150 relations: Abdominal cavity, Acidophile, Adjustable gastric band, Amino acid, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomy, Ancient Greek, Angular incisure, Aspirin, ATPase, Autonomic nervous system, Bacteria, Bariatric surgery, Basophilic, Bird, Bolus (digestion), Brain, Carbohydrate, Celiac artery, Celiac ganglia, Celiac lymph nodes, Chewing, Chimaera, Cholecystokinin, Chyme, Connective tissue, Copyright status of work by the U.S. government, Crocodilia, Crop (anatomy), Curvatures of the stomach, Digestion, Digestive enzyme, Duodenum, Echinoderm, EMedicine, Endoscopy, Enteroendocrine cell, Enteroglucagon, Epidermal growth factor, Epithelium, Esophagus, Ethanol, Fat, Foregut, Foveolar cell, G cell, Gallbladder, Gastrectomy, Gastric acid, Gastric bypass surgery, ..., Gastric chief cell, Gastric emptying scan, Gastric glands, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Gastric lipase, Gastric mucosa, Gastrin, Gastritis, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrointestinal tract, Gizzard, GKN1, Glucose, Greater omentum, Gut flora, H&E stain, Hagfish, Heart, Helicobacter pylori, Hindgut, Hormone, Human digestive system, Human embryogenesis, Hydrochloric acid, Inferior mesenteric artery, Insect, Intrinsic factor, Iodine, Lamina propria, Lamprey, Lateral hypothalamus, Latin, Left gastric artery, Left gastric vein, Left gastroepiploic artery, Left gastroepiploic vein, Limbic system, Lipase, Lungfish, Mammal, Midgut, Mollusca, Monosodium glutamate, Mucous membrane, Mucus, Muscular layer, Muscularis mucosae, Myenteric plexus, Nervous system, Nutrition, Organ (anatomy), Palatability, Pancreas, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parietal cell, Parotid gland, Pepsin, Peptic ulcer disease, Peristalsis, Peritoneum, PH, Plexus, Polyp (medicine), Protease, Protein, Proton-pump inhibitor, Proventriculus, Pylorus, Quadrant (abdomen), Red blood cell, Right gastric artery, Right gastric vein, Right gastroepiploic artery, Right gastroepiploic vein, Rugae, Ruminant, Secretin, Serous membrane, Short gastric arteries, Short gastric veins, Sleeve gastrectomy, Small intestine, Smooth muscle tissue, Somatostatin, Sphincter, Stomach, Stomach rumble, Stratified squamous epithelium, Submandibular gland, Submucosa, Submucous plexus, Superior mesenteric artery, Sympathetic nervous system, Teleost, Thoracic diaphragm, Upper gastrointestinal series, Vagus nerve, Vitamin B12, Vitelline arteries, Yolk sac. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.
Acidophiles or acidophilic organisms are those that thrive under highly acidic conditions (usually at pH 2.0 or below).
A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, commonly called a lap-band, A band, or LAGB, is an inflatable silicone device placed around the top portion of the stomach to treat obesity, intended to decrease food consumption.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The angular incisure (or angular notch) is a small anatomical notch on the stomach.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.
Basophilic is a technical term used by histologists.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
In digestion, a bolus (from Latin bolus, "ball") is a ball-like mixture of food and saliva that forms in the mouth during the process of chewing (which is largely an adaptation for plant-eating mammals).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta.
The celiac ganglia or coeliac ganglia are two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen.
The celiac lymph nodes are associated with the branches of the celiac artery.
Chewing or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.
Chimaeras the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, rat fish (not to be confused with the rattails), spookfish (not to be confused with the true spookfish of the family Opisthoproctidae), or rabbit fish (not to be confused with the family Siganidae).
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice") is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
A work of the United States government, as defined by the United States copyright law, is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." "A 'work of the United States Government' is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person’s official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain.
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
The curvatures of the stomach refer to the greater and lesser curvatures.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
eMedicine.com, Incorporated is an online clinical medical knowledge base founded in 1996 by two medical doctors, Scott Plantz and Jonathan Adler, and by Jeffrey Berezin, a computer engineer.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
Enteroendocrine cells are specialized cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas with endocrine function.
Enteroglucagon is a peptide hormone derived from preproglucagon.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.
Foveolar cells or surface mucous cells are mucus-producing cells which cover the inside of the stomach, protecting it from the corrosive nature of gastric acid.
In anatomy, the G cell (or γ-cell) is a type of cell in the stomach and duodenum that secretes gastrin.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
A gastrectomy is a partial or total surgical removal of the stomach.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastric bypass surgery refers to a surgical procedure in which the stomach is divided into a small upper pouch and a much larger lower "remnant" pouch and then the small intestine is rearranged to connect to both.
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants.
A gastric emptying scan is a nuclear medicine study which provides an assessment of the stomach's ability to empty.
The gastric glands are located in different regions of the stomach.
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) or gastroinhibitory peptide, also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.
Gastric lipase, also known as LIPF, is an enzymatic protein that, in humans, is encoded by the LIPF gene.
The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach which contains the glands and the gastric pits.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including archosaurs (pterosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans.
Gastrokine-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GKN1 gene.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue that forms part of the moist linings known as mucous membranes or mucosa, which line various tubes in the body, such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area, contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system; this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In human anatomy, the left gastric artery arises from the celiac artery and runs along the superior portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach.
The left gastric vein (or coronary vein) carries blood low in oxygen, tributaries derived from both surfaces of the stomach; it runs from right to left along the lesser curvature of the stomach, between the two layers of the lesser omentum, to the esophageal opening of the stomach, where it receives some esophageal veins.
The left gastroepiploic artery (or left gastro-omental artery), the largest branch of the splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic (a branch of the right gastro-duodenal artery originating from the hepatic branch of the Coeliac trunk).
The left gastroepiploic vein (left gastro-omental vein) receives branches from the antero-superior and postero-inferior surfaces of the stomach and from the greater omentum; it runs from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach and ends in the commencement of the splenic vein.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
The muscular layer (muscular coat, muscular fibers, muscularis propria, muscularis externa) is a region of muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the submucosa.
The lamina muscularis mucosae (or muscularis mucosae) is a thin layer (lamina) of muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, located outside the lamina propria and separating it from the submucosa.
The myenteric plexus (or Auerbach's plexus) provides motor innervation to both layers of the muscular layer of the gut, having both parasympathetic and sympathetic input (although present ganglionar cell bodies belong to parasympathetic innervation, fibers from sympathetic innervation also reach the plexus), whereas the submucous plexus has only parasympathetic fibers and provides secretomotor innervation to the mucosa nearest the lumen of the gut.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals.
Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A plexus (from the Latin for "braid") is a branching network of vessels or nerves.
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
The proventriculus is part of the digestive system of birds.
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
The human abdomen is divided into regions by anatomists and physicians for purposes of study, diagnosis, and therapy.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The right gastric artery arises above the pylorus from the proper hepatic artery or less frequently from the common hepatic artery, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and passes from right to left along its lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery.
The right gastric vein (pyloric vein) drains blood from the lesser curvature of the stomach into the hepatic portal vein.
The right gastroepiploic artery (or right gastro-omental artery) is one of the two terminal branches of the gastroduodenal artery.
The right gastroepiploic vein (right gastroomental vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the greater curvature and left part of the body of the stomach into the superior mesenteric vein.
Rugae is a term used in anatomy that refers to a series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
The short gastric arteries consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the splenic artery, and from its terminal divisions.
The short gastric veins, four or five in number, drain the fundus and left part of the greater curvature of the stomach, and pass between the two layers of the gastrolienal ligament to end in the splenic vein or in one of its large tributaries.
Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical weight-loss procedure in which the stomach is reduced to about 15% of its original size, by surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach along the greater curvature.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
A stomach rumble, also known as a bowel sound or peristaltic sound or bubble gut, is a rumbling, growling or gurgling noise produced by movement of the contents of the gastro-intestinal tract as they are propelled through the small intestine by a series of muscle contractions called peristalsis.
A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane.
The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth.
The submucosa (or tela submucosa) is a thin layer of tissue in various organs of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.
The submucous plexus (Meissner's plexus, plexus of the submucosa, plexus submucosus) lies in the submucosa of the intestinal wall.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
The vitelline arteries are the arterial counterpart to the vitelline veins.
The yolk sac is a membranous sac attached to an embryo, formed by cells of the hypoblast adjacent to the embryonic disk.
Anatomy of the human stomach, Antrum cardiacum, Basic acid output, Body of stomach, Body of the stomach, Cardia, Cardiac orifice, Cardiac region, Cardial orifice, Cardiectomy, Corpus gastricum, Esophageal Sphincter, Esophageal-cardiac junction, Esophagogastric junction, Fundic stomach, Fundus (stomach), Fundus gastricus, Fundus of stomach, Gastric, Gastric cardia, Gastric content, Gastric emptying, Gastric fundus, Gastric irritation, Gastric secretion, Gastro-esophageal junction, Gastro-esophageal sphincter, Gastroesophageal junction, Gastroesophageal junctions, Histology of stomach, Human stomach, Pars cardiaca, Pars cardiaca gastris, Pars cardiaca ventriculi, Stomach corpus, Stomach fundus, Stomache, Stomachs.