402 relations: A35 autoroute, A4 autoroute, Ad hoc, Adolf Michaelis, Albert Schweitzer, Alberto Fujimori, Albrecht Kossel, Alsace, Alsatian dialect, André Le Nôtre, André Malraux, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Anthony van Dyck, Antonio da Correggio, Architectural style, Argentoratum, Arrondissement of Strasbourg, Arsène Wenger, Art Nouveau, Art of Europe, Art punk, Art school, Arte, Assembly of European Regions, Association football, Aubette (building), Austrasia, École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux, École nationale d'administration, École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour l'industrie et l'entreprise, École nationale supérieure de physique de Strasbourg, École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées, Émile Waldteufel, Étoile Noire de Strasbourg, Baden-Württemberg, Bamako, Bar association, Baroque, Barrage Vauban, Bas-Rhin, Basel, Battle of France, Battle of Hausbergen, Battle of Strasbourg, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bicycle-sharing system, Black Forest, Borough, Boston, Brussels, ..., Cabinet des estampes et des dessins, Cairo, Canal de la Bruche, Cantons of Strasbourg, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Castra, Cats (musical), Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, Charles Munch (conductor), Childebert II, Chilperic I, Chocolate, Cima da Conegliano, Cloister, Cognate, Communes of France, Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois, Contemporary architecture, Council of Europe, Crypt, Custom house, Decapolis, Decorative arts, Diabetes mellitus, Douala, Dresden, Duisburg, Eclecticism in art, Egidius (bishop of Reims), Egyptology, El Greco, EM Strasbourg Business School, Empress Joséphine, English landscape garden, Engraving, Epitech, Eric of Friuli, Eurocorps, Eurodistrict, European Audiovisual Observatory, European Court of Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights building, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, European institutions in Strasbourg, European integration, European Ombudsman, European Parliament, European School of Strasbourg, European Science Foundation, European Union, Fantasy, Fez, Morocco, Film festival, Financial capital, Focus (band), Fort Rapp, Fortification, François Christophe de Kellermann, France, Francisco Goya, Francization, Franco-Prussian War, Franz Xaver Richter, Free imperial city, French Open, Fused grid, Gare de Strasbourg-Ville, Gaulish language, Geispolsheim, Georg Büchner, Georg Simmel, German mysticism, German Renaissance, Germanic languages, Germany, Giotto, Gothic architecture, Gothic Revival architecture, Gottfried Silbermann, Governor, Grand Canal d'Alsace, Grand Est, Grand Prix Sunbeams 1922, Grand Ried, Grande Île (Strasbourg), Graphic arts, Greenhouse, Gregory of Tours, Gustave Doré, Hafen Slawkenbergius, Haiti, Haitian Vodou, Hans Baldung, Hans Bethe, Hans Memling, Haute école des arts du Rhin, Havergal Brian, Hôpital civil, Strasbourg, Hôtel Brion, Hôtel de Hanau, Hôtel de Klinglin, Hôtel des Deux-Ponts, Hœnheim, Heavy industry, Heinrich Eggestein, Holy Roman Empire, Horror film, Human Frontier Science Program, Humanism, Ice hockey, Ignaz Pleyel, Ill (France), Illkirch-Graffenstaden, In the City of Sylvia, Incunable, Independent film, Independent Port of Strasbourg, Inland navigation, Institut d'études politiques de Strasbourg, Institut national des études territoriales, Institut national des sciences appliquées, Institut supérieur européen de gestion group, International Commission on Civil Status, International Institute of Human Rights, International Space University, Internationaux de Strasbourg, Jacmel, Jacques-François Blondel, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg, Jazz, Jean Arp, Jean-Baptiste Kléber, Jean-Marie Lehn, Jewish skeleton collection, Joachim Meyer, Johann Carolus, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Gutenberg, Johannes Mentelin, Johannes Tauler, John Calvin, John Tavener, Joseph von Mering, Kammerzell House, Kapellmeister, Karl Ferdinand Braun, Karlsruhe, Katharina Zell, Köppen climate classification, Kehl, Kingdom of Prussia, Klemens von Metternich, L'Express, La Marseillaise, La Wantzenau, Latin, Latinisation of names, Laurence Sterne, Lawyer, Le Corbusier, Le Vaisseau, Leicester, LGV Est, LGV Rhin-Rhône, List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants (2006 census), Lithography, Locative case, Louis Pasteur, Louis Pasteur University, Louis Ramond de Carbonnières, Louis XIV of France, Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Luxembourg City, Lyon, M. 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The A35 autoroute is a toll free highway in northeastern France.
The A4 Autoroute, also known as autoroute de l'Est (English:Motorway of the East) is a French autoroute that travels between the cities of Paris and Strasbourg.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Adolf Michaelis (22 June 1835 – 12 August 1910) was a German classical scholar, a professor of art history at the University of Strasbourg from 1872, who helped establish the connoisseurship of Ancient Greek sculpture and Roman sculpture on their modern footing.
Albert Schweitzer, OM (14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was a French-German theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician.
Alberto Kenya Fujimori Fujimori (born 26 July 1938 or 4 August 1938) is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000.
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
André Le Nôtre (12 March 1613 – 15 September 1700), originally rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France.
André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.
Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber Kt (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and the Southern Netherlands.
Antonio Allegri da Correggio (August 1489 – March 5, 1534), usually known as Correggio, was the foremost painter of the Parma school of the Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the 16th century.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.
Argentoratum or Argentorate was the ancient name of the city of Strasbourg.
The arrondissement of Strasbourg is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region.
Arsène Wenger (born 22 October 1949) is a French football manager and former player.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
Art punk is a category of punk bands which are arguably more sophisticated than their peers, and go beyond punk's garage rock foundations.
An art school is an educational institution with a primary focus on the visual arts, including fine art, especially illustration, painting, photography, sculpture, and graphic design.
ARTE (Association relative à la télévision européenne) is a public Franco-German TV network that promotes programming in the areas of culture and the arts.
The Assembly of European Regions (AER) is the largest independent network of regions in wider Europe.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Aubette is a historical building on Place Kléber in Strasbourg, France.
Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
The École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux (ECPM; European School of Chemistry, Polymers and Materials Science) of Strasbourg is a public engineering school in the city of Strasbourg, in Alsace, France.
The École nationale d'administration (generally referred to as ÉNA;; National School of Administration) is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle, and principal author of the French Constitution, Michel Debré, to democratise access to the senior civil service.
The École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour l'industrie et l'entreprise (National School of Computer Science for Industry and Business), formerly known as Institut d'informatique d'entreprise, is one of the top French public Grandes écoles in Computer Science.
The Telecom Physique Strasbourg (TPS), former École Nationale Supérieure de Physique de Strasbourg (ENSPS) (National school of higher education in physics of Strasbourg) is a French engineering school in Strasbourg.
The École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées (the "Graduate School of Computer Science and Advanced Technologies"), more commonly known as EPITA is a French grande école specialized in the field of computer science and software engineering.
Émile Waldteufel (born Charles Émile Lévy, 9 December 183712 February 1915) was a French pianist, conductor and composer of dance and concert music.
The Association Étoile Noire de Strasbourg is a French ice hockey team based in Strasbourg playing in the Ligue Magnus.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 1.8 million (2009 census, provisional).
A bar association is a professional association of lawyers.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Barrage Vauban, or Vauban Dam, is a bridge, weir and defensive work erected in the 17th century on the River Ill in the city of Strasbourg in France.
Bas-Rhin (Alsatian: Unterelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est region of France.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Hausbergen took place on 8 March 1262 and marks the freeing of the city of Strasbourg from episcopal authority.
The Battle of Strasbourg, also known as the Battle of Argentoratum, was fought in AD 357 between the Western Roman army under the Caesar (deputy emperor) Julian and the Alamanni tribal confederation led by the joint paramount king Chnodomar.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
The Black Forest (Schwarzwald) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
The Cabinet des estampes et des dessins (Print room) is a museum in Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department of France.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Canal de la Bruche is a canal in eastern France that originally connected Soultz-les-Bains, near Molsheim, to the city of Strasbourg.
The cantons of Strasbourg are administrative divisions of the Bas-Rhin department, in northeastern France.
Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (2 November 1739 – 24 October 1799) was an Austrian composer, violinist and silvologist.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
Cats is a sung-through British musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot, and produced by Cameron Mackintosh.
The Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine (CCNR; Commission Centrale pour la Navigation du Rhin) is an international organisation whose function is to encourage European prosperity by guaranteeing a high level of security for navigation of the Rhine and environs.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (21 August 1816 – 19 August 1856) was a French chemist.
Charles Munch (born Charles Münch; 26 September 1891 – 6 November 1968) was an Alsacian, German-born symphonic conductor and violinist.
Childebert II (570–595) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia, which included Provence at the time, from 575 until his death in 595, the eldest and succeeding son of Sigebert I, and the king of Burgundy from 592 to his death, as the adopted and succeeding son of his uncle Guntram.
Chilperic I (c. 539 – September 584) was the king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Giovanni Battista Cima, also called Cima da Conegliano (c. 1459 – c. 1517), was an Italian Renaissance painter, who mostly worked in Venice.
A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
The Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois (CTS, Strasbourg Transport Company) is the company responsible for the comprehensive public transport network of the Urban Community of Strasbourg (CUS), the urban community of the French city of Strasbourg.
Contemporary architecture is the architecture of the 21st century.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
A crypt (from Latin crypta "vault") is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building.
A custom house or customs house was a building housing the offices for the government officials who processed the paperwork associated with importing and exporting goods into and out of a country.
The Decapolis (Greek: Δεκάπολις Dekápolis, Ten Cities) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in the southeastern Levant.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Douala (Duala) is the largest city in Cameroon and its economic capital.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Eclecticism is a kind of mixed style in the fine arts: "the borrowing of a variety of styles from different sources and combining them".
Egidius a nobleman from Austrasia was a bishop of Reims (573-590).
Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
EM Strasbourg Business School is a French business school created in 1919 in Strasbourg, Alsace.
Joséphine de Beauharnais (born Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French as Joséphine.
The English landscape garden, also called English landscape park or simply the English garden (Jardin à l'anglaise, Giardino all'inglese, Englischer Landschaftsgarten, Jardim inglês, Jardín inglés), is a style of "landscape" garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical jardin à la française of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
The Paris Graduate School of Digital Innovation (École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies, or Epitech), formerly European Institute of Information Technology in English is a private institution of higher education in general computer science that was founded in 1999 and has been accredited by the French government.
Eric (also Heirichus or Ehericus; died 799) was the Duke of Friuli (dux Foroiulensis) from 789 to his death.
The European Corps (Eurocorps) is an intergovernmental military corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
A eurodistrict is a European administrative entity that contains urban agglomerations which lie across the border between two or more states.
The European Audiovisual Observatory was set up by the Council of Europe as a Partial Agreement. Its legal basis is Resolution (92) 70 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, 15 December 1992. The idea for the Observatory originated at the European Audiovisual Assizes in 1989, and was actively pursued by Audiovisual Eureka during the years 1989 to 1992. The observatory provides statistical and analytical information on the fields of: film, television, video/DVD, new audiovisual media services and public policy on film and television.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The building of the European Court of Human Rights is located in the European Quarter of Strasbourg, France.
The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) is a Directorate of the Council of Europe that traces its origins and statutes to the Convention on the Elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeia (an international treaty adopted by the Council of Europe in 1964: CETS 50, Protocol).
There are a range of European institutions in Strasbourg (France), the oldest of which dates back to 1815.
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
The European Ombudsman (or sometimes Euro-Ombudsman) is an ombudsman for the European Union, based in the Salvador de Madariaga Building in Strasbourg.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
European School of Strasbourg (École Européenne de Strasbourg) is a European school in Strasbourg, France, serving levels nursery through secondary.
The European Science Foundation (ESF) is an association of 8 member organizations devoted to scientific research in 7 European countries.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region.
Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.
Focus are a Dutch rock band formed in Amsterdam in 1969 by keyboardist, vocalist, and flautist Thijs van Leer.
Fort Rapp (once called Fort Moltke) is part of the 14 fortifications erected in Alsace by the Prussian general Von Moltke after the fall of Strasbourg in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War and following the siege of Strasbourg.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
François Christophe Kellermann or de Kellermann, 1st Duc de Valmy (28 May 1735 – 23 September 1820) was a French military commander, later the Général d'Armée, a Marshal of France and a freemason.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franz (Czech: František) Xaver Richter, known as François Xavier Richter in France (December 1, 1709 – September 12, 1789) was an Austro-Moravian singer, violinist, composer, conductor and music theoretician who spent most of his life first in Austria and later in Mannheim and in Strasbourg, where he was music director of the cathedral.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
The French Open (Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), officially called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France.
The fused grid is a street network pattern first proposed in 2002 and subsequently applied in Calgary, Alberta (2006) and Stratford, Ontario (2004).
Strasbourg-Ville is the main railway station in the city of Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, France.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
Geispolsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Karl Georg Büchner (17 October 1813 – 19 February 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of poetry and prose, considered part of the Young Germany movement.
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
German mysticism, sometimes called Dominican mysticism or Rhineland mysticism, was a late medieval Christian mystical movement that was especially prominent within the Dominican order and in Germany.
The German Renaissance, part of the Northern Renaissance, was a cultural and artistic movement that spread among German thinkers in the 15th and 16th centuries, which developed from the Italian Renaissance.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Gottfried Silbermann (January 14, 1683 – August 4, 1753) was a German builder of keyboard instruments.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Grand Canal of Alsace is a canal in eastern France, channeling the Upper Rhine river.
Grand Est (Great East, Großer Osten — both in the Alsatian and the Lorraine Franconian dialect), previously Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine (ACAL or less commonly, ALCA), is an administrative region in eastern France.
Sunbeam Works Racing cars participated in the 1922 XVI Grand Prix de l'A.C.F. in Strasbourg.
The Grand Ried is an Alsatian natural region which is part of the Ried.
The Grande Île (Große Insel) is an island that lies at the historic centre of the city of Strasbourg in France.
A category of fine art, graphic art covers a broad range of visual artistic expression, typically two-dimensional, i.e. produced on a flat surface.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.
Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré (6 January 1832 – 23 January 1883) was a French artist, printmaker, illustrator, comics artist, caricaturist and sculptor who worked primarily with wood engraving.
Hafen Slawkenbergius is a fictional character in Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy. Sterne gives few biographical details relating to Slawkenbergius, but states that he was German, and that he had died over 90 years prior to the writing and publication (in 1761) of the books of Tristram Shandy in which he appears — i.e., circa 1670, although Slawkenbergius' tale includes a reference to the French annexation of Strasbourg in 1681.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haitian Vodou (also written as Vaudou; known commonly as Voodoo, sometimes as Vodun, Vodoun, Vodu, or Vaudoux) is a syncretic religion practiced chiefly in Haiti and the Haitian diaspora.
Hans Baldung Grien or Grün (September 1545) was a German artist in painting and printmaking who was considered the most gifted student of Albrecht Dürer.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Hans Memling (also spelled Memlinc; c. 1430 – 11 August 1494) was a German painter who moved to Flanders and worked in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting.
Haute école des arts du Rhin (formerly École supérieure des arts décoratifs de Strasbourg) is a French art and music school based in Strasbourg, Alsace.
Havergal Brian (born William Brian; 29 January 187628 November 1972) was a British classical composer.
The Hôpital civil de Strasbourg is one of the oldest medical establishments in France.
The Hôtel Brion, also known as Villa Brion, is a small Art Nouveau hôtel particulier on rue Sleidan in the Neustadt district of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin.
The Hôtel de Hanau, also known as the Hôtel de ville and (in German) as the Hanauer Hof, is a historic building located on Place Broglie on the Grande Île in the city center of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin.
The Hôtel de Klinglin, currently known as the Hôtel du Préfet, is a historic building located near Place Broglie on the Grande Île in the city center of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin.
The Hôtel des Deux-Ponts, formerly known as the Hôtel Gayot and currently as the Hôtel du gouverneur militaire, is a historic building located on Place Broglie on the Grande Île in the city center of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin.
Hœnheim (also spelled Hoenheim;; Alsatian: Heene) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Heinrich Eggestein (born around 1415/1420 in Rosheim, Alsace; died 1488 or later; also spelled Eckstein or Eggesteyn) is considered, along with Johannes Mentelin, to be the earliest book printer in Strasbourg and therefore one of the earliest anywhere in Europe outside Mainz.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit a physiological reaction, such as an elevated heartbeat, through the use of fear and shocking one’s audiences.
The Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP) (Frontière humaine, in French) is a program, based in Strasbourg, France, that funds basic research in life sciences.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Ignace Joseph Pleyel (18 June 1757 – 14 November 1831) was an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period.
The Ill is a river in Alsace, in north-eastern France.
Illkirch-Graffenstaden is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
In the City of Sylvia (En la Ciudad de Sylvia) is a 2007 film directed by José Luis Guerín.
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501.
An independent film, independent movie, indie film or indie movie is a feature film that is produced outside the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment companies.
The Independent Port of Strasbourg (Port autonome de Strasbourg; P.A.S.) is a port on the Rhine river, in the city of Strasbourg, France.
Inland navigation is transport with ships via inland waterways (such as canals, rivers and lakes) between inland ports or quays and wharfs.
Sciences Po Strasbourg (Sciences Po Strasbourg or Institut d'études politiques de Strasbourg, abbreviated IEP Strasbourg) is a Grande école located in Strasbourg, France.
The Institut national des études territoriales (INET, National Institute of Territorial Studies) is a French Public administration school.
The Institut National des Sciences Appliquées (INSA) (National Institute of Applied Sciences) is a grande école – a French engineering university.
The Institut supérieur européen de gestion group (ISEG group, French for Advanced European Institute of Management) is a group of two business schools, ISEG Marketing & Communication School and ISG Programme Business & Management, the former created in 1980, and the latter formed in 2014 when ISEG Business School and ISEG Finance School, each also founded in 1980, merged.
The International Commission on Civil Status, or ICCS (Commission internationale de l'état civil, or CIEC), is an intergovernmental organization and the first organization created after World War II in order to work for European integration.
The International Institute of Human Rights (French: Institut international des droits de l'homme, IIDH) is an association under French local law based in Strasbourg, France.
The International Space University (ISU) is a university dedicated to the discovery, research and development of outer space exploration for peaceful purposes, through international and multidisciplinary education and research programs.
The Internationaux de Strasbourg (formally known as The Strasbourg Grand Prix) is a professional women's tennis tournament held in Strasbourg, France.
Jacmel, (Jakmèl; Yáquimo) is a commune in southern Haiti founded by the Spanish in 1504 and repopulated by the French in 1698.
Jacques-François Blondel (8 January 1705 – 9 January 1774) was an 18th-century French architect and teacher.
Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz (23 January 1751, or 12 January in the Julian calendar–4 June 1792, or 24 May in the Julian calendar) was a Baltic German writer of the Sturm und Drang movement.
The Jardin Botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg (3.5 hectares), also known as the Jardin botanique de Strasbourg and the Jardin botanique de l'Université Louis Pasteur, is a botanical garden and arboretum located at 28 rue Goethe, Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jean Arp or Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper.
Jean-Baptiste Kléber (9 March 1753 – 14 June 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jean-Marie Lehn (born 30 September 1939) is a French chemist.
The Jewish skeleton collection was an attempt by the Nazis to create an anthropological display to showcase the alleged racial inferiority of the "Jewish race" and to emphasize the Jews' status as Untermenschen ("sub-humans"), in contrast to the German race, which the Nazis considered to be Aryan Übermenschen.
Joachim Meÿer (ca. 1537–1571) was a self described Freifechter (literally, Free Fencer) living in the then Free Imperial City of Strasbourg in the 16th century and the author of a fechtbuch Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (in English, Thorough Descriptions of the Art of Fencing) first published in 1570.
Johann Carolus (1575−1634) was a German publisher of the first newspaper, called Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien (Account of all distinguished and commemorable news).
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (– February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press.
Johannes Mentelin, sometimes also spelled Mentlin, (born around 1410 in Schlettstadt, today Sélestat; died December 12, 1478 in Strasbourg) was a pioneering German book printer and bookseller active during the period during which incunabula were printed.
Johannes Tauler OP (c. 1300 – 16 June 1361) was a German mystic, a Catholic preacher and a theologian.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
Sir John Kenneth Tavener (28 January 1944 – 12 November 2013) was an English composer, known for his extensive output of religious works, including The Protecting Veil, Song for Athene and The Lamb.
Josef, Baron von Mering (28 February 1849, in Cologne – 5 January 1908, at Halle an der Saale, Germany) was a German physician.
The Kammerzell House (Alsatian: Kammerzellhüs, French: Maison Kammerzell, German: Kammerzellhaus) is one of the most famous buildings of Strasbourg and one of the most ornate and well preserved medieval civil housing buildings in late Gothic architecture in the areas formerly belonging to the Holy Roman Empire.
Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.
Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Katharina Schütz Zell (1497/8 - September 5, 1562) was a Protestant reformer and writer during the Protestant Reformation.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris.
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
La Wantzenau is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768) was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
Le Vaisseau is a hands-on science center located in Strasbourg.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
The Ligne à Grande Vitesse Est européenne (English: East European High Speed Line), typically shortened to LGV Est, is a French high-speed rail line that connects Vaires-sur-Marne (near Paris) and Vendenheim (near Strasbourg).
The LGV Rhin-Rhône (Ligne à Grande Vitesse) is a high-speed railway line, the first in France to be presented as an inter-regional route rather than a link from the provinces to Paris, though it actually is used by some trains to/from Paris.
Below is a list of communes in France (overseas departments included) with a population over 20,000 at the 2006 census.
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Louis Pasteur University (Université Louis-Pasteur), also known as Strasbourg I or ULP was a large university in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
Louis François Élisabeth Ramond, baron de Carbonnières (4 January 1755 Strasbourg – 14 May 1827), was a French politician, geologist and botanist.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger (Strasbourg September 8, 1825, Strasbourg April 17, 1903) was a French painter.
Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Matthieu Tota (born 26 September 1985), commonly known as M. Pokora or Matt Pokora, is a French singer and songwriter of Polish origin.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Maiolica, also called Majolica is Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance period.
Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (6 July 1886 – 16 June 1944) was a French historian who cofounded the highly influential Annales School of French social history.
The University Marc Bloch, also known as Strasbourg II or UMB was a university in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
Marcel Marceau (born Marcel Mangel, 22 March 1923 – 22 September 2007) was a French actor and Mime artist most famous for his stage persona as "Bip the Clown".
Anna Maria "Marie" Tussaud (née Grosholtz; 1 December 1761 – 16 April 1850) was a French artist known for her wax sculptures and Madame Tussauds, the wax museum she founded in London.
Marjane Satrapi (مرجان ساتراپی) (born 22 November 1969) is an Iranian-born French graphic novelist, cartoonist, illustrator, film director, and children's book author.
The Canal de la Marne au Rhin (Marne-Rhine Canal) is a canal in north-eastern France.
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
The Mass (italic), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music.
Matthäus Zell (also Mathias Zell; anglicized as Matthew Zell) (21 September 1477, in Kaysersberg – 9 January 1548, in Strasbourg) was a Lutheran pastor and reformer based in Strasbourg.
Matthew Gregory Lewis (9 July 1775 – 14 or 16 May 1818) was an English novelist and dramatist, often referred to as "Monk" Lewis, because of the success of his 1796 Gothic novel, The Monk.
Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont (14 May 1914 – 2 August 2006) was a militant communist who took part in the French Resistance during the Second World War, and a French politician.
Maximilian Josef Garnerin, Count von Montgelas (12 September 1759 Munich – 14 June 1838 Munich) was a Bavarian statesman, a member of a noble family from the Duchy of Savoy.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
A minuet (also spelled menuet) is a social dance of French origin for two people, usually in 4 time.
* Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.
In western music, a motet is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly diverse form and style, from the late medieval era to the present.
In music, a motif (also motive) is a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity".
The Musée alsacien (Alsatian museum) is a museum in Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department of France.
The Musée archéologique of Strasbourg, France is the largest of the numerous Alsacian museums displaying regional archeological findings from Prehistory to the Merovingian dynasty.
The Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame (or Frauenhausmuseum in German) is the city of Strasbourg's museum for Upper Rhenish fine arts and decorative arts from the early Middle Ages until 1681.
The Musée de minéralogie (Museum of Mineralogy) is a museum in Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department of France.
The Musée des Arts décoratifs (Museum of Decorative Art) of the city of Strasbourg, France, is found on the ground floor of the Palais Rohan, the former city palace of the Prince-Bishops from the Rohan family.
The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg (Museum of Fine Arts of Strasbourg) is the old masters paintings collection of the city of Strasbourg, located in the Alsace region of France.
The Musée historique (Historical museum) de la ville de Strasbourg is a museum in Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department of France.
The Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg is a natural history museum displaying the zoological collections of the city of Strasbourg, managed and curated by the University of Strasbourg.
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music.
Musica is a festival of contemporary classical music held annually in Strasbourg since 1983.
The National and University Library (Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire; abbreviated BNU) is a public library in Strasbourg, France.
The National Theatre of Strasbourg is a palace building on Strasbourg's Place de la République, now occupied by a theatre company of the same name, the National Theatre of Strasbourg (Théatre national de Strasbourg - TNS).
Néo-Grec was a Neoclassical revival style of the mid-to-late 19th century that was popularized in architecture, the decorative arts, and in painting during France's Second Empire, or the reign of Napoleon III (1852–1870).
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
The Neubau, also known as Le Neue Bau or Neuer Bau(German for "new building") is a historic building located on the Grande Île in the city center of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin.
Neuhof (literally new land or new farm), is a suburb in the southern district of the French city of Strasbourg.
The Neustadt (New Town) is a district of Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, France.
Neustria, or Neustrasia, (meaning "western land") was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
Oberhausbergen is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Observatory of Strasbourg is an astronomical observatory in Strasbourg, France.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Offenburg ("open borough" - coat of arms showing open gates; Fr. Offenbourg) is a city located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Sleeping Venus'' (c. 1510), Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. In art history, "Old Master" (or "old master"), Christies.com.
L'Opéra national du Rhin is an opera company which performs in Alsace, eastern France, and which includes the Opéra in Strasbourg, Mulhouse the ballet with the "Ballet de l'Opéra national du Rhin", (a national center for choreography since 1985), and Colmar the "Opéra Studio", a training center for young singers, in Colmar.
An open-air museum (or open air museum) is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors.
The Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg (Strasbourg Philharmonic Orchestra) is a French orchestra based in Strasbourg.
Ortenaukreis (Arrondissement de l'Ortenau) is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the west of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Oskar Minkowski (13 January 1858 – 18 July 1931) held a professorship at the University of Breslau and is most famous for his research on diabetes.
Otto Nossan Klemperer (14 May 18856 July 1973) was a Jewish German-born conductor and composer, described as "the last of the few really great conductors of his generation.".
Overcast or overcast weather, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization, is the meteorological condition of clouds obscuring at least 95% of the sky.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
The Palais de la musique et des congrès (official English name: Strasbourg Convention Centre) is a music venue and convention center in the Wacken district of Strasbourg, France, close to the European quarter.
The Palais des Fêtes (Festival Palace) is a music venue in the Neustadt district of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin.
The Palais du Rhin (Palace of the Rhine), the former Kaiserpalast (Imperial palace), is a building situated in the German (north-east) quarter of Strasbourg (Neustadt) dominating the Place de la République (the former Kaiserplatz) with its massive dome.
The Palais Rohan (Rohan Palace) in Strasbourg is the former residence of the prince-bishops and cardinals of the House of Rohan, an ancient French noble family originally from Brittany.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur (27 February 1913 – 20 May 2005) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutics.
Permeability or connectivity describes the extent to which urban forms permit (or restrict) movement of people or vehicles in different directions.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Armando Gonçalves Teixeira, OIH (born 25 September 1976), known as Petit, is a former Portuguese professional footballer who played as a defensive midfielder, and is the current manager of Moreirense FC.
The Petit Ried (occasionally referred to as Ried-Nord) is located in north-eastern Alsace.
La Petite France (also known as the Quartier des Tanneurs; Gerberviertel; "Tanner's Quarter") is a historic quarter of the city of Strasbourg in eastern France.
Philipp Jakob Spener (13 January 1635 – 5 February 1705), was a German Lutheran theologian who essentially founded what would become to be known as Pietism.
Piero di Cosimo (2 January 1462 – 12 April 1522), also known as Piero di Lorenzo, was a Florentine painter of the Italian Renaissance.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
Place Broglie is one of the main squares of the city of Strasbourg in the French departement of Bas-Rhin.
Place de la République ("Republic Square"; former Kaiserplatz, "Imperial Square") is one of the main squares of the city of Strasbourg, France.
The Place Kléber is the central square of Strasbourg, France.
A plaster cast is a copy made in plaster of another 3-dimensional form.
The Ponts Couverts (Gedeckte Brücken) are a set of three bridges and four towers that make up a defensive work erected in the 13th century on the River Ill in the city of Strasbourg in France.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
A prefect (préfet) in France is the State's representative in a department or region.
A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.
Although the Reformation was a religious movement, it also had a strong impact on all other aspects of life: marriage and family, education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy, and the arts.
On April 19, 1529, six princes and representatives of 14 Imperial Free Cities petitioned the Imperial Diet at Speyer against an imperial ban against Martin Luther, as well as the proscription of his works and teachings, and called for the unhindered spread of the evangelical faith.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Ramat Gan (help; رَمَات چَان) is a city in the Tel Aviv District of Israel, located east of Tel Aviv.
Racing Club de Strasbourg Alsace (commonly known as RC Strasbourg, RCS, or simply Strasbourg; Alsatian: Füeßbàllmànnschàft Vu Stroßburri) is a French association football club founded in 1906, based in the city of Strasbourg, Alsace.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
Reichstett is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
René Beeh (January 1886 − 23 January 1922) was a German draughtsman and painter from Alsace.
The phrase Reverence for Life is a translation of the German phrase: "Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben".
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
The Canal du Rhône au Rhin is one of the important watershed canals of the French waterways, connecting the Rhine to the Saône and the Rhône and thereby the North Sea and the Mediterranean.
Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside (born 23 July 1933) is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture.
Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.
Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Bronze age up to about the year 1000.
The Université Robert Schuman, also known as Strasbourg III or URS, was a university in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
Roland Ries (January 11, 1945 in Niederlauterbach, Bas-Rhin) is a French politician from Alsace holding several posts on local, regional and national level since 1997.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims (Archidioecesis Remensis; French: Archidiocèse de Reims) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg (Archidioecesis Argentoratensis o Argentinensis; Archidiocèse de Strasbourg; Erzbistum Straßburg) is a non-metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in France, first mentioned in 343.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE, RDI (3 March 1920 – 30 December 2011) was a British artist and satirical cartoonist.
Russian Consulate School in Strasbourg (Специализированное структурное образовательное подразделение - начальная общеобразовательная школа при Генеральном консульстве России в Страсбурге, Франция) is a Russian international school in Strasbourg, France, serving primary and secondary levels.
The Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Protestant Church (Église protestante Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune) is one of the most important church buildings of the city of Strasbourg, France, from the art historical and architectural viewpoints.
The Sainte-Madeleine Church (Église Sainte-Madeleine, German: Magdalenenkirche) is a Catholic church in Strasbourg, France, which was built in Gothic style in the late 15th century, but largely rebuilt in a style close to Jugendstil after a devastating fire in 1904.
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.
Schiltigheim (and sometimes by non-local speakers of French; Alsatian: Schelige) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.
The city of Strasbourg (France) is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Sebastian Brant (also Brandt) (1457 – 10 May 1521) was a German humanist and satirist.
Sebastian (or Sébastien) Stoskopff (July 13, 1597 – February 10, 1657) was an Alsatian painter.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows is a 2011 period action mystery film directed by Guy Ritchie and produced by Joel Silver, Lionel Wigram, Susan Downey, and Dan Lin.
The Siege of Strasbourg took place during the Franco-Prussian War, and resulted in the French surrender of the fortress on 28 September 1870.
Strasbourg Illkirch-Graffenstaden Basket, most commonly known as SIG Basket or SIG Strasbourg, is a French professional basketball club that is based in Strasbourg.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
The Spectre Film Festival is an annual film festival which was created by the French association Les Films du Spectre The festival is devoted to science fiction, fantasy and horror and takes place every September in Strasbourg.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
St Thomas' Church (Église Saint-Thomas, Thomaskirche) is a historical building in Strasbourg, eastern France.
Saint William's Church (also called Wilhelmskirche in German and église Saint-Guillaume in French) is a gothic church presently of the Lutheran Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine located in Strasbourg, France.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Strasbourg Airport (Aéroport de Strasbourg) is a minor international airport located in Entzheim and 10 km (6.2 miles) west-southwest of Strasbourg, both communes of the Bas-Rhin département in the Alsace région of France.
The Strasbourg astronomical clock is located in the Cathédrale Notre-Dame of Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
Strasbourg Cathedral or the Cathedral of Our Lady of Strasbourg (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Strasbourg, or Cathédrale de Strasbourg, Liebfrauenmünster zu Straßburg or Straßburger Münster), also known as Strasbourg Minster, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
Strasbourg Eurométropole or Eurométropole de Strasbourg is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Strasbourg.
The Strasbourg massacre occurred on February 14, 1349, when several hundred Jews were publicly burnt to death, and the rest of them expelled from the city as part of the Black Death persecutions.
The Strasbourg Mosque or Great Mosque of Strasbourg (Grande Mosquée de Strasbourg) is a large purpose-built Islamic mosque in the French city of Strasbourg.
The Musée d'Art Moderne et Contemporain de Strasbourg (MAMCS, Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art) is an art museum in Strasbourg, France, which was founded in 1973 and opened in its own building in November 1998.
The Strasbourg Music Festival (Festival de Musique de Strasbourg) (also International Music Festival in Strasbourg) was a prominent annual two-week festival of classical music.
The Strasbourg Opera House (Opéra de Strasbourg), located on Place Broglie on the Grande Île in the city center of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin, is the main seat and mother house of the opera company Opéra national du Rhin.
The Strasbourg tramway (Tramway de Strasbourg, Straßenbahn Straßburg), run by the CTS, is a network of six tramlines, A, B, C, D, E and F that operate in the city of Strasbourg in Alsace, France and Kehl in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau is a Franco-German eurodistrict, a cross-border administrative entity (European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation) sharing common institutions, established on 17 October 2005 and definitely functional since 4 February 2010.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.
The Duellists is a 1977 British historical drama film and the feature directorial debut of Ridley Scott.
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne.
The Monk: A Romance is a Gothic novel by Matthew Gregory Lewis, published in 1796.
The Rakes were an English indie rock band formed in London in 2003.
A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
Jean-Thomas "Tomi" Ungerer (born 28 November 1931) is a French artist and a writer in three languages.
Musée Tomi Ungerer/Centre international de l’illustration is a museum in Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department of France.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University of Strasbourg (Université de Strasbourg, Unistra or UDS) in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France (after Aix-Marseille University), with about 46,000 students and over 4,000 researchers.
The Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben (German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene, Oberrheinisches Tiefland or Oberrheingraben, French: Vallée du Rhin) is a major rift, about and on average, between Basel in the south and the cities of Frankfurt/Wiesbaden in the north.
An aire urbaine (literal and official translation: "urban area") is an INSEE (France's national statistics bureau) statistical concept describing a core of urban development and the extent of its commuter activity.
In France, an urban unit (fr: "unité urbaine") is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office, for the measurement of contiguously built-up areas.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
The Villa Schutzenberger, also known as Hôtel Schutzenberger (Schützenberger) is an Art Nouveau hôtel particulier on allée de la Robertsau in the Neustadt district of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin.
The Violin Concerto No.
The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Wolfgang Fabricius Capito (also Koepfel) (– November 1541) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid (زها حديد Zahā Ḥadīd; 31 October 1950 – 31 March 2016) was an Iraqi-British architect.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
17th-century French art is generally referred to as Baroque, but from the mid to late 17th century, the style of French art shows a classical adherence to certain rules of proportion and sobriety uncharacteristic of the Baroque as it was practiced in Southern and Eastern Europe during the same period.
The 2003 European heat wave led to the hottest summer on record in Europe since at least 1540.