235 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Adolf Butenandt, Adolf Windaus, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenocortical hormone, Adsorption, Aldosterone, Alkaloid, Alkyl, Allopregnanolone, Aminosteroid, Amphotericin B, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Androgen, Androstane, Animal, Anti-inflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Batrachotoxin, Beta-Sitosterol, Bicyclic molecule, Bile, Bile acid, Biomimetic synthesis, Biomimetics, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Birth control, Bisphosphonate, Blood pressure, Bond cleavage, Bond order, Brassinosteroid, C-5 sterol desaturase, Calcitriol, Carbon, Carboxylic acid, Carotenoid, Catabolism, Cell membrane, Central nervous system, Chemical structure, Chirality (chemistry), Cholane, Cholecalciferol, ..., Cholestane, Cholesterol, Cholic acid, Chromatography, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, Conjugated system, Corticosteroid, Cortisol, Cortisone, Crystallization, Crystallography, Cyanobacteria, Cyclic compound, Cycloartenol, Cyclohexane, Cyclopamine, Cyclopentane, Cyclopia, CYP17A1, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, De novo synthesis, Derek Barton, Dexamethasone, Dihydrotestosterone, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Dioscorea mexicana, Diosgenin, Downregulation and upregulation, Ecdysteroid, Edward Calvin Kendall, Electrolyte, Elsevier, Endometrium, Enzyme, Ergocalciferol, Ergosterol, Estradiol, Estrane, Estrogen, Eukaryote, Extraction (chemistry), Functional group, Fungus, Geranyl pyrophosphate, Glucocorticoid, Glucuronic acid, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Gonane, Hedgehog signaling pathway, Heinrich Otto Wieland, Hopane, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogenation, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hypercholesterolemia, Immune system, Immunosuppression, Insect, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, Isoprene, Ketone, Ketosteroid, Kidney, Lanosterol, Leopold Ružička, Lipid, Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, List of steroid abbreviations, List of steroids, Liver, Medical Subject Headings, Medication, Medrogestone, Membrane fluidity, Membrane steroid receptor, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Methoxy group, Mevalonate pathway, Mevalonic acid, Mexican barbasco trade, Mineralocorticoid, Mitochondrion, Molecular configuration, Mycobacterium, Natural product, Neuroglia, Neuromuscular-blocking drug, Neuron, Neurosteroid, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-mevalonate pathway, Nor-, Norgestrel, Norsteroid, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Odd Hassel, Okinawa Prefecture, Open-chain compound, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Organism, Ovary, Oxidase, Oxidation state, Pancuronium bromide, Parent structure, Pathogen, Petrochemical, Phenanthrene, Phenol, Pheromone, Philip Showalter Hench, Phospholipid, Phytosterol, Placenta, Plant, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Precursor (chemistry), Pregnancy, Pregnane, Pregnane X receptor, Pregnenolone, Progesterone, Progestogen, Prokaryote, Prostate cancer, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Pyruvic acid, Reproduction, Reverse cholesterol transport, Ring expansion and ring contraction, Robert Burns Woodward, Rosuvastatin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sapogenin, Secondary sex characteristic, Secosteroid, Semisynthesis, Sex steroid, Sexual differentiation, Sheep, Side chain, Signal transduction, Smoothened, Solanaceae, Squalene, Statin, Steroid hormone, Steroidogenesis inhibitor, Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Steroidogenic enzyme, Sterol, Sterol 24-C-methyltransferase, Stromal cell, Syntex, Tadeusz Reichstein, Terpene, Terpenoid, Terpios, Testicle, Testosterone, Tetralone, Total synthesis, Triterpene, Ultraviolet, Uterus, Veratramine, Veratrum, Vertebrate, Vitamin D, Vladimir Prelog, Zoledronic acid, Zymosterol, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 20-Hydroxyecdysone, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5α-Dihydroprogesterone, 5α-Reductase. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (25 December 1876 – 9 June 1959) was a German chemist who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1928 for his work on sterols and their relation to vitamins.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
Aminosteroids are a group of steroids with a similar structure based on an amino-substituted steroid nucleus.
Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used for serious fungal infections and leishmaniasis.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstane is a C19 steroid with a gonane core.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Batrachotoxin (BTX) is an extremely potent cardiotoxic and neurotoxic steroidal alkaloid found in certain species of frogs (poison dart frog), melyrid beetles, and birds (the pitohui, blue-capped ifrit, and little shrikethrush).
β-Sitosterol (beta-sitosterol) is one of several phytosterols (plant sterols) with chemical structures similar to that of cholesterol.
A bicyclic molecule (bi.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Biomimetic synthesis is an area of organic chemical synthesis that is specifically biologically inspired, so-named in 1917 by the English organic chemist and Nobel laureate Sir Robert Robinson.
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bond cleavage, or scission, is the splitting of chemical bonds.
Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones.
C-5 sterol desaturase (also known as sterol C-5 desaturase and C5SD) is an enzyme that is highly conserved among eukaryotes and catalyzes the dehydrogenation of a C-5(6) bond in a sterol intermediate compound as a step in the biosynthesis of major sterols.
Calcitriol (INN), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and other variants, is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D which has three hydroxyl groups.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Cholane is a triterpene which can exist as either of two stereoisomers, 5α-cholane and 5β-cholane.
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.
Cholestane is a saturated 27-carbon tetracyclic triterpene.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol and acetic acid), it is a white crystalline substance.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and "CAH" in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
Cycloartenol is an important triterpenoid of the sterol class which is found in plants.
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
Cyclopamine (11-deoxojervine) is a naturally occurring chemical that belongs in the family of steroidal alkaloids. It is a teratogen isolated from the corn lily (Veratrum californicum) that causes fatal birth defects.
Cyclopentane is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane.
Cyclopia (also cyclocephaly or synophthalmia) is a rare form of holoprosencephaly and is a congenital disorder (birth defect) characterized by the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to properly divide the orbits of the eye into two cavities.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.
Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton (8 September 1918 – 16 March 1998) was an English organic chemist and Nobel Prize laureate for 1969.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP; or alternatively, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP); also isoprenyl pyrophosphate) is an isoprenoid precursor.
Dioscorea mexicana, Mexican yam or cabeza de negro is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea.
Diosgenin, a phytosteroid sapogenin, is the product of hydrolysis by acids, strong bases, or enzymes of saponins, extracted from the tubers of Dioscorea wild yam, such as the Kokoro.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Ecdysteroids are arthropod steroid hormones that are mainly responsible for molting, development and, to a lesser extent, reproduction; examples of ecdysteroids include ecdysone, ecdysterone, turkesterone and 20-hydroxyecdysone.
Edward Calvin Kendall (March 8, 1886 – May 4, 1972) was an American chemist.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ergocalciferol, also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), also known as geranyl diphosphate (GDP), is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway used by organisms in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
Gonane (C17), also known as perhydrocyclopentaphenanthrene, is a tetracyclic hydrocarbon ring structure and the fundamental steroid nucleus.
The Hedgehog signaling pathway is a signaling pathway that transmits information to embryonic cells required for proper cell differentiation.
Heinrich Otto Wieland (4 June 1877 – 5 August 1957) was a German chemist.
Hopane is a natural chemical compound classified as a triterpene.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Androstenedione Androsterone Estrone A ketosteroid, or an oxosteroid, is a steroid in which a hydrogen atom has been replaced with a ketone (C.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid and is the compound from which all animal and fungal steroids are derived.
Leopold Ružička (13 September 1887 – 26 September 1976) was a Croatian-Swiss scientist and joint winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry who worked most of his life in Switzerland.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS).
The steroid hormones are referred to by various abbreviations in the biological literature.
List of steroids may refer to.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medrogestone, sold under the brand name Colprone among others, is a progestin medication which has been used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane.
Membrane steroid receptors (mSRs), also called extranuclear steroid receptors, are a class of cell surface receptors activated by endogenous steroids that mediate rapid, non-genomic signaling via modulation of intracellular signaling cascades.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A methoxy group is the functional group consisting of a methyl group bound to oxygen.
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.
Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key organic compound in biochemistry; the name is a contraction of dihydroxymethylvalerolactone.
The Mexican barbasco trade was the trade of the diosgenin-rich yam species Dioscorea mexicana, Dioscorea floribunda and Dioscorea composita which emerged in Mexico in the 1950s as part of the Mexican steroid industry.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
The molecular configuration of a molecule is the permanent geometry that results from the spatial arrangement of its bonds.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The non-mevalonate pathway—also appearing as the mevalonate-independent pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway—is an alternative metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).
In chemical nomenclature, nor- is a prefix to name a structural analog that can be derived from a parent compound by the removal of one carbon atom along with the accompanying hydrogen atoms.
Norgestrel, sold under the brand name Ovral among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy.
Norsteroids (nor-, L. norma, from "normal" in chemistry, indicating carbon removal) are a structural class of steroids that have had an atom or atoms (typically carbon) removed, biosynthetically or synthetically, from positions of branching off of rings or side chains (e.g., removal of methyl groups), or from within rings of the steroid ring system.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Odd Hassel (17 May 1897 – 11 May 1981) was a Norwegian physical chemist and Nobel Laureate.
is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
An oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction, especially one involving dioxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Pancuronium (trademarked as Pavulon) is an aminosteroid muscle relaxant with various medical uses.
In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Philip Showalter Hench (February 28, 1896 – March 30, 1965) was an American physician.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are phytosteroids, similar to cholesterol, which occur in plants and vary only in carbon side chains and/or presence or absence of a double bond.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously P. carinii) is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
In the field of molecular biology, the pregnane X receptor (PXR), also known as the steroid and xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor (SXR) or nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 (NR1I2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I2 (nuclear Receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2) gene.
Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Reverse cholesterol transport is a multi-step process resulting in the net movement of cholesterol from peripheral tissues back to the liver first via entering the lymphatic system, then the bloodstream.
In the course of an organic synthesis, a chemist often needs to form a new or alter an existing ring.
Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917 – July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist.
Rosuvastatin (INN), marketed under the tradename Crestor, is a member of the drug class of statins, used in combination with exercise, diet, and weight-loss to treat high cholesterol and related conditions, and to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Sapogenins are the aglycones, or non-saccharide, portions of the family of natural products known as saponins.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
A secosteroid (sec·o·ster·oid, sek'ō-stēr'oyd) is a type of steroid with a "broken" ring.
Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Smoothened is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMO gene.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
A steroidogenesis inhibitor, also known as a steroid biosynthesis inhibitor, is a type of drug which inhibits one or more of the enzymes that are involved in the process of steroidogenesis, the biosynthesis of endogenous steroids and steroid hormones.
The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, commonly referred to as StAR (STARD1), is a transport protein that regulates cholesterol transfer within the mitochondria, which is the rate-limiting step in the production of steroid hormones.
Steroidogenic enzymes, or steroid-metabolizing enzymes, are enzymes that are involved in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
In enzymology, a sterol 24-C-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and 5alpha-cholesta-8,24-dien-3beta-ol, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and 24-methylene-5alpha-cholest-8-en-3beta-ol.
Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary.
Laboratorios Syntex SA was a pharmaceutical company formed in Mexico City in 1944 by Russell Marker to manufacture therapeutic steroids from the Mexican yams called cabeza de negro (Dioscorea mexicana) and Barbasco (Dioscorea composita).
Tadeusz Reichstein (20 July 1897 – 1 August 1996) was a Polish-Swiss chemist and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (1950).
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Terpios is a genus of demosponges belonging to the family Suberitidae.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Tetralone may refer to either of two chemical isomers.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
Triterpenes are a class of chemical compounds composed of three terpene units with the molecular formula C30H48; they may also be thought of as consisting of six isoprene units.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Veratramine is a hypotensive alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Veratrum.
Veratrum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Melanthiaceae.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vladimir Prelog ForMemRS (23 July 1906 – 7 January 1998) was a Croatian-Swiss organic chemist who received the 1975 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions.
Zoledronic acid, also known as zoledronate, is a medication used to treat a number of bone diseases.
Zymosterol is an intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis.
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.
20-Hydroxyecdysone (ecdysterone or 20E) is a naturally occurring ecdysteroid hormone which controls the ecdysis (moulting) and metamorphosis of arthropods.
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.
5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione, as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid that is synthesized from progesterone.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
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