169 relations: Analytic geometry, Anatomy, Angular momentum, Applied physics, Arch, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Avalanche, Axle, Bearing (mechanical), Bending, Biology, Birefringence, Body force, Boundary element method, Boundary value problem, Brittleness, Calculus, Capital (architecture), Cartesian coordinate system, Cauchy momentum equation, Cauchy stress tensor, Cavitation, Chemistry, Circular symmetry, Composite bow, Compression (physics), Compressive strength, Constitutive equation, Contact force, Continuous function, Continuum mechanics, Critical plane analysis, Cross section (geometry), Crystal structure, Cupola, Curvature, Cylinder stress, Dam, Deformation (mechanics), Determinant, Ductility, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Elasticity (physics), Electromagnetic field, Energy, Engineering, Euler's laws of motion, Experiment, Fiber, Finite difference method, ..., Finite element method, Finite strain theory, Fluid, Fluid dynamics, Flying buttress, Force, Fracture, Friction, Galileo Galilei, Gas, Geology, Glassblowing, Gothic architecture, Gradient, Gravity, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Hooke's law, Hydrostatics, I-beam, Imperial units, Impulse (physics), Index notation, Infinitesimal, Infinitesimal strain theory, Inner product space, Intermolecular force, International System of Units, Isaac Newton, Isotropy, Jacobian matrix and determinant, Kelvin probe force microscope, Laminar flow, Linear elasticity, Linear function, Linear map, Liquid, Macroscopic scale, Magnetostriction, Matrix (mathematics), Mechanical equilibrium, Metal, Mixed tensor, Mohr's circle, Molecule, Momentum, Newton (unit), Newton's laws of motion, Non-Newtonian fluid, Normal (geometry), Orthonormal basis, Partial differential equation, Particle, Pascal (unit), Permeability (earth sciences), Phase (matter), Phase transition, Physical quantity, Piecewise, Piezoelectricity, Pipe (fluid conveyance), Plasma (physics), Plasticity (physics), Plate tectonics, Polarizability, Pound (force), Pressure, Pressure vessel, Prestressed concrete, Quantum mechanics, Radius of curvature, Reaction (physics), René Descartes, Residual stress, Rotational symmetry, Saint-Venant's principle, Shear strength, Shear stress, Shot peening, Snips, Solid, Solid mechanics, Spring (device), Square inch, Square metre, Statistical mechanics, Stephen Timoshenko, Strain rate tensor, Strength of materials, Stress (mechanics), Stress concentration, Stress field, Stress measures, Stress–energy tensor, Stress–strain analysis, Stress–strain curve, Symmetric matrix, Temperature, Tension (physics), Tensor, Tensor calculus, Tensor field, Thermal expansion, Thermal stress, Torque, Toughened glass, Transient friction loading, Truss, Tunnel, Two-point tensor, Ultimate tensile strength, Virial stress, Virial theorem, Viscosity, Volcano, Weight, Wood, Yield (engineering), Yield surface, Z-tube. Expand index (119 more) » « Shrink index
In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use.
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.
Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy FRS FRSE (21 August 178923 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including: mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
In applied mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
A body force is a force that acts throughout the volume of a body.
The boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations (i.e. in boundary integral form).
In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
In architecture the capital (from the Latin caput, or "head") or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster).
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
The Cauchy momentum equation is a vector partial differential equation put forth by Cauchy that describes the non-relativistic momentum transport in any continuum.
In continuum mechanics, the Cauchy stress tensor \boldsymbol\sigma, true stress tensor, or simply called the stress tensor is a second order tensor named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy.
Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids"), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
In geometry, circular symmetry is a type of continuous symmetry for a planar object that can be rotated by any arbitrary angle and map onto itself.
A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
In physics and engineering, a constitutive equation or constitutive relation is a relation between two physical quantities (especially kinetic quantities as related to kinematic quantities) that is specific to a material or substance, and approximates the response of that material to external stimuli, usually as applied fields or forces.
A contact force is any force that requires contact to occur.
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
Critical plane analysis refers to the analysis of stresses or strains as they are experienced by a particular plane in a material, as well as the identification of which plane is likely to experience the most extreme damage.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In architecture, a cupola is a relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
In mechanics, a cylinder stress is a stress distribution with rotational symmetry; that is, which remains unchanged if the stressed object is rotated about some fixed axis.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
In classical mechanics, Euler's laws of motion are equations of motion which extend Newton's laws of motion for point particle to rigid body motion.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
In mathematics, finite-difference methods (FDM) are numerical methods for solving differential equations by approximating them with difference equations, in which finite differences approximate the derivatives.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
In continuum mechanics, the finite strain theory—also called large strain theory, or large deformation theory—deals with deformations in which strains and/or rotations are large enough to invalidate assumptions inherent in infinitesimal strain theory.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
The flying buttress (arc-boutant, arch buttress) is a specific form of buttress composed of an arched structure that extends from the upper portion of a wall to a pier of great mass, in order to convey to the ground the lateral forces that push a wall outwards, which are forces that arise from vaulted ceilings of stone and from wind-loading on roofs.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble (or parison), with the aid of a blowpipe (or blow tube).
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
An -beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an or H-shaped cross-section.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.
In mathematics and computer programming, index notation is used to specify the elements of an array of numbers.
In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them.
In continuum mechanics, the infinitesimal strain theory is a mathematical approach to the description of the deformation of a solid body in which the displacements of the material particles are assumed to be much smaller (indeed, infinitesimally smaller) than any relevant dimension of the body; so that its geometry and the constitutive properties of the material (such as density and stiffness) at each point of space can be assumed to be unchanged by the deformation.
In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
In vector calculus, the Jacobian matrix is the matrix of all first-order partial derivatives of a vector-valued function.
Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), also known as surface potential microscopy, is a noncontact variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM).
In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
Linear elasticity is the mathematical study of how solid objects deform and become internally stressed due to prescribed loading conditions.
In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions.
In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
In tensor analysis, a mixed tensor is a tensor which is neither strictly covariant nor strictly contravariant; at least one of the indices of a mixed tensor will be a subscript (covariant) and at least one of the indices will be a superscript (contravariant).
Mohr's circle, named after Christian Otto Mohr, is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton's law of viscosity.
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.
In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthonormal basis for an inner product space V with finite dimension is a basis for V whose vectors are orthonormal, that is, they are all unit vectors and orthogonal to each other.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...
In mathematics, a piecewise-defined function (also called a piecewise function or a hybrid function) is a function defined by multiple sub-functions, each sub-function applying to a certain interval of the main function's domain, a sub-domain.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.
The pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
Prestressed concrete is a form of concrete used in construction which is "pre-stressed" by being placed under compression prior to supporting any loads beyond its own dead weight.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In differential geometry, the radius of curvature,, is the reciprocal of the curvature.
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Residual stresses are stresses that remain in a solid material after the original cause of the stresses has been removed.
Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.
Saint-Venant's principle, named after Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant, a French elasticity theorist, may be expressed as follows: The original statement was published in French by Saint-Venant in 1855.
In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
Shot peening is a cold working process used to produce a compressive residual stress layer and modify mechanical properties of metals and composites.
Snips, also known as shears, are hand tools used to cut sheet metal and other tough webs.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solid mechanics is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
A square inch (plural: square inches) is a unit of area, equal to the area of a square with sides of one inch.
The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (Unicode character). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
Stepan Prokopovych Timoshenko (Степан Прокопович Тимошенко, a) (December 23, 1878 – May 29, 1972), was a Russian (modern territory of Ukraine) and, later, an American.
In continuum mechanics, the strain rate tensor is a physical quantity that describes the rate of change of the deformation of a material in the neighborhood of a certain point, at a certain moment of time.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated.
A stress field is the distribution of internal forces in a body that balance a given set of external forces.
The most commonly used measure of stress is the Cauchy stress tensor, often called simply the stress tensor or "true stress".
The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.
Stress–strain analysis (or stress analysis) is an engineering discipline that uses many methods to determine the stresses and strains in materials and structures subjected to forces.
The relationship between the stress and strain that a particular material displays is known as that particular material's stress–strain curve.
In linear algebra, a symmetric matrix is a square matrix that is equal to its transpose.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
In mathematics, tensor calculus or tensor analysis is an extension of vector calculus to tensor fields (tensors that may vary over a manifold, e.g. in spacetime).
In mathematics and physics, a tensor field assigns a tensor to each point of a mathematical space (typically a Euclidean space or manifold).
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermal stress is stress created by any change in temperature to a material.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass.
Transient friction loading, also known as TFL, is the mechanical stress induced on an object due to transient or vibrational frictional forces.
In engineering, a truss is a structure that "consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object".
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Two-point tensors, or double vectors, are tensor-like quantities which transform as euclidean vectors with respect to each of their indices and are used in continuum mechanics to transform between reference ("material") and present ("configuration") coordinates.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Virial stress is a measure of mechanical stress on an atomic scale for homogeneous systems.
In mechanics, the virial theorem provides a general equation that relates the average over time of the total kinetic energy, \left\langle T \right\rangle, of a stable system consisting of N particles, bound by potential forces, with that of the total potential energy, \left\langle V_\text \right\rangle, where angle brackets represent the average over time of the enclosed quantity.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
The yield point is the point on a stress–strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning of plastic behavior.
A yield surface is a five-dimensional surface in the six-dimensional space of stresses.
The Z-tube is an experimental apparatus for measuring the tensile strength of a liquid.
Cauchy tetrahedron, Cauchy's tetrahedron, Compressive, Deviatoric, Deviatoric stress, Deviatorics tress, Extensional stress, Internal stress, Internal stresses, Longitudinal stress, Mechanical stress, N/m2, Normal stress, Octahedral shear stress, Physical stress, Piola-Kirchhoff stress, Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, Piola-Kirchoff stress tensor, Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor, Piola–Kirchoff stress tensor, Stress (physics), Stress, mechanical, Tensible strength, Tensile stress, Traction vector.