View-Master "reels", which are thin cardboard disks containing seven stereoscopic 3-D pairs of small transparent color photographs on film.
Vincent Leonard Price Jr. (May 27, 1911 – October 25, 1993) was an American actor, well known for his distinctive voice and performances in horror films.
VistaVision is a higher resolution, widescreen variant of the 35 mm motion picture film format which was created by engineers at Paramount Pictures in 1954.
The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
Walt Disney Productions (later The Walt Disney Company) has produced an anthology television series under several different titles since 1954.
Walter Wilhelm Gieseking (5 November 1895 – 26 October 1956) was a French-born German pianist and composer.
Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a spatial audio rendering technique, characterized by creation of virtual acoustic environments.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
In physics, a wavefront is the locus of points characterized by propagation of positions of identical phase: propagation of a point in 1D, a curve in 2D or a surface in 3D.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
West Side Story is a 1961 American romantic musical tragedy film directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins.
Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.
WGN, 720 kHz, is a commercial AM radio station in Chicago, Illinois, United States.
WNBC, virtual channel 4 (digital channel 36 (sharing with WNJU)), is the flagship station of the NBC television network, licensed to New York City and serving the New York City metropolitan area. It is owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal and operates as part of a television duopoly with WNJU (channel 47). WNBC's studios are co-located with NBC's corporate headquarters at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Midtown Manhattan and its transmitter is located at One World Trade Center. WNBC holds the distinction as the oldest continuously operating commercial television station in the United States. In the few areas of the eastern United States where an NBC station is not receivable over-the-air, WNBC is available on satellite via DirecTV. It is also carried on certain cable providers in markets where an NBC affiliate is unavailable and Dish Network. DirecTV also allows subscribers in Greater Los Angeles to receive WNBC for an additional monthly fee.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
WUSN (99.5 FM) is a country radio station in Chicago, Illinois.
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), usually shortened to ZDF, is a German public-service television broadcaster based in Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate.
Zweikanalton ("two channel sound") or A2 Stereo, is an analog television sound transmission system used in Germany, Austria, Australia, Switzerland, Netherlands and other countries that use or used PAL-B or PAL-G. South Korea formerly utilised its variant of this format in analogue television system until 31 December 2012.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, doing business as 20th Century Fox, is an American film studio currently owned by 21st Century Fox.
3D audio effects are a group of sound effects that manipulate the sound produced by stereo speakers, surround-sound speakers, speaker-arrays, or headphones.
A three-dimensional stereoscopic film (also known as three-dimensional sangu, 3D film or S3D film) is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception, hence adding a third dimension.
70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge for motion picture photography, with higher resolution than the standard 35 mm motion picture film format.
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