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String theory

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In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. [1]

338 relations: AdS/CFT correspondence, Alain Connes, Alan Guth, Albert Einstein, Albert Schwarz, Alexander Markovich Polyakov, Algebraic geometry, Algebraic variety, Alternated octagonal tiling, André Neveu, Andrew Strominger, Anthropic principle, Anti-de Sitter space, Antiparticle, Antisymmetric tensor, Arne Meurman, Arthur Cayley, Ash heap of history, Ashoke Sen, Atom, Atomic nucleus, École normale supérieure (Paris), Đàm Thanh Sơn, Background independence, Bandwagon effect, Bernard Julia, Big Bang, Black hole, Black hole information paradox, Black hole thermodynamics, Boltzmann constant, Bootstrap model, Boson, Bosonic string theory, Brane, Brane cosmology, Brian Greene, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Calabi–Yau manifold, Category (mathematics), Charge (physics), Charles Thorn, Chirality (physics), Chris Hull, Classical physics, Classification of finite simple groups, Classification theorem, Claud Lovelace, Clay Mathematics Monographs, Clebsch surface, ..., Coherent sheaf, Color confinement, Columbia University, Compactification (physics), Complex algebraic variety, Composition series, Condensed matter physics, Constant (mathematics), Cosmic microwave background, Cosmological constant, Cross section (geometry), Cumrun Vafa, Curvature, Cylinder, D-brane, Daniel Friedan, Dark energy, Dark matter, David Gross, David Olive, Deconfinement, Degree of a polynomial, Derived category, Dihedral group, Dimension, Dirichlet boundary condition, E8 (mathematics), Edward Witten, Einstein field equations, Electric charge, Electromagnetic field, Elementary particle, Emil Martinec, Entropy, Enumerative geometry, Eric Zaslow, Euclidean geometry, Eugène Cremmer, Eugenio Calabi, Event horizon, Experimental physics, Extra dimensions, Extremal black hole, Ferdinando Gliozzi, Fermion, Feynman diagram, Field (physics), Fields Medal, Finite group, Five-dimensional space, Fourier series, Friction, Fukaya category, Fundamental interaction, Gabriele Veneziano, Galaxy, Gamma function, Gary Horowitz, Gas, Gauge theory, General relativity, Geoffrey Chew, George Salmon, Gerard 't Hooft, Gold, Gravitational anomaly, Gravitational collapse, Gravitational constant, Graviton, Gravity, Group (mathematics), Group theory, Gunnar Nordström, Hadron, Helium, Hermann Schubert, Heterotic string theory, Hierarchy problem, Hirosi Ooguri, History of string theory, Holger Bech Nielsen, Holographic principle, Homological mirror symmetry, Hydrogen, Hyperbolic geometry, Hyperbolic space, Igor Frenkel, Igor Klebanov, Inflation (cosmology), Inflaton, Information, Insulator (electricity), Ion, Irreducible representation, J-invariant, Jacob Bekenstein, James Lepowsky, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Jeffrey Goldstone, Joël Scherk, John G. Thompson, John Henry Schwarz, John Horton Conway, John McKay (mathematician), Joseph Polchinski, Juan Martín Maldacena, Kaluza–Klein theory, Keiji Kikkawa, Kelvin, Ken Ono, Lagrangian (field theory), Laser, Lead, Lee Smolin, Leonard Susskind, Liquid helium, List of Nobel laureates, Loop quantum gravity, Ludwig Boltzmann, Luis Álvarez-Gaumé, M-theory, Magnetic monopole, Mass, Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, Mathematical model, Mathematical theory, Mathieu group M24, Matrix (mathematics), Matrix theory (physics), Matter, Maxim Kontsevich, Meson, Metric tensor, Michael Duff (physicist), Michael Green (physicist), Michael R. Douglas, Michio Kaku, Miguel Ángel Virasoro (physicist), Minkowski space, Miranda Cheng, Mirror symmetry (string theory), Modular form, Molecule, Momentum, Monster group, Monstrous moonshine, Montonen–Olive duality, Multiverse, Murray Gell-Mann, N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory, Nathan Seiberg, Natural logarithm, Natural number, Neutron, Non-perturbative, Noncommutative geometry, Noncommutative quantum field theory, Noncommutative ring, Nordström's theory of gravitation, Normal subgroup, Nuclear force, Nuclear physics, Number theory, Orbifold, Order (group theory), Orders of magnitude (numbers), Orthogonal group, Oskar Klein, Outline of physics, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Paul Townsend, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Perturbation theory, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Peter Goddard (physicist), Peter Woit, Petr Hořava (theorist), Phase (matter), Phenomenology (particle physics), Philip Candelas, Physical constant, Physical cosmology, Physical system, Physics, Physics Today, Pierre Ramond, Planck constant, Planck length, Poincaré disk model, Point particle, Polynomial, Prime number, Principle of locality, Probability, Proton, Pure mathematics, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Quark–gluon plasma, Redshift, Regge theory, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Renormalization group, Representation theory, Richard Borcherds, Richard Feynman, Rigour, Roger Penrose, Ryan Rohm, S-duality, S-matrix, S-matrix theory, Schrödinger equation, Sergio Fubini, Shing-Tung Yau, Simon P. Norton, Simple group, Spacetime, Speed of light, Standard Model, Stanley Mandelstam, State of matter, Statistical mechanics, Stephen Hawking, Stephen Shenker, Steven Frautschi, Steven Gubser, Steven Weinberg, String (physics), String field theory, String phenomenology, String theory landscape, String vibration, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Subir Sachdev, Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Supergravity, Supermassive black hole, Superstring theory, Supersymmetry, Symmetry, Symmetry (physics), Symplectic geometry, Symplectic manifold, SYZ conjecture, T-duality, Tachyon, Tamiaki Yoneya, Temperature, Tessellation, The Elegant Universe, The Fabric of the Cosmos, The Road to Reality, The Trouble with Physics, Theodor Kaluza, Theoretical physics, Theory of everything, Thermodynamics, Tom Banks (physicist), Topological space, Trivial group, Type I string theory, Type II string theory, Umbral moonshine, Unitarity (physics), Universe, Vacuum solution, Vacuum state, Veneziano amplitude, Vibration, Virasoro algebra, Viscosity, Ward–Takahashi identity, Weak interaction, Werner Heisenberg, Werner Nahm, Willy Fischler, Winding number, Worldsheet, Yoichiro Nambu, Yuji Tachikawa. 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AdS/CFT correspondence

In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories.

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Alain Connes

Alain Connes (born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University.

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Alan Guth

Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Albert Schwarz

Albert Solomonovich Schwarz (А.; born June 24, 1934) is a mathematician and a theoretical physicist educated in the Soviet Union and now a professor at the University of California, Davis.

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Alexander Markovich Polyakov

Alexander Markovich Polyakov (Алекса́ндр Ма́ркович Поляко́в; born 27 September 1945) is a Russian theoretical physicist, formerly at the Landau Institute in Moscow and, since 1990, at Princeton University.

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Algebraic geometry

Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials.

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Algebraic variety

Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry.

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Alternated octagonal tiling

In geometry, the tritetragonal tiling or alternated octagonal tiling is a uniform tiling of the hyperbolic plane.

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André Neveu

André Neveu (born 28 August 1946) is a French physicist working on string theory and quantum field theory who coinvented the Neveu–Schwarz algebra and the Gross–Neveu model.

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Andrew Strominger

Andrew Eben Strominger (born 1955) is an American theoretical physicist who is the Director of Harvard's Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature.

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Anthropic principle

The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.

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Anti-de Sitter space

In mathematics and physics, n-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdSn) is a maximally symmetric Lorentzian manifold with constant negative scalar curvature.

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In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).

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Antisymmetric tensor

In mathematics and theoretical physics, a tensor is antisymmetric on (or with respect to) an index subset if it alternates sign (+/−) when any two indices of the subset are interchanged.

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Arne Meurman

Arne Meurman (born April 6, 1956) is a Swedish mathematician working on finite groups and vertex operator algebras.

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Arthur Cayley

Arthur Cayley F.R.S. (16 August 1821 – 26 January 1895) was a British mathematician.

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Ash heap of history

The phrase "ash heap of history" (or "dustbin of history") literarily speaking refers to ghost towns or artifacts that have lost their relevance.

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Ashoke Sen

Ashoke Sen, FRS (born 1956) is an Indian theoretical physicist and distinguished professor at the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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École normale supérieure (Paris)

The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Đàm Thanh Sơn

Đàm Thanh Sơn (born 1969 in Hanoi) is a Vietnamese theoretical physicist working in quantum chromodynamics, applications of string theory and many-body physics.

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Background independence

Background independence is a condition in theoretical physics, that requires the defining equations of a theory to be independent of the actual shape of the spacetime and the value of various fields within the spacetime.

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Bandwagon effect

The bandwagon effect is a phenomenon whereby the rate of uptake of beliefs, ideas, fads and trends increases the more that they have already been adopted by others.

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Bernard Julia

Bernard Julia (born 1952 in Paris) is a French theoretical physicist who has made contributions to the theory of supergravity.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Black hole information paradox

The black hole information paradox is a puzzle resulting from the combination of quantum mechanics and general relativity.

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Black hole thermodynamics

In physics, black hole thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons.

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Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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Bootstrap model

The term "bootstrap model" is used for a class of theories that use very general consistency criteria to determine the form of a quantum theory from some assumptions on the spectrum of particles.

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In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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Bosonic string theory

Bosonic string theory is the original version of string theory, developed in the late 1960s.

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In string theory and related theories such as supergravity theories, a brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions.

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Brane cosmology

Brane cosmology refers to several theories in particle physics and cosmology related to string theory, superstring theory and M-theory.

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Brian Greene

Brian Randolph Greene (born February 9, 1963) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician, and string theorist.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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Calabi–Yau manifold

In algebraic geometry, a Calabi–Yau manifold, also known as a Calabi–Yau space, is a particular type of manifold which has properties, such as Ricci flatness, yielding applications in theoretical physics.

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Category (mathematics)

In mathematics, a category (sometimes called an abstract category to distinguish it from a concrete category) is an algebraic structure similar to a group but without requiring inverse or closure properties.

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Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

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Charles Thorn

Charles Thorn (born 14 August 1946) is a Professor of Physics at University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida.

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Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

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Chris Hull

Christopher Michael Hull (born 1957) One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: is a professor of theoretical physics at Imperial College London.

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Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

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Classification of finite simple groups

In mathematics, the classification of the finite simple groups is a theorem stating that every finite simple group belongs to one of four broad classes described below.

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Classification theorem

In mathematics, a classification theorem answers the classification problem "What are the objects of a given type, up to some equivalence?".

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Claud Lovelace

Claud Lovelace (16 January 1934 – 7 September 2012) was a theoretical physicist noted for his contributions to string theory, specifically, the idea that strings did not have to be restricted to the four dimensions of spacetime.

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Clay Mathematics Monographs

Clay Mathematics Monographs is a series of expositions in mathematics co-published by AMS and Clay Mathematics Institute.

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Clebsch surface

In mathematics, the Clebsch diagonal cubic surface, or Klein's icosahedral cubic surface, is a non-singular cubic surface, studied by and, all of whose 27 exceptional lines can be defined over the real numbers.

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Coherent sheaf

In mathematics, especially in algebraic geometry and the theory of complex manifolds, coherent sheaves are a class of sheaves closely linked to the geometric properties of the underlying space.

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Color confinement

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Compactification (physics)

In physics, compactification means changing a theory with respect to one of its space-time dimensions.

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Complex algebraic variety

In algebraic geometry, a complex algebraic variety is an algebraic variety (in the scheme sense or otherwise) over the field of complex numbers.

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Composition series

In abstract algebra, a composition series provides a way to break up an algebraic structure, such as a group or a module, into simple pieces.

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Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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Constant (mathematics)

In mathematics, the adjective constant means non-varying.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Cosmological constant

In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.

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Cross section (geometry)

In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.

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Cumrun Vafa

Cumrun Vafa (کامران وفا; born 1960) is an Iranian-American string theorist from Harvard University, which he first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow.

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In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

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A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

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In string theory, D-branes are a class of extended objects upon which open strings can end with Dirichlet boundary conditions, after which they are named.

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Daniel Friedan

Daniel Harry Friedan (born October 3, 1948) is an American theoretical physicist and one of three children of the feminist author and activist Betty Friedan.

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Dark energy

In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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David Gross

David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941) is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist.

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David Olive

David Ian Olive CBE FRS FLSW (16 April 1937 – 7 November 2012) was a British theoretical physicist. Olive made fundamental contributions to string theory and duality theory, he is particularly known for his work on the GSO projection and Montonen–Olive duality. He was Professor of physics at Imperial College, London from 1984 to 1992. In 1992 he moved to Swansea University to help set up the new theoretical physics group. He was awarded the Dirac Prize and Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1997. He was a Founding Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. He was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society in 1987, and appointed CBE in 2002.

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In physics, deconfinement (in contrast to confinement) is the property of a phase in which certain particles are allowed to exist as free excitations, rather than only within bound states.

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Degree of a polynomial

The degree of a polynomial is the highest degree of its monomials (individual terms) with non-zero coefficients.

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Derived category

In mathematics, the derived category D(A) of an abelian category A is a construction of homological algebra introduced to refine and in a certain sense to simplify the theory of derived functors defined on A. The construction proceeds on the basis that the objects of D(A) should be chain complexes in A, with two such chain complexes considered isomorphic when there is a chain map that induces an isomorphism on the level of homology of the chain complexes.

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Dihedral group

In mathematics, a dihedral group is the group of symmetries of a regular polygon, which includes rotations and reflections.

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In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

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Dirichlet boundary condition

In mathematics, the Dirichlet (or first-type) boundary condition is a type of boundary condition, named after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859).

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E8 (mathematics)

In mathematics, E8 is any of several closely related exceptional simple Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or Lie algebras of dimension 248; the same notation is used for the corresponding root lattice, which has rank 8.

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Edward Witten

Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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Emil Martinec

Emil John Martinec (born 1958) is an American string theorist, a physics professor at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago, and director of the Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics.

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In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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Enumerative geometry

In mathematics, enumerative geometry is the branch of algebraic geometry concerned with counting numbers of solutions to geometric questions, mainly by means of intersection theory.

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Eric Zaslow

Eric Zaslow is an American mathematical physicist at Northwestern University.

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Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

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Eugène Cremmer

Eugène Cremmer (born 7 February 1942 in Paris) is a French theoretical physicist.

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Eugenio Calabi

Eugenio Calabi (born 11 May 1923 in Milan, Italy) is an Italian-born American mathematician and professor emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania, specializing in differential geometry, partial differential equations and their applications.

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Event horizon

In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.

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Experimental physics

Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments.

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Extra dimensions

In physics, extra dimensions are proposed additional space or time dimensions beyond the (3 + 1) typical of observed spacetime, such as the first attempts based on the Kaluza–Klein theory.

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Extremal black hole

In theoretical physics, an extremal black hole is a black hole with the minimal possible mass that can be compatible with a given charge and angular momentum.

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Ferdinando Gliozzi

Ferdinando Gliozzi (born 1940) is a string theorist at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

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In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

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Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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Finite group

In abstract algebra, a finite group is a mathematical group with a finite number of elements.

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Five-dimensional space

A five-dimensional space is a space with five dimensions.

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Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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Fukaya category

In symplectic topology, a discipline within mathematics, a Fukaya category of a symplectic manifold (M, \omega) is a category \mathcal F (M) whose objects are Lagrangian submanifolds of M, and morphisms are Floer chain groups: \mathrm (L_0, L_1).

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Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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Gabriele Veneziano

Gabriele Veneziano (born 7 September 1942) is an Italian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of string theory.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Gamma function

In mathematics, the gamma function (represented by, the capital Greek alphabet letter gamma) is an extension of the factorial function, with its argument shifted down by 1, to real and complex numbers.

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Gary Horowitz

Gary T. Horowitz (born April 14, 1955 in Washington, D.C.) is an American theoretical physicist who works on string theory and quantum gravity.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Geoffrey Chew

Geoffrey Foucar Chew (born June 5, 1924) is an American theoretical physicist.

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George Salmon

Rev Prof George Salmon DD FBA FRS FRSE LLD (25 September 1819 – 22 January 1904) was a distinguished and influential Irish mathematician and Anglican theologian.

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Gerard 't Hooft

Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gravitational anomaly

In theoretical physics, a gravitational anomaly is an example of a gauge anomaly: it is an effect of quantum mechanics–usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the general covariance of a theory of general relativity combined with some other fields.

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Gravitational collapse

Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.

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Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

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In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

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Group theory

In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.

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Gunnar Nordström

Gunnar Nordström (12 March 1881 – 24 December 1923) was a Finnish theoretical physicist best remembered for his theory of gravitation, which was an early competitor of general relativity.

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In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hermann Schubert

__notoc__ Hermann Cäsar Hannibal Schubert (22 May 1848 – 20 July 1911) was a German mathematician.

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Heterotic string theory

In string theory, a heterotic string is a closed string (or loop) which is a hybrid ('heterotic') of a superstring and a bosonic string.

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Hierarchy problem

In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity.

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Hirosi Ooguri

is a theoretical physicist at California Institute of Technology.

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History of string theory

The history of string theory spans several decades of intense research including two superstring revolutions.

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Holger Bech Nielsen

Holger Bech Nielsen (born 25 August 1941, Copenhagen) is a Danish theoretical physicist, Professor emeritus at the Niels Bohr Institute, at the University of Copenhagen, where he started studying physics in 1961.

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Holographic principle

The holographic principle is a principle of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon.

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Homological mirror symmetry

Homological mirror symmetry is a mathematical conjecture made by Maxim Kontsevich.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hyperbolic geometry

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry (also called Bolyai–Lobachevskian geometry or Lobachevskian geometry) is a non-Euclidean geometry.

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Hyperbolic space

In mathematics, hyperbolic space is a homogeneous space that has a constant negative curvature, where in this case the curvature is the sectional curvature.

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Igor Frenkel

Igor Borisovich Frenkel (Игорь Борисович Френкель; born April 22, 1952) is a Russian-American mathematician at Yale University working in representation theory and mathematical physics.

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Igor Klebanov

Igor Romanovich Klebanov (И́горь Романович Клеба́нов; 29 March 1962) is a theoretical physicist whose research is centered on relations between string theory and quantum gauge field theory.

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Inflation (cosmology)

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe.

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The inflaton field is a hypothetical scalar field that is theorized to drive cosmic inflation in the very early universe.

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Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Irreducible representation

In mathematics, specifically in the representation theory of groups and algebras, an irreducible representation (\rho, V) or irrep of an algebraic structure A is a nonzero representation that has no proper subrepresentation (\rho|_W,W), W \subset V closed under the action of \. Every finite-dimensional unitary representation on a Hermitian vector space V is the direct sum of irreducible representations.

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In mathematics, Felix Klein's j-invariant or j function, regarded as a function of a complex variable τ, is a modular function of weight zero for defined on the upper half-plane of complex numbers.

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Jacob Bekenstein

Jacob David Bekenstein (יעקב בקנשטיין; May 1, 1947 – August 16, 2015) was a Mexican-born Israeli-American theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation.

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James Lepowsky

James "Jim" Lepowsky (born July 5, 1944 in New York City) is a professor of mathematics at Rutgers University, New Jersey.

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Jeffrey A. Harvey

Jeffrey A. Harvey (born February 15, 1955 in San Antonio, Texas) an American string theorist at the University of Chicago.

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Jeffrey Goldstone

Jeffrey Goldstone (born 3 September 1933) is a British theoretical physicist and an emeritus physics faculty member at the MIT Center for Theoretical Physics.

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Joël Scherk

Joël Scherk (1946 – 16 May 1980), often cited as Joel Scherk, was a French theoretical physicist who studied string theory and supergravity.

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John G. Thompson

John Griggs Thompson (born October 13, 1932) is a mathematician at the University of Florida noted for his work in the field of finite groups.

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John Henry Schwarz

John Henry Schwarz (born November 22, 1941) is an American theoretical physicist.

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John Horton Conway

John Horton Conway FRS (born 26 December 1937) is an English mathematician active in the theory of finite groups, knot theory, number theory, combinatorial game theory and coding theory.

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John McKay (mathematician)

John McKay (born 16 June 1939, Kent) is a dual British/Canadian citizen, a mathematician at Concordia University, known for his discovery of monstrous moonshine, his joint construction of some sporadic simple groups, for the McKay (McKay-Alperin) conjecture in representation theory, and for the McKay correspondence relating certain finite groups to Lie groups.

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Joseph Polchinski

Joseph Gerard Polchinski Jr. (May 16, 1954 – February 2, 2018) was an American theoretical physicist and string theorist.

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Juan Martín Maldacena

Juan Martín Maldacena (September 10, 1968 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a theoretical physicist.

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Kaluza–Klein theory

In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time and considered an important precursor to string theory.

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Keiji Kikkawa

was a Japanese theoretical physicist.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Ken Ono

Ken Ono (born 20 March 1968) is a Japanese-American mathematician who specializes in number theory, especially in integer partitions, modular forms, Umbral moonshine, and the fields of interest to Srinivasa Ramanujan.

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Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lee Smolin

Lee Smolin (born June 6, 1955) is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto.

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Leonard Susskind

Leonard Susskind (born 1940)his 60th birthday was celebrated with a special symposium at Stanford University.

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Liquid helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).

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List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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Loop quantum gravity

Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.

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Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).

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Luis Álvarez-Gaumé

Luis Álvarez-Gaumé is a Spanish theoretical physicist who works on string theory and quantum gravity.

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M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.

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Magnetic monopole

A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).

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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics

The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are those mathematical formalisms that permit a rigorous description of quantum mechanics.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Mathematical theory

A mathematical theory is a subfield of mathematics that is an area of mathematical research.

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Mathieu group M24

In the area of modern algebra known as group theory, the Mathieu group M24 is a sporadic simple group of order.

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Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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Matrix theory (physics)

In theoretical physics, the BFSS matrix model or matrix theory is a quantum mechanical model proposed by Tom Banks, Willy Fischler, Stephen Shenker, and Leonard Susskind in 1997.

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In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Maxim Kontsevich

Maxim Lvovich Kontsevich (Макси́м Льво́вич Конце́вич;; born 25 August 1964) is a Russian and French mathematician.

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In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.

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Metric tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.

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Michael Duff (physicist)

Michael James Duff FRS, FRSA is a British theoretical physicist and pioneering theorist of supergravity who is the Principal of the Faculty of Physical Sciences and Abdus Salam Chair of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London.

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Michael Green (physicist)

Michael Boris Green (born 22 May 1946) is a British physicist and one of the pioneers of string theory.

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Michael R. Douglas

Michael R. Douglas (born November 19, 1961) is an American theoretical physicist and professor at Stony Brook University.

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Michio Kaku

Michio Kaku (born 24 January 1947) is an American theoretical physicist, futurist, and popularizer of science.

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Miguel Ángel Virasoro (physicist)

Miguel Ángel Virasoro (born 1940 in Argentina) is an Argentine physicist who has done most of his work in Italy.

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Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

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Miranda Cheng

Miranda Chih-Ning Cheng (Chinese: 程之寧; born 6 June 1979, Taipei) is a Taiwanese-born and Dutch-educated mathematician and theoretical physicist who works as an assistant professor at the University of Amsterdam.

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Mirror symmetry (string theory)

In algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, mirror symmetry is a relationship between geometric objects called Calabi–Yau manifolds.

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Modular form

In mathematics, a modular form is a (complex) analytic function on the upper half-plane satisfying a certain kind of functional equation with respect to the group action of the modular group, and also satisfying a growth condition.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Monster group

In the area of modern algebra known as group theory, the Monster group M (also known as the Fischer–Griess Monster, or the Friendly Giant) is the largest sporadic simple group, having order The finite simple groups have been completely classified.

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Monstrous moonshine

In mathematics, monstrous moonshine, or moonshine theory, is the unexpected connection between the monster group M and modular functions, in particular, the ''j'' function.

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Montonen–Olive duality

Montonen–Olive duality or electric-magnetic duality is the oldest known example of strong-weak duality or S-duality according to current terminology.

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The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.

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Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

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N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory


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Nathan Seiberg

Nathan "Nati" Seiberg (born September 22, 1956) is an Israeli American theoretical physicist who works on string theory.

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Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.

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Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").

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| magnetic_moment.

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In mathematics and physics, a non-perturbative function or process is one that cannot be accurately described by perturbation theory.

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Noncommutative geometry

Noncommutative geometry (NCG) is a branch of mathematics concerned with a geometric approach to noncommutative algebras, and with the construction of spaces that are locally presented by noncommutative algebras of functions (possibly in some generalized sense).

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Noncommutative quantum field theory

In mathematical physics, noncommutative quantum field theory (or quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetime) is an application of noncommutative mathematics to the spacetime of quantum field theory that is an outgrowth of noncommutative geometry and index theory in which the coordinate functions are noncommutative.

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Noncommutative ring

In mathematics, more specifically abstract algebra and ring theory, a noncommutative ring is a ring whose multiplication is not commutative; that is, there exists a and b in R with a·b ≠ b·a.

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Nordström's theory of gravitation

In theoretical physics, Nordström's theory of gravitation was a predecessor of general relativity.

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Normal subgroup

In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup is a subgroup which is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part.

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Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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Number theory

Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

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In the mathematical disciplines of topology, geometry, and geometric group theory, an orbifold (for "orbit-manifold") is a generalization of a manifold.

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Order (group theory)

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, the term order is used in two unrelated senses.

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Orders of magnitude (numbers)

This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.

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Orthogonal group

In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension, denoted, is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations.

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Oskar Klein

Oskar Benjamin Klein (15 September 1894 – 5 February 1977) was a Swedish theoretical physicist.

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Outline of physics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physics: Physics – natural science that involves the study of matterRichard Feynman begins his ''Lectures'' with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is...

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In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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Paul Townsend

Paul Kingsley Townsend FRS is a British physicist, currently a Professor of Theoretical Physics in Cambridge University's Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

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Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (PI, Perimeter, PITP) is an independent research centre in foundational theoretical physics located in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

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Perturbation theory

Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.

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Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

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Peter Goddard (physicist)

Peter Goddard CBE FRS (born 3 September 1945) is a mathematical physicist who works in string theory and conformal field theory.

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Peter Woit

Peter Woit (born September 11, 1957) is an American theoretical physicist.

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Petr Hořava (theorist)

Petr Hořava is a Czech string theorist.

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Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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Phenomenology (particle physics)

Particle physics phenomenology is the part of theoretical particle physics that deals with the application of theoretical physics to high-energy experiments.

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Philip Candelas

Philip Candelas, (born 24 October 1951, London, UK) is a British physicist and mathematician.

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Physical constant

A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.

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Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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Physical system

In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physics Today

Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.

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Pierre Ramond

Pierre Ramond (born 31 January 1943) is distinguished professor of physics at University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Planck length

In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.

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Poincaré disk model

In geometry, the Poincaré disk model, also called the conformal disk model, is a model of 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry in which the points of the geometry are inside the unit disk, and the straight lines consist of all segments of circles contained within that disk that are orthogonal to the boundary of the disk, plus all diameters of the disk.

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Point particle

A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.

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In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.

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Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

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Principle of locality

In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Pure mathematics

Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is mathematics that studies entirely abstract concepts.

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Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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Quark–gluon plasma

A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.

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In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.

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Regge theory

In quantum physics, Regge theory is the study of the analytic properties of scattering as a function of angular momentum, where the angular momentum is not restricted to be an integer multiple of ħ but is allowed to take any complex value.

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Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.

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Renormalization group

In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different scales.

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Representation theory

Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.

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Richard Borcherds

Richard Ewen Borcherds (born 29 November 1959) is a British-American mathematician currently working in quantum field theory.

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Rigour (British English) or rigor (American English; see spelling differences) describes a condition of stiffness or strictness.

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Roger Penrose

Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.

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Ryan Rohm

Ryan Milton Rohm (born 22 December 1957, Gastonia, North Carolina) is an American string theorist.

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In theoretical physics, S-duality is an equivalence of two physical theories, which may be either quantum field theories or string theories.

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In physics, the S-matrix or scattering matrix relates the initial state and the final state of a physical system undergoing a scattering process.

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S-matrix theory

S-matrix theory was a proposal for replacing local quantum field theory as the basic principle of elementary particle physics.

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Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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Sergio Fubini

Sergio Fubini (December 31, 1928 – January 6, 2005) was an Italian theoretical physicist.

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Shing-Tung Yau

Shing-Tung Yau (born April 4, 1949) is a chinese and naturalized American mathematician.

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Simon P. Norton

Simon Phillips Norton (born 28 February 1952) is a mathematician in Cambridge, England, who works on finite simple groups.

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Simple group

In mathematics, a simple group is a nontrivial group whose only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself.

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In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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Stanley Mandelstam

Stanley Mandelstam (12 December 1928 – 23 June 2016) was a South Africa-born American theoretical physicist of Jewish ancestry.

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State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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Stephen Shenker

Stephen Hart Shenker (born 1953) is an American theoretical physicist who works on string theory.

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Steven Frautschi

Steven C. Frautschi (born December 6, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist, currently professor of physics emeritus at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

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Steven Gubser

Steven Scott Gubser (born 4 May 1972) is a professor of physics at Princeton University.

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Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

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String (physics)

In physics, a string is a physical phenomenon that appears in string theory and related subjects.

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String field theory

String field theory (SFT) is a formalism in string theory in which the dynamics of relativistic strings is reformulated in the language of quantum field theory.

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String phenomenology

String phenomenology is a branch of theoretical physics that attempts to construct realistic or semi-realistic models of particle physics based on string theory.

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String theory landscape

The string theory landscape refers to the collection of possible false vacua in string theory,The number of metastable vacua is not known exactly, but commonly quoted estimates are of the order 10500.

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String vibration

A vibration in a string is a wave.

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Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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Subatomic particle

In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

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Subir Sachdev

Subir Sachdev is Herchel Smith Professor of Physics at Harvard University specializing in condensed matter.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

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In theoretical physics, supergravity (supergravity theory; SUGRA for short) is a modern field theory that combines the principles of supersymmetry and general relativity where supersymmetry obeys locality; in contrast to non-gravitational supersymmetric theories such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

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Supermassive black hole

A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses, and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.

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Superstring theory

Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.

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In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.

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Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.

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Symplectic geometry

Symplectic geometry is a branch of differential geometry and differential topology that studies symplectic manifolds; that is, differentiable manifolds equipped with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form.

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Symplectic manifold

In mathematics, a symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold, M, equipped with a closed nondegenerate differential 2-form, ω, called the symplectic form.

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SYZ conjecture

The SYZ conjecture is an attempt to understand the mirror symmetry conjecture, an issue in theoretical physics and mathematics.

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In theoretical physics, T-duality is an equivalence of two physical theories, which may be either quantum field theories or string theories.

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A tachyon or tachyonic particle is a hypothetical particle that always moves faster than light.

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Tamiaki Yoneya

(born 1947) is a Japanese physicist.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.

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The Elegant Universe

The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory is a book by Brian Greene published in 1999, which introduces string and superstring theory, and provides a comprehensive though non-technical assessment of the theory and some of its shortcomings.

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The Fabric of the Cosmos

The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality (2004) is the second book on theoretical physics, cosmology, and string theory written by Brian Greene, professor and co-director of Columbia's Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP).

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The Road to Reality

The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe is a book on modern physics by the British mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, published in 2004.

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The Trouble with Physics

The Trouble with Physics: The Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next is a 2006 book by the theoretical physicist Lee Smolin about the problems with string theory.

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Theodor Kaluza

Theodor Franz Eduard Kaluza (9 November 1885, Wilhelmsthal, Silesia, German Empire, today part of Opole in Poland – 19 January 1954, Göttingen) was a German mathematician and physicist known for the Kaluza–Klein theory involving field equations in five-dimensional space.

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Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Tom Banks (physicist)

Thomas "Tom" Banks (born April 19, 1949 in New York City) is a theoretical physicist at University of California, Santa Cruz and a professor at Rutgers University.

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Topological space

In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space may be defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods.

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Trivial group

In mathematics, a trivial group is a group consisting of a single element.

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Type I string theory

In theoretical physics, type I string theory is one of five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions.

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Type II string theory

In theoretical physics, type II string theory is a unified term that includes both type IIA strings and type IIB strings theories.

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Umbral moonshine

In mathematics, umbral moonshine is a mysterious connection between Niemeier lattices and Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

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Unitarity (physics)

In quantum physics, unitarity is a restriction on the allowed evolution of quantum systems that ensures the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes of any event always equals 1.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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Vacuum solution

A vacuum solution is a solution of a field equation in which the sources of the field are taken to be identically zero.

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Vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

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Veneziano amplitude

In theoretical physics, the Veneziano amplitude refers to the discovery made in 1968 by Italian theoretical physicist Gabriele Veneziano that the Euler beta function, when interpreted as a scattering amplitude, has many of the features needed to explain the physical properties of strongly interacting mesons, such as symmetry and duality.

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Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

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Virasoro algebra

In mathematics, the Virasoro algebra (named after the physicist Miguel Angel Virasoro) is a complex Lie algebra, the unique central extension of the Witt algebra.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Ward–Takahashi identity

In quantum field theory, a Ward–Takahashi identity is an identity between correlation functions that follows from the global or gauge symmetries of the theory, and which remains valid after renormalization.

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Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Werner Nahm

Werner Nahm (born 21 March 1949) is a German theoretical physicist, with the status of professor.

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Willy Fischler

Willy Fischler (born 1949 in Antwerpen, Belgium) is a theoretical physicist.

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Winding number

In mathematics, the winding number of a closed curve in the plane around a given point is an integer representing the total number of times that curve travels counterclockwise around the point.

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In string theory, a worldsheet is a two-dimensional manifold which describes the embedding of a string in spacetime.

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Yoichiro Nambu

was a Japanese-American physicist and professor at the University of Chicago.

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Yuji Tachikawa

Yuji Tachikawa (立川 祐路, Tachikawa Yūji, born July 5, 1975 in Kanagawa, Japan), is a Japanese racing driver.

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2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_theory

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