35 relations: Acronym, Alpha particle, Attenuation length, Beta particle, Bethe formula, Binary collision approximation, Bragg peak, Bremsstrahlung, Collision cascade, Crystal structure, Density, Density functional theory, Electronvolt, Integral, Interatomic potential, International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators, Ion, Linear energy transfer, Local-density approximation, Metre, Micrometer, Molecular dynamics, Muon, Newton (unit), Nucleon, Radiation length, Radiation material science, Radiation therapy, Radioactive decay, Radon, Range (particle radiation), Second, Sputtering, Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter, Threshold displacement energy.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
The Bethe formula describes the mean energy loss per distance travelled of swift charged particles (protons, alpha particles, atomic ions) traversing matter (or alternatively the stopping power of the material).
The binary collision approximation (BCA) signifies a method used in ion irradiation physics to enable efficient computer simulation of the penetration depth and defect production by energetic (with kinetic energies in the kilo-electronvolt (keV) range or higher) ions in solids.
The Bragg peak is a pronounced peak on the Bragg curve which plots the energy loss of ionizing radiation during its travel through matter.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
A collision cascade (also known as a displacement cascade or a displacement spike) is a set of nearby adjacent energetic (much higher than ordinary thermal energies) collisions of atoms induced by an energetic particle in a solid or liquid.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
Interatomic potentials are mathematical functions for calculating the potential energy of a system of atoms with given positions in space.
Radiation Effects in Insulators (REI) is a long-running international conference series dedicated to basic and applied scientific research relating to radiation effects in insulators and non-metallic materials.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In dosimetry, linear energy transfer (LET) is the amount of energy that an ionizing particle transfers to the material traversed per unit distance.
Local-density approximations (LDA) are a class of approximations to the exchange–correlation (XC) energy functional in density functional theory (DFT) that depend solely upon the value of the electronic density at each point in space (and not, for example, derivatives of the density or the Kohn–Sham orbitals).
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.
Radiation materials science describes the interaction of radiation with matter: a broad subject covering many forms of irradiation and of matter.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
In passing through matter, charged particles ionize and thus lose energy in many steps, until their energy is (almost) zero.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Sputtering is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles, particularly gas ions in a laboratory.
Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) is a group of computer programs which calculate interaction of ions with matter; the core of SRIM is a program Transport of ions in matter (TRIM).
The threshold displacement energy T_d is the minimum kinetic energy that an atom in a solid needs to be permanently displaced from its lattice site to a defect position.