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Stoicism

Index Stoicism

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC. [1]

209 relations: A. A. Long, Abrahamic religions, Abstract and concrete, Accident (philosophy), Adiaphora, Adjective, Adobe Flash, Aether (classical element), Agathias, Ambrose, Anaxagoras, Ancient Agora of Athens, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Rome, Anima mundi, Antipater of Tarsus, Antisthenes, Apatheia, Arete, Aristo of Chios, Aristotelian ethics, Aristotle, Asceticism, Athens, Baruch Spinoza, Being, Belief, Buddhism, Buddhist meditation, Cambridge University Press, Cardinal virtues, Catholic theology of sexuality, Cato the Younger, Certainty, Chrysippus, Church Fathers, Classical pantheism, Cleanthes, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Colonnade, Conditional proof, Conscience, Consolatio, Corollary, Cosmology, Cosmopolitanism, Courage, Cynicism (philosophy), David Sedley, De Natura Deorum, ..., Deductive reasoning, Dehellenization, Deixis, Destiny, Determinism, Diadochi, Dichotomy, Diodorus Cronus, Diodotus the Stoic, Diogenes, Diogenes of Babylon, Discourses of Epictetus, Doxa, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eduard Zeller, Ekpyrosis, Ekpyrotic universe, Emotion, Epictetus, Epicureanism, Episteme, Epistemic modal logic, Equanimity, Eternal return, Evil, Existence, Existential quantification, Fallacy, Fatalism, Gaius Musonius Rufus, Gentile, George Long (scholar), Gilbert Murray, Glossary of Stoicism terms, Gottlob Frege, Greece in the Roman era, Greek language, Harvard University Press, Hellenistic philosophy, Heraclitus, Herillus, Hierocles (Stoic), Hindu cosmology, Hinduism, Imagination, Immanence, Imperative logic, Incorporeality, Indexicality, Indian religions, Inner peace, Introspection, Jainism, John Lachs, Justice, Katalepsis, Kathekon, Knowledge, Lawrence C. Becker, List of Stoic philosophers, Logic, Logical connective, Logical consequence, Logical disjunction, Logos, Lucius Annaeus Cornutus, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Minucius Felix, Matter, Meditations, Megarian school, Merriam-Webster, Michael Lapidge, Mind, Modal logic, Modern Stoicism, Monism, Moral absolutism, Morality, Mortality salience, Natural law, Naturalism (philosophy), Naturalistic pantheism, Nature, Negation, Neostoicism, Noun, Objectivity (philosophy), Oikeiôsis, Oriental Orthodoxy, Palingenesis, Panaetius, Paradox, Paradoxa Stoicorum, Pardon, Paul the Apostle, Pauline epistles, Penguin Books, Penguin Classics, Philip Melanchthon, Philosophy of happiness, Physics, Pierre Hadot, Plank of Carneades, Plato, Plutarch, Pneuma (Stoic), Posidonius, Predicate (mathematical logic), Princeton University Press, Prohairesis, Propositional calculus, Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus, Quality (philosophy), Reason, Reflective practice, Renaissance, Renaissance philosophy, Republic (Plato), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Rubellius Plautus, Sage (philosophy), Seneca the Younger, Seneca's Consolations, Sense, Slavery, Socrates, Socratic dialogue, Sophrosyne, Soul, Space, Speech act, Spirit, Stoa Poikile, Stoic categories, Stoic Opposition, Stoic passions, Stoic physics, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, Substance theory, Suffering, Supposition theory, Susanne Bobzien, Syllogism, Temperance (virtue), Temporal logic, Term logic, Tertullian, Trinity, Truth, Universe, University of Chicago Press, Validity, Virtue, Virtue ethics, William O. Stephens, Wisdom, Zeno of Citium, 4 Maccabees. Expand index (159 more) »

A. A. Long

Anthony Arthur Long FBA (born 17 August 1937) is a British and naturalised American classical scholar and Professor of Classics and Irving Stone Professor of Literature at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Abstract and concrete

Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.

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Accident (philosophy)

An accident, in philosophy, is an attribute that may or may not belong to a subject, without affecting its essence.

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Adiaphora

Adiaphoron(plural: adiaphora from the Greek ἀδιάφορα, the negation of διάφορα - Latin differentia - meaning "not differentiable").

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Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.

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Aether (classical element)

According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.

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Agathias

Agathias or Agathias Scholasticus (Ἀγαθίας σχολαστικός; Martindale, Jones & Morris (1992), pp. 23–25582/594), of Myrina (Mysia), an Aeolian city in western Asia Minor (now in Turkey), was a Greek poet and the principal historian of part of the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian I between 552 and 558.

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Ambrose

Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.

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Anaxagoras

Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.

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Ancient Agora of Athens

The Ancient Agora of Classical Athens is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora, located to the northwest of the Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the west by the hill known as the Agoraios Kolonos, also called Market Hill.

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Ancient Corinth

Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anima mundi

The world soul (Greek: ψυχὴ κόσμου psuchè kósmou, Latin: anima mundi) is, according to several systems of thought, an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet, which relates to our world in much the same way as the soul is connected to the human body.

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Antipater of Tarsus

Antipater of Tarsus (Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Ταρσεύς; died 130/129 BC) was a Stoic philosopher.

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Antisthenes

Antisthenes (Ἀντισθένης; c. 445c. 365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.

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Apatheia

Apatheia (ἀπάθεια; from a- "without" and pathos "suffering" or "passion"), in Stoicism, refers to a state of mind in which one is not disturbed by the passions.

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Arete

Arete (Greek: ἀρετή), in its basic sense, means "excellence of any kind".

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Aristo of Chios

Aristo of Chios (Ἀρίστων ὁ Χῖος Ariston ho Chios; fl. c. 260 BC) was a Stoic philosopher and colleague of Zeno of Citium.

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Aristotelian ethics

Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Asceticism

Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Being

Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.

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Belief

Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buddhist meditation

Buddhist meditation is the practice of meditation in Buddhism and Buddhist philosophy.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cardinal virtues

Four cardinal virtues were recognized in classical antiquity and in traditional Christian theology.

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Catholic theology of sexuality

Catholic theology of sexuality, like Catholic theology in general, is drawn from natural law, canonical scripture, divine revelation, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic Church.

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Cato the Younger

Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.

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Certainty

Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.

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Chrysippus

Chrysippus of Soli (Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.

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Church Fathers

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.

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Classical pantheism

Classical Pantheism, as defined by Charles Hartshorne in 1953, is the theological deterministic philosophies of pantheists such as Baruch Spinoza and the Stoics.

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Cleanthes

Cleanthes (Κλεάνθης Kleanthēs; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Colonnade

In classical architecture, a colonnade is a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building.

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Conditional proof

A conditional proof is a proof that takes the form of asserting a conditional, and proving that the antecedent of the conditional necessarily leads to the consequent.

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Conscience

Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.

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Consolatio

The Consolatio or consolatory oration is a type of ceremonial oratory, typically used rhetorically to comfort mourners at funerals.

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Corollary

A corollary is a statement that follows readily from a previous statement.

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Cosmology

Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Cosmopolitanism

Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.

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Courage

Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.

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Cynicism (philosophy)

Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).

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David Sedley

David Neil Sedley FBA (born 30 May 1947) is a British philosopher and historian of philosophy.

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De Natura Deorum

De Natura Deorum (On the Nature of the Gods) is a philosophical dialogue by Roman orator Cicero written in 45 BC.

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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

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Dehellenization

Dehellenization refers to a disillusionment with forms of Greek philosophy that emerged in the Hellenistic Period, and in particular to a rejection of the use of reason.

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Deixis

In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).

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Destiny

Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events.

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Determinism

Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Diadochi

The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.

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Dichotomy

A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).

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Diodorus Cronus

Diodorus Cronus (Διόδωρος Κρόνος; died c. 284 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and dialectician connected to the Megarian school.

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Diodotus the Stoic

Diodotus (Διόδοτος; fl. 1st century BC) was a Stoic philosopher, and was a friend of Cicero.

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Diogenes

Diogenes (Διογένης, Diogenēs), also known as Diogenes the Cynic (Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Diogenēs ho Kunikos), was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy.

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Diogenes of Babylon

Diogenes of Babylon (also known as Diogenes of Seleucia; Διογένης Βαβυλώνιος; Diogenes Babylonius; c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC) was a Stoic philosopher.

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Discourses of Epictetus

The Discourses of Epictetus (Ἐπικτήτου διατριβαί, Epiktētou diatribai) are a series of extracts of the teachings of the Stoic philosopher Epictetus written down by Arrian c. 108 AD.

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Doxa

Doxa (ancient Greek δόξα; from verb δοκεῖν dokein, "to appear", "to seem", "to think" and "to accept") is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eduard Zeller

Eduard Gottlob Zeller (22 January 1814, Kleinbottwar – 19 March 1908, Stuttgart), was a German philosopher and Protestant theologian of the Tübingen School of theology.

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Ekpyrosis

Ekpyrosis (ἐκπύρωσις ekpyrōsis, "conflagration") is a Stoic belief in the periodic destruction of the cosmos by a great conflagration every Great Year.

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Ekpyrotic universe

The ekpyrotic universe is a cosmological model of the early universe that explains the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos.

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Emotion

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Epictetus

Epictetus (Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; 55 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.

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Epicureanism

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.

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Episteme

"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".

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Epistemic modal logic

Epistemic modal logic is a subfield of modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about knowledge.

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Equanimity

Equanimity (Latin: æquanimitas, having an even mind; aequus even; animus mind/soul) is a state of psychological stability and composure which is undisturbed by experience of or exposure to emotions, pain, or other phenomena that may cause others to lose the balance of their mind.

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Eternal return

Eternal return (also known as eternal recurrence) is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.

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Evil

Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.

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Existence

Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.

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Existential quantification

In predicate logic, an existential quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "there exists", "there is at least one", or "for some".

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Fallacy

A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.

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Fatalism

Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to destiny.

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Gaius Musonius Rufus

Gaius Musonius Rufus (Μουσώνιος Ῥοῦφος) was a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD.

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Gentile

Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.

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George Long (scholar)

George Long (November 4, 1800 – August 10, 1879) was an English classical scholar.

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Gilbert Murray

George Gilbert Aimé Murray, (2 January 1866 – 20 May 1957) was an Australian-born British classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres.

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Glossary of Stoicism terms

This is a glossary of terms which are commonly found in Stoic philosophy.

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Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

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Greece in the Roman era

Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

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Heraclitus

Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.

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Herillus

Herillus (also Erillus; Ἥριλλος Herillos; fl. 3rd century BC) of Chalcedon (or Carthage), was a Stoic philosopher and a pupil of Zeno of Citium.

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Hierocles (Stoic)

Hierocles (Ἱεροκλῆς; fl. 2nd century) was a Stoic philosopher.

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Hindu cosmology

In Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Imagination

Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).

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Immanence

The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.

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Imperative logic

Imperative logic is the field of logic concerned with arguments containing sentences in the imperative mood.

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Incorporeality

Incorporeal or uncarnate means without a physical body, presence or form.

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Indexicality

In semiotics, linguistics, anthropology and philosophy of language, indexicality is the phenomenon of a sign pointing to (or indexing) some object in the context in which it occurs.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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Inner peace

Inner peace (or peace of mind) refers to a deliberate state of psychological or spiritual calm despite the potential presence of stressors.

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Introspection

Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.

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Jainism

Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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John Lachs

John Lachs is the Centennial Professor of Philosophy at Vanderbilt University, where he has taught since 1967.

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Justice

Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Katalepsis

Katalepsis (κατάληψις, "grasping") in Stoic philosophy, meant comprehension.

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Kathekon

Kathēkon (καθῆκον) (plural: kathēkonta καθήκοντα) is a Greek concept, forged by the founder of Stoicism, Zeno of Citium.

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Knowledge

Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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Lawrence C. Becker

Lawrence C. Becker (born 1939) is an American philosopher working mainly in the areas of ethics and social, political, and legal philosophy.

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List of Stoic philosophers

This is a list of Stoic philosophers, ordered (roughly) by date.

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Logic

Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical connective

In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective.

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Logical consequence

Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.

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Logical disjunction

In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.

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Logos

Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.

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Lucius Annaeus Cornutus

Lucius Annaeus Cornutus (Ἀνναῖος Κορνοῦτος), a Stoic philosopher, flourished in the reign of Nero (c. 60 AD), when his house in Rome was a school of philosophy.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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Marcus Minucius Felix

Marcus Minucius Felix (died c. 250 AD in Rome) was one of the earliest of the Latin apologists for Christianity.

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Meditations

Meditations (Ta eis heauton, literally "things to one's self") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy.

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Megarian school

The Megarian school of philosophy, which flourished in the 4th century BC, was founded by Euclides of Megara, one of the pupils of Socrates.

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Merriam-Webster

Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Michael Lapidge

Michael Lapidge, FBA (born 8 February 1942) is a scholar in the field of Medieval Latin literature, particularly that composed in Anglo-Saxon England during the period 600–1100 AD; he is an emeritus Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge and Fellow of the British Academy, and winner of the 2009 Sir Israel Gollancz Prize.

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Mind

The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.

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Modal logic

Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.

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Modern Stoicism

Modern Stoicism is an intellectual and popular movement in the late 20th and early 21st century which attempts to revive the Stoic philosophy in the modern setting.

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Monism

Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.

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Moral absolutism

Moral absolutism is an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong.

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Morality

Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Mortality salience

Mortality salience is the awareness by an individual that his or her death is inevitable.

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Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Naturalistic pantheism

Naturalistic pantheism is a kind of pantheism.

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Nature

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Negation

In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.

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Neostoicism

Neostoicism was a syncretic philosophical movement, founded by Flemish humanist Justus Lipsius, that attempted to combine the beliefs of Stoicism and Christianity.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Oikeiôsis

In Stoic ethics, oikeiôsis (οἰκείωσις, conciliatio) is a technical term variously translated as "appropriation," "orientation," "familiarization," "affinity," "affiliation," and "endearment."Richter, Daniel S, Cosmopolis: Imagining Community in Late Classical Athens and the Early Roman Empire, Oxford U. press, 2011, pg 75 Oikeiôsis signifies the perception of something as one’s own, as belonging to oneself.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Palingenesis

Palingenesis (or palingenesia) is a concept of rebirth or re-creation, used in various contexts in philosophy, theology, politics, and biology.

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Panaetius

Panaetius (Παναίτιος, Panaitios; c. 185 – c. 110/109 BC) of Rhodes was a Stoic philosopher.

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Paradox

A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.

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Paradoxa Stoicorum

The Paradoxa Stoicorum (Stoic Paradoxes) is a work by Cicero in which he attempts to explain six famous Stoic sayings that appear to go against common knowledge.

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Pardon

A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Pauline epistles

The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Penguin Classics

Penguin Classics is an imprint published by Penguin Books, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House.

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Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

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Philosophy of happiness

The philosophy of happiness is the philosophical concern with the existence, nature, and attainment of happiness.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre Hadot

Pierre Hadot (February 21, 1922 – April 24, 2010) was a French philosopher and historian of philosophy specializing in ancient philosophy, particularly Neoplatonism.

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Plank of Carneades

In ethics, the plank of Carneades is a thought experiment first proposed by Carneades of Cyrene; it explores the concept of self-defense in relation to murder.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Pneuma (Stoic)

In Stoic philosophy, pneuma (πνεῦμα) is the concept of the "breath of life," a mixture of the elements air (in motion) and fire (as warmth).

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Posidonius

Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.

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Predicate (mathematical logic)

In mathematical logic, a predicate is commonly understood to be a Boolean-valued function P: X→, called the predicate on X. However, predicates have many different uses and interpretations in mathematics and logic, and their precise definition, meaning and use will vary from theory to theory.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Prohairesis

Prohairesis (προαίρεσις; variously translated as "moral character", "will", "volition", "choice", "intention", or "moral choice") is a fundamental concept in the Stoic philosophy of Epictetus.

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Propositional calculus

Propositional calculus is a branch of logic.

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Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus

Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus (died 66 AD), Roman senator, lived in the 1st century AD.

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Quality (philosophy)

In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object.

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Reason

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Reflective practice

Reflective practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance philosophy

The designation Renaissance philosophy is used by scholars of intellectual history to refer to the thought of the period running in Europe roughly between 1355 and 1650 (the dates shift forward for central and northern Europe and for areas such as Spanish America, India, Japan, and China under European influence).

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Republic (Plato)

The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.

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Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.

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Rubellius Plautus

Gaius Rubellius Plautus (33–62 AD) was a Roman noble and a political rival of Emperor Nero.

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Sage (philosophy)

A sage (σοφός, sophos), in classical philosophy, is someone who has attained the wisdom which a philosopher seeks.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Seneca's Consolations

Seneca's Consolations refers to Seneca’s three Consolatory works, De Consolatione ad Marciam, De Consolatione ad Polybium, De Consolatione ad Helviam, written around 40–45 AD.

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Sense

A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Socrates

Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Socratic dialogue

Socratic dialogue (Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE.

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Sophrosyne

Sophrosyne (σωφροσύνη) is an ancient Greek concept of an ideal of excellence of character and soundness of mind, which when combined in one well-balanced individual leads to other qualities, such as temperance, moderation, prudence, purity, and self-control.

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Soul

In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.

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Space

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

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Speech act

A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.

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Spirit

A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.

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Stoa Poikile

The Stoa Poikile (Ancient Greek: ἡ ποικίλη στοά) or Painted Porch, originally called the Porch of Peisianax (Ancient Greek: ἡ Πεισιανάκτειος στοά), was erected during the 5th century BC and was located on the north side of the Ancient Agora of Athens.

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Stoic categories

The term Stoic categories refers to Stoic ideas regarding categories of being: the most fundamental classes of being for all things.

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Stoic Opposition

The Stoic Opposition is the name given to a group of Stoic philosophers who actively opposed the autocratic rule of certain emperors in the 1st-century, particularly Nero and Domitian.

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Stoic passions

Stoic passions are various forms of emotional suffering in Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy.

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Stoic physics

Stoic physics is the natural philosophy adopted by the Stoic philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome used to explain the natural processes at work in the universe.

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Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta

Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta is a collection by Hans von Arnim of fragments and testimonia of the earlier Stoics, published in 1903–1905 as part of the Bibliotheca Teubneriana.

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Substance theory

Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.

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Suffering

Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.

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Supposition theory

Supposition theory was a branch of medieval logic that was probably aimed at giving accounts of issues similar to modern accounts of reference, plurality, tense, and modality, within an Aristotelian context.

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Susanne Bobzien

Susanne Bobzien, FBA is a German-born philosopher,Who'sWho in America 2012, 64th Edition whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy.

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Syllogism

A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

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Temperance (virtue)

Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.

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Temporal logic

In logic, temporal logic is any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time.

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Term logic

In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century.

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Tertullian

Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.

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Trinity

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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Truth

Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Validity

In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.

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Virtue

Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.

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Virtue ethics

Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.

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William O. Stephens

William O. Stephens (born 10 June 1962), a scholar of Stoicism, is Professor of Philosophy and Classics at Creighton University, Omaha, NE.

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Wisdom

Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.

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Zeno of Citium

Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.

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4 Maccabees

The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoicism

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