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Stratum (linguistics)

Index Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact. [1]

246 relations: -logy, Agaw languages, Algerian Arabic, Aliyah, Altaic languages, Amharic, Ancient Rome, Andalusian Spanish, Andalusians, Andean Spanish, Andes, Angola, Angolan Portuguese, Arabic, Arabs, Aramaic language, Austronesian languages, Aymara language, Balto-Slavic languages, Banguingui people, Bantu languages, Beja language, Belgium, Berber languages, Biblical Hebrew, Bokmål, Brazil, Brazilian Portuguese, British Empire, British Latin, Bronze Age, Burden of proof (philosophy), Burgundians, Calque, Canarian Spanish, Canary Islands, Cantonese, Capital city, Cebuano language, Chavacano, Chopi language, Chud, Chuwabu language, Classical Arabic, Colonial Brazil, Colonization, Common Brittonic, Coptic language, Creole language, Crown of Castile, ..., Dacian language, Danish language, Dialect, Diaspora, Dutch language, Early Modern English, Early Muslim conquests, Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, Egyptian Arabic, Elite, England, English language, English people, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Etymology, Evidence of absence, France, Frankish language, Franks, French language, Galilean dialect, Gallaecian language, Gaul, Gaulish language, Gauls, Ge'ez, Georg Holzer, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Germanic substrate hypothesis, Gothic language, Government of Singapore, Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, Guanche language, Guarani language, Hainanese, Hashimoto Mantaro, Hebrew language, Hiberno-English, High German languages, Hiligaynon language, Himyaritic language, Hindi, Human evolutionary genetics, Human migration, Ilocano language, India, Indian English, Indo-European languages, Insular Scots, International scientific vocabulary, Invasion, Ireland, Irish language, Israel, Jamaica, Jamaican Patois, Japanese language, Japonic languages, Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Jewish languages, Judeo-Arabic languages, Juha Janhunen, Kimbundu, Kongo language, Kwa languages, Language, Language contact, Language Log, Language shift, Language transfer, Languages of Africa, Languages of India, Late Latin, Latin, Levantine Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Lingua franca, Linguistic typology, Linguistics, Loanword, Lomwe language, Lusitanian language, Maghreb, Maghrebi Arabic, Makhuwa language, Makonde language, Malay language, Mayan languages, Merovingian dynasty, Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian Arabic, Mexican Spanish, Mexico, Middle East, Middle English, Migration Period, Mitanni-Aryan, Mixtec language, Modern South Arabian languages, Moroccan Arabic, Morphology (linguistics), Mozambican Portuguese, Mozambique, Mwani language, Nahuatl, Ndau dialect, Nordwestblock, Norman conquest of England, Norman language, Normans, Norn language, North Africa, North Germanic languages, North India, Northern and southern China, Northern Russian dialects, Norway, Old English, Old European hydronymy, Old French, Old Norse, Old Norwegian, Old South Arabian, Orkney, Ossetian language, Paraguay, Persian language, Philippines, Phoenician language, Phonology, Pierre-Yves Lambert, Plantations of Ireland, Portugal, Portuguese language, Pre-Greek substrate, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Proto-Slavic, Punic language, Quechuan languages, Revival of the Hebrew language, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romania, Romanian language, Ronga language, Sama language, Sami languages, Sandhi, Saterland Frisian language, Scotland, Scots language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Reformation, Semitic people, Sena language, Shetland, Singapore, Singaporean Mandarin, Slavic languages, Slavs, South Semitic languages, Southern Min, Spaniards, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish language, Speak Mandarin Campaign, Standard Chinese, Stratum (linguistics), Substrata in the Vedic language, Swahili language, Tagalog language, Tausug language, Teochew dialect, Tigre language, Tigrinya language, Toponymy, Trans-cultural diffusion, Tsonga language, Tswa language, Tunisian Arabic, Umbundu, Uniformitarianism, Varieties of Chinese, Vasconic substratum theory, Volga Finns, Vulgar Latin, Western Aramaic languages, Yakan language, Yemeni Arabic, Yiddish, Zapotec languages, Zulu language. Expand index (196 more) »

-logy

-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).

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Agaw languages

The Agaw or Central Cushitic languages are spoken by small groups in Ethiopia and, in one case, Eritrea.

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Algerian Arabic

Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.

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Aliyah

Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.

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Amharic

Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Andalusian Spanish

The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz; Andalusian: andalú) are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.

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Andalusians

The Andalusians (andaluces) are a Spanish ethnic group that live in the southern region in Spain approximated by what is now called Andalusia.

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Andean Spanish

Andean Spanish is a dialect of Spanish spoken in the central Andes, from western Venezuela, southern Colombia, with influence as far south as northern Chile and Northwestern Argentina, passing through Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

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Andes

The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Angola

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Angolan Portuguese

Angolan Portuguese (Português de Angola) is a group of dialects and accents of the Portuguese language used mostly in Angola, where it is an official language.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Aymara language

Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

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Balto-Slavic languages

The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

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Banguingui people

Banguingui, also known as Sama Banguingui, Sama Bangingi’, Bangingi, and Samal Banguingui, is a distinct ethno-linguistic group dispersed throughout the Greater Sulu Archipelago and southern and western coastal regions of the Zamboanga Peninsula in Mindanao, Philippines.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Beja language

Beja (Bidhaawyeet) is an Afroasiatic language of the Cushitic branch spoken on the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Bokmål

Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilian Portuguese

Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Latin

British Latin or British Vulgar Latin was the Vulgar Latin spoken in Great Britain in the Roman and sub-Roman periods.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Burden of proof (philosophy)

The burden of proof (Latin: onus probandi, shortened from Onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit, non ei qui negat) is the obligation on a party in a dispute to provide sufficient warrant for their position.

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Burgundians

The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.

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Calque

In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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Canarian Spanish

Canarian Spanish (Spanish: español de las Canarias, español canario, habla canaria, isleño, dialecto canario or vernacular canario) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canarian people.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Cantonese

The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Cebuano language

The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.

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Chavacano

Chavacano or Chabacano refers to a number of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines.

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Chopi language

Chopi, also spelled Copi, Tschopi, and Txopi, is a Bantu language spoken along the southern coast of Mozambique.

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Chud

Chud or Chude (чудь, in Finnic languages: tshuudi, tšuudi, čuđit) is a term historically applied in the early Russian annals to several Finnic peoples in the area of what is now Estonia, Karelia and Northwestern Russia.

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Chuwabu language

Chuwabo (Echuwabo), also spelled Cuabo and Txuwabo, is a Bantu language spoken along the central coast of Mozambique.

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Classical Arabic

Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.

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Colonial Brazil

Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

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Colonization

Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Coptic language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.

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Creole language

A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.

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Crown of Castile

The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.

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Dacian language

The extinct Dacian language was spoken in the Carpathian region in antiquity.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Diaspora

A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Early Modern English

Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian Arabic

Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.

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Elite

In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English people

The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

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Eritrea

Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Etymology

EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Evidence of absence

Evidence of absence is evidence of any kind that suggests something is missing or that it does not exist.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frankish language

Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.

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Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Galilean dialect

The term Galilean dialect generally refers to the form of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic spoken by people in Galilee during the late Second Temple period, for example at the time of Jesus and the disciples, as distinct from a Judean dialect spoken in Jerusalem.

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Gallaecian language

Gallaecian or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Celtic language, and was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages.

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Gaulish language

Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.

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Gauls

The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

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Ge'ez

Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.

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Georg Holzer

Georg Holzer (born 1957 in Vienna) is an Austrian Slavist and Indo-Europeanist.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Germanic substrate hypothesis

The Germanic substrate hypothesis is an attempt to explain the distinctive nature of the Germanic languages within the context of the Indo-European languages.

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Gothic language

Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.

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Government of Singapore

The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to mean the Executive branch of government, which is made up of the President and the Cabinet of Singapore.

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Graziadio Isaia Ascoli

Graziadio Isaia Ascoli (16 July 1829 – 21 January 1907) was an Italian linguist.

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Guanche language

The Guanche language is an extinct Berber language that was spoken by the Guanches of the Canary Islands until the 17th century or possibly later.

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Guarani language

Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.

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Hainanese

Hainanese (Hainan Romanised), also known as Qióng Wén or Qióng yǔ (瓊語/琼语), is a group of Min Chinese varieties spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan.

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Hashimoto Mantaro

was a Japanese-born sinologist who published many books on Sinitic languages, phonology, the Hakka language, lexicology, Taiwanese Hokkien, and the influence of Altaic languages on Mandarin Chinese.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hiberno-English

Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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High German languages

The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).

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Hiligaynon language

The Hiligaynon language, also colloquially referred often by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas and SOCCSKSARGEN, most of whom belong to the Visayan ethnic group, mainly the Hiligaynons.

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Himyaritic language

Himyaritic or Al-Himyariah (لغة حمير luġat Ḥimyar, Language of Himyar) is a Semitic language that was spoken in Yemen, according to some by the Himyarites.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Human evolutionary genetics

Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from another human genome, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Ilocano language

Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian English

Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Insular Scots

Insular Scots comprises varieties of Lowland Scots generally subdivided into.

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International scientific vocabulary

International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).

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Invasion

An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jamaica

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

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Jamaican Patois

Jamaican Patois, known locally as Patois (Patwa or Patwah) and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English-based creole language with West African influences (a majority of loan words of Akan origin) spoken primarily in Jamaica and the Jamaican diaspora; it is spoken by the majority of Jamaicans as a native language.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japonic languages

The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.

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Jewish Babylonian Aramaic

Babylonian Aramaic was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE.

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Jewish languages

Jewish languages are the various languages and dialects that developed in Jewish communities in the diaspora.

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Judeo-Arabic languages

The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.

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Juha Janhunen

Juha Janhunen (born 12 February 1952 in Pori) is a Finnish linguist whose wide interests include Uralic and Mongolic languages.

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Kimbundu

Kimbundu, or North Mbundu, one of two Bantu languages called Mbundu (see Umbundu), is the second-most-widely spoken Bantu language in Angola.

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Kongo language

Kongo or Kikongo is one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo and Ndundu peoples living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola.

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Kwa languages

The Kwa languages, often specified as New Kwa, are a proposed but as-yet-undemonstrated family of languages spoken in the south-eastern part of Ivory Coast, across southern Ghana, and in central Togo.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Language contact

Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.

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Language Log

Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania.

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Language shift

Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.

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Language transfer

Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, and crosslinguistic influence) refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language.

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Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.

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Languages of India

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Levantine Arabic

Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.

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Libyan Arabic

Libyan Arabic (ليبي Lībī; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Libya and neighboring countries.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lomwe language

The Lomwe (Lowe) language, Elomwe, also known as Western Makua, is the fourth-largest language in Mozambique.

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Lusitanian language

Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.

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Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Maghrebi Arabic

Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.

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Makhuwa language

Makhuwa (Emakhuwa; also spelt Makua and Macua) is the primary Bantu language of northern Mozambique.

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Makonde language

Makonde, or Kimakonde, is the language spoken by the Makonde, an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Mayan languages

The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Mesopotamian Arabic

Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.

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Mexican Spanish

Mexican Spanish (español mexicano) is a set of varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and in some parts of the United States and Canada.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Mitanni-Aryan

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.

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Mixtec language

The Mixtec, languages belong to the Otomanguean language family of Mexico, and are closely related to the Trique and Cuicatec languages.

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Modern South Arabian languages

The Modern South Arabian languages (Eastern South Semitic or Eastern South Arabian) are spoken mainly by small populations inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula, in Yemen and Oman.

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Moroccan Arabic

Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Mozambican Portuguese

Mozambican Portuguese (português moçambicano) refers to the varieties of Portuguese spoken in Mozambique.

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Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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Mwani language

The Mwani language, or Kimwani (pronounced), is spoken on the coast of the Cabo Delgado Province of Mozambique, including the Quirimbas Islands.

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Nahuatl

Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

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Ndau dialect

Ndau (also called chiNdau, Chindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona, Chidanda) is a Bantu language spoken by 1,400,000 people in central Mozambique and southeastern Zimbabwe.

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Nordwestblock

The Nordwestblock ("Northwest Block") is a hypothetical Northwestern European cultural region that several scholars propose as a prehistoric culture in the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, and northwest Germany in an area approximately bounded by the rivers Somme, Oise, Meuse, and Elbe, and possibly extending to the eastern part of what is now England, during the Bronze and Iron Ages from the 3rd to 1st millennia BCE up to the onset of historical sources in the 1st century BCE.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Norman language

No description.

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Normans

The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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Norn language

Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Northern and southern China

Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.

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Northern Russian dialects

The northern Russian dialects make up one of the main groups of the Russian dialects.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old European hydronymy

Old European (Alteuropäisch) is the term used by Hans Krahe (1964) for the language of the oldest reconstructed stratum of European hydronymy (river names) in Central and Western Europe.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Norwegian

Old Norwegian (Norwegian: gammelnorsk and gam(m)alnorsk), also called Norwegian Norse, is an early form of the Norwegian language that was spoken between the 11th and 14th century; it is a transitional stage between Old West Norse and Middle Norwegian, and also Old Norn and Old Faroese.

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Old South Arabian

Old South Arabianhttp://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf (or Epigraphic South Arabian, or Ṣayhadic) is a group of four closely related extinct languages spoken in the far southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Orkney

Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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Ossetian language

Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.

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Paraguay

Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phoenician language

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pierre-Yves Lambert

Pierre-Yves Lambert, former student of the École Normale Supérieure, is a French teacher and linguist.

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Plantations of Ireland

Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Pre-Greek substrate

The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Proto-Slavic

Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.

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Punic language

The Punic language, also called Carthaginian or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.

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Quechuan languages

Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.

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Revival of the Hebrew language

The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Ronga language

Ronga (XiRonga; sometimes ShiRonga or GiRonga) is a south-eastern Bantu language in the Tswa–Ronga family spoken just south of Maputo in Mozambique.

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Sama language

The Sama language, Sinama (Sama + the infix -in-; also known as Bahasa Bajau), is the language of Sama Bajau people of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines; Sabah, Malaysia and parts of Indonesia.

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Sami languages

Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).

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Sandhi

SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.

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Saterland Frisian language

Saterland Frisian, also known as Sater Frisian or Saterlandic (Seeltersk), is the last living dialect of the East Frisian language.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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Scottish English

Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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Scottish Reformation

The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.

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Semitic people

Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.

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Sena language

Sena is a Bantu language spoken in the four provinces of central Mozambique (Zambezi valley): Tete, Sofala, Zambezia and Manica.

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Shetland

Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Singaporean Mandarin

Singaporean Mandarin is a variety of Mandarin Chinese widely spoken in Singapore.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Slavs

Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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South Semitic languages

South Semitic is a putative branch of the Semitic languages.

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Southern Min

Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.

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Spaniards

Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.

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Spanish colonization of the Americas

The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Speak Mandarin Campaign

The Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC) is an initiative by the government of Singapore to encourage the Singaporean Chinese population to speak Standard Mandarin Chinese, one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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Substrata in the Vedic language

Vedic has a number of linguistic features which are alien to most other Indo-European languages.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Tagalog language

Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

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Tausug language

Tausug (Tausug: Bahasa Sūg, Bahasa Suluk) is a regional language spoken in the province of Sulu in the Philippines, in the eastern area of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, and in North Kalimantan, Indonesia by the Tausūg people.

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Teochew dialect

Teochew (Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min spoken mainly by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world.

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Tigre language

Tigre (ትግረ tigre or ትግሬ tigrē), better known in Eritrea by its autonym Tigrayit (ትግራይት), and also known by speakers in Sudan as Xasa (الخاصية ḫāṣiyah), is an Afroasiatic language spoken in Northeast Africa.

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Tigrinya language

Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.

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Toponymy

Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Trans-cultural diffusion

In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.

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Tsonga language

Tsonga (Xitsonga) is a southern African Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people.

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Tswa language

Tswa (Xitswa) is a South-Eastern Bantu language in Southern Mozambique.

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Tunisian Arabic

Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia.

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Umbundu

Umbundu, or South Mbundu (autonym úmbúndú), one of two Bantu languages of Angola called Mbundu (see Kimbundu), is the most widely spoken language of Angola.

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Uniformitarianism

Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Vasconic substratum theory

The Vasconic substratum theory is a proposal that several western European languages contain remnants of an old language family of Vasconic languages, of which Basque is the only surviving member.

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Volga Finns

The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia living in the vicinity of the Volga, who speak Uralic languages.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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Western Aramaic languages

Western Aramaic languages is a group of several Aramaic languages developed and once widely spoken throughout the ancient Levant, as opposed to those from in and around Mesopotamia, which make up what is known as the Eastern Aramaic languages, which are still spoken as mother tongues by the Assyrians and Mandaeans of Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey and north western Iran.

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Yakan language

Yakan is a language of Basilan Island in the Philippines.

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Yemeni Arabic

Yemeni Arabic is a cluster of varieties of Arabic spoken in Yemen, southwestern Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Djibouti.

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Yiddish

Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Zapotec languages

The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.

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Zulu language

Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.

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Redirects here:

Adstrata, Adstratal, Adstrate, Adstrative, Adstratum, Adstratums, Language Substrate, Language substrate, Lexical stratum, Linguistic substrate, Linguistic substratum, Linguistic superstratum, Strata (linguistics), Sub-stratum, Substrata (linguistics), Substratal, Substrate (linguistics), Substrate Theories, Substrate language, Substrate languages, Substrates in Indo-European languages, Substrative, Substratum, Substratum (linguistics), Substratums, Superstrata, Superstrate, Superstrate Theories, Superstratum, Superstratums.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum_(linguistics)

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