239 relations: Adderall, Adenosine receptor, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Alertness, Alkaloid, Altitude sickness, Alzheimer's disease, Amfepramone, Amine, Amphetamine, Analeptic, Anesthetic, Animal locomotion, Anorectic, Anorexia (symptom), Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Aphrodisiac, Arabian Peninsula, Arousal, Aspirin, Asthma, ATC code R05, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Awareness, Bath salts (drug), Biogenic amine, Bladder cancer, Blood pressure, Bolivia, British Journal of Pharmacology, Bupropion, Cancer, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Cardiac arrest, Cardiovascular disease, Catecholamine, Cathinone, Central nervous system, Chemical classification, Chemical synapse, Chewing tobacco, Chocolate, Cigar, Cigarette, Cirrhosis, Clandestine chemistry, Coca, Cocaine, ..., Cocoa solids, Coffee, Colombia, Controlled substance, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Cycloalkylamine, Cytosol, David Nutt, Decongestant, Depressant, Derivative (chemistry), Designer drug, Dextroamphetamine, Dextromethorphan, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diplopia, Djibouti, Dopamine, Dopamine transporter, Dosage form, Drug, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug precursors, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, East Africa, Electronic cigarette, Empathogen–entactogen, Enantiomer, Endometrial cancer, Endurance, Energy drink, Ephedra (plant), Ephedra sinica, Ephedrine, Epileptic seizure, Ethiopia, Eugeroic, Euphoria, Executive functions, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Federal Analogue Act, Flowering plant, Food, Food and Drug Administration, Glaucoma, Grey matter, Guaifenesin, Hallucinogen, Headache, Health Canada, Heart arrhythmia, Heart rate, Hepatitis C, Hepatocellular carcinoma, HIV/AIDS, Horn of Africa, Hydrogen atom, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hypotension, Ibuprofen, Impulse control disorder, Infection, Insomnia, International nonproprietary name, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intraocular pressure, Khat, Levoamphetamine, Levomethamphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, Lower respiratory tract infection, Lung cancer, Major depressive disorder, MDMA, Medicine, Mephentermine, Methamphetamine, Methoxyphenamine, Methyl group, Methylphenidate, Modafinil, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Mood disorder, Motivation, Mydriasis, Narcolepsy, Nasal congestion, Neurotoxicity, Neurotoxin, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nicotine gum, Nicotine patch, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nootropic, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine transporter, Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Obesity, Ophthalmology, Over-the-counter drug, Paracetamol, Paranoia, Parkinson's disease, Performance-enhancing substance, Peripheral nervous system, Perspiration, Peru, Phases of clinical research, Phenethylamine, Phentermine, Phenylpropanolamine, Placebo, Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, Prescription drug, Prodrug, Productivity, Prohibition of drugs, Pseudoaneurysm, Pseudoephedrine, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychosocial, Punding, Pyrovalerone, Racemic mixture, Recreational drug use, Reuptake inhibitor, Reverse tolerance, Reward system, Rhabdomyolysis, RTI-55, Salbutamol, Salt (chemistry), Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Selegiline, Self-administration, Sepsis, Serotonin, Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Smoking cessation, Soft drink, Somalia, Stereoisomerism, Stimulant psychosis, Stroke, Structural analog, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance use disorder, Substituent, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted cathinone, Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Substitution reaction, Suicidal ideation, Sympathomimetic drug, Synaptic vesicle, Synthetic cannabinoids, TAAR1, Tea, Theophylline, Thrombosis, Tobacco, Trade name, Traditional Chinese medicine, Tropane, Troparil, United States Adopted Name, Urinary incontinence, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Veterinary medicine, Wakefulness, World Health Organization, Xanthine, Yemen, Yerkes–Dodson law, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine. Expand index (189 more) » « Shrink index
Adderall, Adderall XR, and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amfepramone is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that is used as an appetite suppressant.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An analeptic, in medicine, is a central nervous system stimulant.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.
"Bath salts" (also called "psychoactive bath salts" or "PABS") is a term used to describe a number of recreational designer drugs.
A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups.
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The British Journal of Pharmacology is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Cathinone (also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clandestine chemistry is chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocoa solids are a mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa butter is extracted from cacao beans.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
Cycloalkylamines are chemical compounds featuring a cycloalkyl group and an amine.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
David John Nutt (born 16 April 1951) is a British neuropsychopharmacologist specialising in the research of drugs that affect the brain and conditions such as addiction, anxiety, and sleep.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
A drug precursor is a substance which can be used to make illicit drugs.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the feeling of tobacco smoking.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.
An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy).
Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales.
Ephedra sinica (also known as Chinese ephedra or Ma Huang) is a plant species native to Mongolia, Russia (Buryatiya, Chita, Primorye), and northeastern China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanxi).
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eugeroics (originally, "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"), also known as wakefulness-promoting agents and wakefulness-promoting drugs, are a class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association.
The Federal Analogue Act,, is a section of the United States Controlled Substances Act passed in 1986 which allowed any chemical "substantially similar" to a controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II to be treated as if it were also listed in those schedules, but only if intended for human consumption.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Impulse-control disorder (ICD) is a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, an urge, an impulse, or the inability to not speak on a thought.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Levoamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant known to increase wakefulness and concentration in association with decreased appetite and fatigue.
LevomethamphetamineOther names include l-methamphetamine, levodesoxyephedrine, l-desoxyephedrine, levmetamfetamine (INN and USAN).
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-'''lys'''ine-'''dex'''tro'''amphetamine''') is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mephentermine is a cardiac stimulant.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methoxyphenamine (trade names ASMI, Euspirol, Orthoxine, Ortodrinex, Proasma), also known as 2-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine (OMMA), is a β-adrenergic receptor agonist of the amphetamine class used as a bronchodilator.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body.
A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
A norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The phases of clinical research are the steps in which scientists do experiments with a health intervention in an attempt to find enough evidence for a process which would be useful as a medical treatment.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phentermine (contracted from phenyl-tertiary-butylamine), also known as α,α-dimethylphenethylamine, is a psychostimulant drug of the substituted amphetamine chemical class, with pharmacology similar to amphetamine.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) describe a set of persistent impairments that occur after withdrawal from alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
A pseudoaneurysm, also known as a false aneurysm, is a collection of blood that forms between the two outer layers of an artery, the tunica media and the tunica adventitia.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
Punding is a term that was coined originally to describe complex prolonged, purposeless, and stereotyped behaviour in phenmetrazine and chronic amphetamine users, by Swedish forensic psychiatrist G. Rylander, in 1968.
Pyrovalerone (Centroton, 4-Methyl-β-keto-prolintane, Thymergix, O-2371) is a psychoactive drug with stimulant effects via acting as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), and is used for the clinical treatment of chronic fatigue or lethargy and as an anorectic or appetite suppressant for weight loss purposes.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Reverse tolerance or drug sensitization is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' increased reaction (positive or negative) to a drug following its repeated use.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
RTI(-4229)-55, also called RTI-55 or iometopane, is a phenyltropane-based psychostimulant used in scientific research and in some medical applications.
Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted cathinones, which include some stimulants and entactogens, are derivatives of cathinone.
Substituted methylenedioxy- phenethylamines (MDxx) are a large chemical class of derivatives of the phenethylamines, which includes many psychoactive drugs that act as entactogens, psychedelics, and/or stimulants, as well as entheogens.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single substitution reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body–the same receptors that the cannabinoids in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD–attach to.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym frequently used by companies to operate under a name different from their registered, legal name.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Tropane is a nitrogenous bicyclic organic compound.
Troparil (also known as (–)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane, WIN 35,065-2, or β-CPT) is a stimulant drug used in scientific research.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yerkes–Dodson law is an empirical relationship between arousal and performance, originally developed by psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson in 1908.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug.
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