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# String (computer science)

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. [1]

171 relations: Address space, Algorithm, Alphabet (formal languages), Alphabetical order, Analysis of algorithms, Application programming interface, Array data structure, Array data type, ASCII, Assembly language, Associative property, AWK, Backslash, Binary data, Binary operation, Binary relation, Binary-safe, Bit array, Bounds checking, Buffer overflow, Byte, C (programming language), C string handling, C++, C++ string handling, Cantor set, Character (computing), Character encoding, Chinese language, CJK characters, Class (computer programming), Cocoa (API), Code injection, Commutative property, Comparison of programming languages (string functions), Composite data type, Computer memory, Computer programming, Concatenation, Connection string, Control Data Corporation, Countable set, Data buffer, Data type, EBCDIC, Embedded SQL, Empty set, Empty string, Erlang (programming language), Escape character, ... Expand index (121 more) »

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

## Alphabet (formal languages)

In formal language theory, a string is defined as a finite sequence of members of an underlying base set; this set is called the alphabet of a string or collection of strings.

## Alphabetical order

Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.

## Analysis of algorithms

In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the computational complexity of algorithms, that is the amount of time, storage and/or other resources necessary to execute them.

## Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

## Array data structure

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.

## Array data type

Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.

## ASCII

ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

## Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

## Associative property

In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.

## AWK

AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.

## Backslash

The backslash (\) is a typographical mark (glyph) used mainly in computing and is the mirror image of the common slash (/).

## Binary data

Binary data is data whose unit can take on only two possible states, traditionally termed 0 and +1 in accordance with the binary numeral system and Boolean algebra.

## Binary operation

In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set.

## Binary relation

In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a set of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.

## Binary-safe

A binary-safe function is one that treats its input as a raw stream of bytes and ignores every textual aspect it may have.

## Bit array

A bit array (also known as bit map, bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly stores bits.

## Bounds checking

In computer programming, bounds checking is any method of detecting whether a variable is within some bounds before it is used.

## Buffer overflow

In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.

## Byte

The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

## C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

## C string handling

The C programming language has a set of functions implementing operations on strings (character strings and byte strings) in its standard library.

## C++

C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.

## C++ string handling

The C++ programming language has support for string handling, mostly implemented in its standard library.

## Cantor set

In mathematics, the Cantor set is a set of points lying on a single line segment that has a number of remarkable and deep properties.

## Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

## Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

## Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

## CJK characters

In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.

## Class (computer programming)

In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).

## Cocoa (API)

Cocoa is Apple's native object-oriented application programming interface (API) for their operating system macOS.

## Code injection

Code injection is the exploitation of a computer bug that is caused by processing invalid data.

## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

## Comparison of programming languages (string functions)

String functions are used in computer programming languages to manipulate a string or query information about a string (some do both).

## Composite data type

In computer science, a composite data type or compound data type is any data type which can be constructed in a program using the programming language's primitive data types and other composite types.

## Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

## Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

## Concatenation

In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.

## Connection string

In computing, a connection string is a string that specifies information about a data source and the means of connecting to it.

## Control Data Corporation

Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.

## Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set of natural numbers.

## Data buffer

In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.

## Data type

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.

## EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.

## Embedded SQL

Embedded SQL is a method of combining the computing power of a programming language and the database manipulation capabilities of SQL.

## Empty set

In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set or null set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.

## Empty string

In formal language theory, the empty string, or empty word is the unique string of length zero.

## Erlang (programming language)

Erlang is a general-purpose, concurrent, functional programming language, as well as a garbage-collected runtime system.

## Escape character

In computing and telecommunication, an escape character is a character which invokes an alternative interpretation on subsequent characters in a character sequence.

## Extended Unix Code

Extended Unix Code (EUC) is a multibyte character encoding system used primarily for Japanese, Korean, and simplified Chinese.

## Finite set

In mathematics, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements.

## Finite-state machine

A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.

## Formal language

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.

## Free monoid

In abstract algebra, the free monoid on a set is the monoid whose elements are all the finite sequences (or strings) of zero or more elements from that set, with string concatenation as the monoid operation and with the unique sequence of zero elements, often called the empty string and denoted by ε or λ, as the identity element.

## Gap buffer

A gap buffer in computer science is a dynamic array that allows efficient insertion and deletion operations clustered near the same location.

## Generic programming

Generic programming is a style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters.

## Greatest and least elements

In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined dually, that is, it is an element of S that is smaller than every other element of S. Formally, given a partially ordered set (P, ≤), an element g of a subset S of P is the greatest element of S if Hence, the greatest element of S is an upper bound of S that is contained within this subset.

## Hamming code

In telecommunication, Hamming codes are a family of linear error-correcting codes.

Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

## Hypercube

In geometry, a hypercube is an ''n''-dimensional analogue of a square and a cube.

## IBM 1401

The IBM 1401 is a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on October 5, 1959.

## Icon (programming language)

Icon is a very high-level programming language featuring goal-directed execution and many facilities for managing strings and textual patterns.

## Identity element

In mathematics, an identity element or neutral element is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set, which leaves other elements unchanged when combined with them.

## Ideogram

An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.

## Immutable object

In object-oriented and functional programming, an immutable object (unchangeable object) is an object whose state cannot be modified after it is created.

## Implicit data structure

In computer science, an implicit data structure or space-efficient data structure is a data structure that stores very little information other than the main or required data: a data structure that requires low overhead.

## Improper input validation

Improper input validation or unchecked user input is a type of vulnerability in computer software that may be used for security exploits.

## Incompressible string

An incompressible string is a string with Kolmogorov complexity equal to its length, so that it has no shorter encodings.

## Information hiding

In computer science, information hiding is the principle of segregation of the design decisions in a computer program that are most likely to change, thus protecting other parts of the program from extensive modification if the design decision is changed.

## INI file

The INI file format is an informal standard for configuration files for some platforms or software.

## Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

## Inverse limit

In mathematics, the inverse limit (also called the projective limit or limit) is a construction that allows one to "glue together" several related objects, the precise manner of the gluing process being specified by morphisms between the objects.

## ISO/IEC 2022

ISO/IEC 2022 Information technology—Character code structure and extension techniques, is an ISO standard (equivalent to the ECMA standard ECMA-35) specifying.

## ISO/IEC 8859

ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings.

## Isomorphism

In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism or morphism (i.e. a mathematical mapping) that can be reversed by an inverse morphism.

## Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

## Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

## Java (software platform)

Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment.

## Java Platform, Standard Edition

Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) is a computing platform for development and deployment of portable code for desktop and server environments.

## K-ary tree

In graph theory, a k-ary tree is a rooted tree in which each node has no more than k children.

## Kleene star

In mathematical logic and computer science, the Kleene star (or Kleene operator or Kleene closure) is a unary operation, either on sets of strings or on sets of symbols or characters.

## Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

## Length

In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.

## Lexicographical order

In mathematics, the lexicographic or lexicographical order (also known as lexical order, dictionary order, alphabetical order or lexicographic(al) product) is a generalization of the way words are alphabetically ordered based on the alphabetical order of their component letters.

## Lexicographically minimal string rotation

In computer science, the lexicographically minimal string rotation or lexicographically least circular substring is the problem of finding the rotation of a string possessing the lowest lexicographical order of all such rotations.

In computer science, a linked list is a linear collection of data elements, whose order is not given by their physical placement in memory.

## List (abstract data type)

In computer science, a list or sequence is an abstract data type that represents a countable number of ordered values, where the same value may occur more than once.

## Literal (computer programming)

In computer science, a literal is a notation for representing a fixed value in source code.

## Logogram

In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.

## Mathematical logic

Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

## Media Control Interface

The Media Control Interface — MCI for short — is a high-level API developed by Microsoft and IBM for controlling multimedia peripherals connected to a Microsoft Windows or OS/2 computer, such as CD-ROM players and audio controllers.

## Memory management

Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.

## Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

## Mojibake

Mojibake (文字化け) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.

## Monoid

In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is an algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element.

## MUMPS

MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System), or M, is a general-purpose computer programming language that provides ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable) transaction processing.

## Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").

## Newline

Newline (frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, e.g. ASCII or EBCDIC.

## Null character

The null character (also null terminator or null byte), abbreviated NUL, is a control character with the value zero.

## Objective-C

Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.

## OpenStep

OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface (API) specification for a legacy object-oriented operating system, with the basic goal of offering a NeXTSTEP-like environment on a non-NeXTSTEP operating system.

## Order theory

Order theory is a branch of mathematics which investigates the intuitive notion of order using binary relations.

In mathematics, the -adic number system for any prime number extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a different way from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems.

## Parsing

Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.

## Partially ordered set

In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set.

## Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

## Perl

Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

## Perl Compatible Regular Expressions

Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE) is a library written in C, which implements a regular expression engine, inspired by the capabilities of the Perl programming language.

## Piece table

In computing, a piece table is a data structure typically used to represent a series of edits on a (potentially) read-only text document.

## Prefix code

A prefix code is a type of code system (typically a variable-length code) distinguished by its possession of the "prefix property", which requires that there is no whole code word in the system that is a prefix (initial segment) of any other code word in the system.

## Prefix order

In mathematics, especially order theory, a prefix ordered set generalizes the intuitive concept of a tree by introducing the possibility of continuous progress and continuous branching.

## Primitive data type

In computer science, primitive data type is either of the following.

## Printf format string

Printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C and many other programming languages.

## Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

## Prolog

Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.

## Python (programming language)

Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.

## Quotation mark

Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.

## Record (computer science)

In computer science, a record (also called a structure, struct, or compound data) is a basic data structure.

## Regular expression

A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.

## Rexx

Rexx (Restructured Extended Executor) is an interpreted programming language developed at IBM by Mike Cowlishaw.

## Rope (data structure)

In computer programming, a rope, or cord, is a data structure composed of smaller strings that is used to efficiently store and manipulate a very long string.

## Ruby (programming language)

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.

## Run-length encoding

Run-length encoding (RLE) is a very simple form of lossless data compression in which runs of data (that is, sequences in which the same data value occurs in many consecutive data elements) are stored as a single data value and count, rather than as the original run.

## Scripting language

A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.

## Security hacker

A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.

## Sed

sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language.

## Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

## Sequential pattern mining

Sequential pattern mining is a topic of data mining concerned with finding statistically relevant patterns between data examples where the values are delivered in a sequence.

## Set (mathematics)

In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

## Shift JIS

--> Shift JIS (Shift Japanese Industrial Standards, also SJIS, MIME name Shift_JIS) is a character encoding for the Japanese language, originally developed by a Japanese company called ASCII Corporation in conjunction with Microsoft and standardized as JIS X 0208 Appendix 1.

## Shortlex order

In mathematics, and particularly in the theory of formal languages, shortlex is a total ordering for finite sequences of objects that can themselves be totally ordered.

## SNOBOL

SNOBOL (StriNg Oriented and symBOlic Language) is a series of computer programming languages developed between 1962 and 1967 at AT&T Bell Laboratories by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold and Ivan P. Polonsky, culminating in SNOBOL4.

## Sorting algorithm

In computer science, a sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.

## Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.

## Standard Libraries (CLI)

The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) includes the Standard Libraries in order to encapsulate a large number of common functions, such as file reading and writing, XML document manipulation, exception handling, application globalization, network communication, threading and reflection, which makes the programmer's job easier.

## State (computer science)

In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system.

## String (computer science)

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.

## String interpolation

In computer programming, string interpolation (or variable interpolation, variable substitution, or variable expansion) is the process of evaluating a string literal containing one or more placeholders, yielding a result in which the placeholders are replaced with their corresponding values.

## String literal

A string literal or anonymous string is a type of literal in programming for the representation of a string value within the source code of a computer program.

## String metric

In mathematics and computer science, a string metric (also known as a string similarity metric or string distance function) is a metric that measures distance ("inverse similarity") between two text strings for approximate string matching or comparison and in fuzzy string searching.

## String operations

In computer science, in the area of formal language theory, frequent use is made of a variety of string functions; however, the notation used is different from that used for computer programming, and some commonly used functions in the theoretical realm are rarely used when programming.

## String-searching algorithm

In computer science, string-searching algorithms, sometimes called string-matching algorithms, are an important class of string algorithms that try to find a place where one or several strings (also called patterns) are found within a larger string or text.

## Subset

In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

## Substring

A substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within a string.

## Succinct data structure

In computer science, a succinct data structure is a data structure which uses an amount of space that is "close" to the information-theoretic lower bound, but (unlike other compressed representations) still allows for efficient query operations.

## Suffix tree

In computer science, a suffix tree (also called PAT tree or, in an earlier form, position tree) is a compressed trie containing all the suffixes of the given text as their keys and positions in the text as their values.

## Symbol (formal)

A logical symbol is a fundamental concept in logic, tokens of which may be marks or a configuration of marks which form a particular pattern.

## Synchronization (computer science)

In computer science, synchronization refers to one of two distinct but related concepts: synchronization of processes, and synchronization of Data.

## Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

## Tcl

Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.

## Text editor

A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.

## Theoretical computer science

Theoretical computer science, or TCS, is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.

In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.

## Total order

In mathematics, a linear order, total order, simple order, or (non-strict) ordering is a binary relation on some set X, which is antisymmetric, transitive, and a connex relation.

## TTM (programming language)

TTM is a string oriented, general purpose macro processing programming language developed in 1968 by Steven Caine and E. Kent Gordon at the California Institute of Technology.

## Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

## Universal Coded Character Set

The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.

## Unix

Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

## UTF-32

UTF-32 stands for Unicode Transformation Format in 32 bits.

## UTF-8

UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.

## Variable (computer science)

In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.

## Well-founded relation

In mathematics, a binary relation, R, is called well-founded (or wellfounded) on a class X if every non-empty subset S ⊆ X has a minimal element with respect to R, that is an element m not related by sRm (for instance, "s is not smaller than m") for any s ∈ S. In other words, a relation is well founded if Some authors include an extra condition that R is set-like, i.e., that the elements less than any given element form a set.

## Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

## Word mark (computer hardware)

In computer hardware, a word mark or flag is a bit in each memory location on some variable word length computers (e.g., IBM 1401, 1410, 1620) used to mark the end of a word.

## X86

x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

## Zvi Galil

Zvi Galil (צבי גליל; born 1947) is an Israeli computer scientist and mathematician.

## ZX80

The Sinclair ZX80 is a home computer brought to market in 1980 by Science of Cambridge Ltd.

## .NET Framework

.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.

## 8-bit clean

8-bit clean describes a computer system that correctly handles 8-bit character encodings, such as the ISO 8859 series and the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode.

## References

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