273 relations: Abalone, Abbevillian, Acheulean, Agriculture, Almanac, Anagni, Ancient Hawaii, Anthropology, Antler, Ape, Archaeological culture, Archaeological record, Archaeology, Ardèche, Association of Social Anthropologists, Aurignacian, Australopithecus, Australopithecus garhi, Awash River, Çatalhöyük, Ötzi, Ġgantija, Basalt, Belief, Beringia, Bhimbetka rock shelters, Biome, Bird, Bison, Bone tool, Brain, Bronze, Bronze Age, Calendar, Carbon-14, Castellón de la Plana, Causality, Cave of Altamira, Caveman, Ceprano Man, Chalcolithic, Chauvet Cave, Châtelperronian, Chennai, Chernihiv, Chert, Chimpanzee, Chopper (archaeology), Chopping tool, Chronicles of Ancient Darkness, ..., Chuck Rock, Clactonian, Clarence Van Riet Lowe, Clay, Climatology, Clovis culture, Colonization, Common Era, Comparative foot morphology, Copper metallurgy in Africa, Cumbemayo, Czech Republic, Death Valley National Park, Deer, Departments of France, Dinosaur, Dmanisi, Dnieper, Dolmen, Dolní Věstonice, Dolní Věstonice (archaeology), Domestication, Earth's Children, East African Rift, East Indies, Ecological niche, Egalitarianism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Engraved gem, Environment (biophysical), Epipalaeolithic, Epoch (geology), Ethiopia, Eurasia, Evolution, Exoskeleton, Experimental archaeology, Facies, Farmer, Fauresmith (industry), Felidae, Fertile Crescent, Flint, Food, Göbekli Tepe, Genus, Geologic time scale, Gibraltar, Grassland, Grave, Gravettian, Grotte du Lazaret, Ground stone, Hallam L. Movius, Hand axe, Happisburgh, Holocene, Holocene extinction, Hominini, Homo, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo sapiens, Hoxne, Hugo Obermaier, Human settlement, Human taxonomy, Hunter-gatherer, Ice age, Indigenous Australians, Industry (archaeology), Iron Age, Iron metallurgy in Africa, J. Desmond Clark, Java, Jean M. Auel, Jean-Jacques Annaud, Jebel Sahaba, Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae, Jericho, John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, Jordan River, K–Ar dating, Kebara Cave, Kents Cavern, Kenyanthropus, Kidney, Knapping, Koobi Fora, Lake Mungo remains, Lascaux, Last glacial period, Legume, Lepenski Vir, Levant, List of Stone Age art, Lithic analysis, Lithic core, Lithic flake, Lithic reduction, Lithos, Liver, Lomekwi, Louis Leakey, Lower Paleolithic, Lupemban culture, Magdalenian, Magosian, Majdanpek, Mammoth, Mary Leakey, Megafauna, Megalith, Mesolithic, Metallurgy, Metalworking, Michelle Paver, Microlith, Midden, Middle Paleolithic, Millennium, Millstone, Moravia, Morocco, Mousterian, Movius Line, Mummy, Nairobi, National Museum of Natural History, Neanderthal, Neolithic, Neolithic Revolution, Nice, Nile, North Africa, Oldowan, Olduvai Gorge, Olorgesailie, One Million Years B.C., Ore, Organ (anatomy), Orkney, Oryza sativa, Paleo-Indians, Paleolithic, Paranthropus, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Parietal art, Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru, Petroglyph, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Pločnik, Pottery, Prehistoric art, Prehistoric music, Prehistoric warfare, Prehistory, Prehistory of Australia, Primate, Quern-stone, Quest for Fire (film), Radiocarbon dating, Recent African origin of modern humans, Red Sea, Rhinoceros, Rite, Ritual, Riwat, Rock (geology), Rock carvings at Alta, Rudna Glava (archaeological site), Saldanha man, Sandstone, Sangoan, Savanna, Scotland, Sea otter, Sediment, Serbia, Siberia, Sicily, Silicon, Skara Brae, Skull, Smelting, Smithsonian Institution, Social organization, Solutrean, Somme (river), Southeast Asia, Southern Africa, Sterkfontein, Stone tool, Stonehenge, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sydney rock engravings, Tamil Nadu, Terra Amata (archaeological site), The Flintstones, Three-age system, Timeline of human prehistory, Tin, Turkana County, Ubeidiya, Ukraine, Unconformity, Upper Paleolithic, Vinča culture, Walking with Cavemen, Weapon, Will-o'-the-wisp, Wisconsin glaciation, Woolly mammoth, Year, Yir'on, Zhoukoudian, 10th millennium BC, 5th millennium BC, 6th millennium BC. Expand index (223 more) » « Shrink index
Abalone (or; via Spanish abulón, from Rumsen aulón) is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae.
Abbevillian is a currently obsolescent name for a tool tradition that is increasingly coming to be called Oldowan (or Olduwan).
Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication listing a set of events forthcoming in the next year.
Anagni is an ancient town and comune in the province of Frosinone, Latium, central Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome.
Ancient Hawaii is the period of Hawaiian human history preceding the unification in 1810 of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai by Kamehameha the Great.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the deer family.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society.
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Ardèche (Occitan and Arpitan: Ardecha) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France.
The Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth, is a learned society in the United Kingdom dedicated to promoting the academic discipline of psychosocial studies.
The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic associated with European early modern humans (EEMH).
Australopithecus (informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus) is an extinct genus of hominins.
Australopithecus garhi is a 2.5-million-year-old gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996 by a paleontologist research team led by Berhane Asfaw and Tim White.
The Awash (sometimes spelled Hawash; Amharic: አዋሽ; Afar We'ayot; Somali: Webiga Dir) is a major river of Ethiopia.
Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.
Ġgantija ("Giants' Tower") is a megalithic temple complex from the Neolithic on the Mediterranean island of Gozo.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site in central India that spans the prehistoric paleolithic and mesolithic periods, as well as the historic period.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
In archaeology, a bone tool is a tool created from bone.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Castellón de la Plana, Castelló de la Plana, or simply Castellón / Castelló, is the capital city of the province of Castellón, in the Valencian Community, Spain, in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, on the Costa del Azahar by the Mediterranean Sea.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The Cave of Altamira (Cueva de Altamira) located near the historic town Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, Spain, is renowned for its numerous parietal cave paintings featuring charcoal drawings and polychrome paintings of contemporary local fauna and human hands, created during the Upper Paleolithic.
A caveman is a stock character representative of primitive man in the Paleolithic.
Ceprano Man, Argil, and Ceprano Calvarium, refers to a Middle Pleistocene archaic human fossil, a single skull cap (calvaria), accidentally unearthed in a highway construction project in 1994 near Ceprano in the province of Frosinone, Italy.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France is a cave that contains some of the best-preserved figurative cave paintings in the world, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life.
The Châtelperronian is a claimed industry of the Upper Palaeolithic, the existence of which is debated.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Archaeologists define a chopper as a pebble tool with an irregular cutting edge formed through the removal of flakes from one side of a stone.
In archaeology a chopping tool is a stone tool.
Chronicles of Ancient Darkness is a series of six historical fantasy novels by the British author Michelle Paver, her first books for children.
Chuck Rock is a 1991 slapstick side-scrolling platform video game developed and published by Core Design for the Atari ST and Amiga computers.
The Clactonian is the name given by archaeologists to an industry of European flint tool manufacture that dates to the early part of the interglacial period known as the Hoxnian, the Mindel-Riss or the Holstein stages (c. 400,000 years ago).
Clarence Van Riet Lowe (4 November 1894 – 7 June 1956) was a South African civil engineer and archaeologist.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Comparative foot morphology involves comparing the form of distal limb structures of a variety of terrestrial vertebrates.
Copper metallurgy in Africa encompasses the study of copper production across the continent and an understanding of how it influenced aspects of African archaeology.
Cumbemayo or Cumbe Mayo is an archaeological site located 20 kilometers southwest of the city of Cajamarca in Peru at 3,500 meters of elevation.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Death Valley National Park is an American national park that straddles the California—Nevada border, east of the Sierra Nevada.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Dmanisi (tr) is a town and archaeological site in the Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia approximately 93 km southwest of the nation’s capital Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Dolní Věstonice (Unterwisternitz) is a small village in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.
Dolní Věstonice (often without diacritics as Dolni Vestonice) refers to an Upper Paleolithic archaeological site near the village of Dolní Věstonice, Moravia in the Czech Republic,on the base of Děvín Mountain, dating to approximately 26,000 BP, as supported by radiocarbon dating.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Earth's Children is a series of epic historical fiction novels written by Jean M. Auel set circa 30,000 years before present.
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.
In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Experimental archaeology (also called experiment archaeology and experiential archaeology) is a field of study which attempts to generate and test archaeological hypotheses, usually by replicating or approximating the feasibility of ancient cultures performing various tasks or feats.
In geology, a facies (pronounced variously as, or; plural also 'facies') is a body of rock with specified characteristics, which can be any observable attribute of rocks such as their overall appearance, composition, or condition of formation, and the changes that may occur in those attributes over a geographic area.
A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.
In archaeology, Fauresmith industry is a stone tool industry that is transitional between the Acheulian and the Middle Stone Age.
The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Göbekli Tepe, Turkish for "Potbelly Hill", is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, approximately northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
A grave is a location where a dead body (typically that of a human, although sometimes that of an animal) is buried.
The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian circa 33,000 years BP..
The Grotte du Lazaret (English: Cave of Le Lazaret) is an archaeological cave site of prehistoric human occupation study, situated in the eastern suburbs of the French town of Nice, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea.
In archaeology, ground stone is a category of stone tool formed by the grinding of a coarse-grained tool stone, either purposely or incidentally.
Hallam Leonard Movius (1907–1987) was an American archaeologist most famous for his work on the Palaeolithic period.
A hand axe (or handaxe) is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces that is the longest-used tool in human history.
Happisburgh is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.
Homo rhodesiensis is the species name proposed by Arthur Smith Woodward (1921) to classifiy Kabwe 1 (the "Kabwe skull" or "Broken Hill skull", also "Rhodesian Man"), a fossil recovered from a cave at Broken Hill, or Kabwe, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).
Homo rudolfensis (also Australopithecus rudolfensis) is an extinct species of the Hominini tribe known only through a handful of representative fossils, the first of which was discovered by Bernard Ngeneo, a member of a team led by anthropologist Richard Leakey and zoologist Meave Leakey in 1972, at Koobi Fora on the east side of Lake Rudolf (now Lake Turkana) in Kenya.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Hoxne is an anciently-established village in the Mid Suffolk district of Suffolk, England, about five miles (8 km) east-southeast of Diss, Norfolk and south of the River Waveney.
Hugo Obermaier (29 January 1877, Regensburg – 12 November 1946, Fribourg) was a distinguished prehistorian and anthropologist who taught at various European centres of learning.
In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
In the archaeology of the Stone Age, an industry or technocomplex is a typological classification of stone tools.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The topic of early iron metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa encompasses both studies of the technology and archaeology of indigenous iron production, and also an understanding of the role that iron production played in African societies before European colonization.
John Desmond Clark (more commonly J. Desmond Clark, April 10, 1916 – February 14, 2002) was a British archaeologist noted particularly for his work on prehistoric Africa.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jean Marie Auel (born February 18, 1936) is an American writer who wrote the Earth's Children books, a series of novels set in prehistoric Europe that explores human activities during this time, and touches on the interactions of Cro-Magnon people with Neanderthals.
Jean-Jacques Annaud (born 1 October 1943) is a French film director, screenwriter and producer, best known for directing Quest for Fire (1981), The Name of the Rose (1986), The Bear (1988), The Lover (1992), and Seven Years in Tibet (1997).
Jebel Sahaba (also Site 117) is a prehistoric cemetery site in the Nile Valley (now submerged in Lake Nasser), near the northern border of Sudan, associated with the Qadan culture, dated to the Younger Dryas (some 12,000 to 14,000 years old).
Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae (14 March 1821 – 15 August 1885) was a Danish archaeologist, historian and politician, who was the second director of the National Museum of Denmark (1865–1874).
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
Kebara Cave (Hebrew: מערת כבארה Me'arat Kebbara, Arabic: مغارة الكبارة Mugharat al-Kabara) is an Israeli limestone cave locality in the Wadi Kebara, situated at above sea level on the western escarpment of the Carmel Range, in the Ramat Hanadiv preserve of Zichron Yaakov.
Kents Cavern is a cave system in Torquay, Devon, England.
Kenyanthropus platyops is a 3.5 to 3.2-million-year-old (Pliocene) hominin fossil discovered in Lake Turkana, Kenya in 1999 by Justus Erus, who was part of Meave Leakey's team.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Knapping is the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other conchoidal fracturing stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls, and flushwork decoration.
Koobi Fora refers primarily to a region around Koobi Fora Ridge, located on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana in the territory of the nomadic Gabbra people.
The Lake Mungo remains are three prominent sets of Aboriginal Australian human remains: Lake Mungo 1 (also called Mungo Woman, LM1, and ANU-618), Lake Mungo 3 (also called Mungo Man, Lake Mungo III, and LM3), and Lake Mungo 2 (LM2).
Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Lepenski Vir (Лепенски Вир, "Lepena Whirlpool"), located in Serbia, is an important archaeological site of the Mesolithic Iron Gates culture of the Balkans.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
This is a descriptive list of art from the Stone Age, the period of prehistory characterised by the widespread use of stone tools.
In archaeology, lithic analysis is the analysis of stone tools and other chipped stone artifacts using basic scientific techniques.
In archaeology, a lithic core is a distinctive artifact that results from the practice of lithic reduction.
In archaeology, a lithic flake is a "portion of rock removed from an objective piece by percussion or pressure,"Andrefsky, W. (2005) Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis.
In archaeology, in particular of the Stone Age, lithic reduction is the process of fashioning stones or rocks from their natural state into tools or weapons by removing some parts.
Lithos is a glyphic sans-serif typeface designed by Carol Twombly in 1989 for Adobe Systems.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lomekwi 3 is the name of an archaeological site in Kenya where ancient stone tools have been discovered dating to 3.3 million years ago, which make them the oldest ever found.
Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (7 August 1903 – 1 October 1972) was a Kenyan paleoanthropologist and archaeologist whose work was important in demonstrating that humans evolved in Africa, particularly through discoveries made at Olduvai Gorge with his wife, fellow paleontologist Mary Leakey.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Lupemban is the name given by archaeologists to a central African culture which, though once thought to date between c. 30,000 and 12,000 BC, is now generally recognised to be far older (dates of c. 300,000 have been obtained from Twin Rivers, Zambia and Muguruk, Kenya, respectively).
The Magdalenian (also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, dating from around 17,000 to 12,000 years ago.
The Magosian is the name given by archaeologists to an industry found in southern and eastern Africa.
Majdanpek (Мајданпек) is a town and municipality located in the Bor District of the eastern Serbia.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
Mary Douglas Leakey, FBA (née Nicol, 6 February 1913 – 9 December 1996) was a British paleoanthropologist who discovered the first fossilised Proconsul skull, an extinct ape which is now believed to be ancestral to humans.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Michelle Paver (born 7 September, 1960) is a British novelist and children's writer, known for the fantasy series Chronicles of Ancient Darkness, set in pre-agricultural Stone Age Europe.
A microlith is a small stone tool usually made of flint or chert and typically a centimetre or so in length and half a centimetre wide.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.
The Movius Line is a theoretical line drawn across northern India first proposed by the American archaeologist Hallam L. Movius in 1948 to demonstrate a technological difference between the early prehistoric tool technologies of the east and west of the Old World.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.
The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge in Tanzania is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world; it has proven invaluable in furthering our understanding of early human evolution.
Olorgesailie is a geological formation in East Africa containing a group of Lower Paleolithic archaeological sites.
One Million Years B.C. is a 1966 British adventure/fantasy film starring Raquel Welch and John Richardson, set in a fictional age of caveman and dinosaurs.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Paranthropus (from Greek παρα, para "beside"; άνθρωπος, ánthropos "human") is a genus of extinct hominins that lived between 2.6 and 1.1 million years ago.
Paranthropus aethiopicus or Australopithecus aethiopicus is an extinct species of hominin, one of the robust australopithecines.
Parietal art is the archaeological term for artwork done on cave walls or large blocks of stone.
This is a chart of cultural periods of Peru and the Andean Region developed by Edward Lanning and used by some archaeologists studying the area.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Pločnik (Плочник) is a village in the municipality of Prokuplje, Toplica District, Republic of Serbia.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events.
Prehistoric music (previously primitive music) is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history.
Prehistoric warfare refers to war that occurred between societies without recorded history.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
The prehistory of Australia is the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the colonization of Australia in 1788, which marks the start of consistent documentation of Australia.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Quern-stones are stone tools for hand-grinding a wide variety of materials.
Quest for Fire (La Guerre du feu) is a 1981 French-Canadian adventure film directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud, written by Gérard Brach and starring Everett McGill, Ron Perlman, Nameer El-Kadi and Rae Dawn Chong.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
A rite is an established, ceremonial, usually religious, act.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Riwat (Rawat, Murree) is a Paleolithic site in Punjab, northern Pakistan.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The Rock art of Alta (Helleristningene i Alta) are located in and around the municipality of Alta in the county of Finnmark in northern Norway.
Rudna Glava (Ore Head) is a mining site in present-day eastern Serbia that demonstrates one of the earliest evidences of European copper mining and metallurgy, dating to the 5th millennium BC.
Saldanha man also known as Saldanha cranium or Elandsfontein cranium are fossilized remains of an archaic human, identified as Homo heidelbergensis.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
The Sangoan archaeological industry is the name given by archaeologists to a Palaeolithic tool manufacturing style which may have developed from the earlier Acheulian types.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Skara Brae is a stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.
The Solutrean industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic of the Final Gravettian, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
Sterkfontein (Afrikaans for Strong Spring) is a set of limestone caves of special interest to paleo-anthropologists located in Gauteng province, about 40 km (23 miles) northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa in the Muldersdrift area close to the town of Krugersdorp.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Sydney rock engravings, or Sydney rock art, are a form of Australian Aboriginal rock art in the sandstone around Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, that consist of carefully drawn images of people, animals, or symbols.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Terra Amata is an archeological site in open air located on the slopes of Mount Boron in Nice, at a level above the current sea level of the Mediterranean.
The Flintstones is an American animated sitcom produced by Hanna-Barbera for ABC.
The three-age system is the categorization of history into time periods divisible by three; for example, the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age, although it also refers to other tripartite divisions of historic time periods.
This timeline of human prehistory comprises the time from the first appearance of Homo sapiens in Africa 300,000 years ago to the invention of writing and the beginning of historiography, after 5,000 years ago.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Turkana County is a county in the former Rift Valley Province of Kenya.
'Ubeidiya (`Ubaydiyya; עובידיה; العبيدية), some 3 km south of Lake Tiberias, in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel, is an archaeological site of the Pleistocene, ca.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Serbia and smaller parts of Romania (particularly Transylvania), dated to the period 5700–4500 BC.
Walking with Cavemen is a four-part television documentary series about human evolution produced by the BBC in the United Kingdom.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
A will-o'-the-wisp, will-o'-wisp or ignis fatuus (Medieval Latin for "foolish fire") is an atmospheric ghost light seen by travellers at night, especially over bogs, swamps or marshes.
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.
The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) is an extinct species of mammoth that lived during the Pleistocene epoch, and was one of the last in a line of mammoth species, beginning with Mammuthus subplanifrons in the early Pliocene.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yir'on (יִרְאוֹן) is a kibbutz in the Galilee Panhandle in northern Israel.
Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system in suburban Fangshan District, Beijing.
The 10th millennium BC spanned the years 10000 through 9001 BC.
The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 through 4001 BC.
The 6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 through 5001 BC.