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Index Stroke

A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. [1]

359 relations: Activities of daily living, Acute coronary syndrome, Adenosine triphosphate, Agraphia, Air pollution, Alteplase, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Academy of Neurology, American Heart Association, Anaerobic respiration, Anatomical terms of location, Anemia, Aneurysm, Angiography, Angioplasty, Anosognosia, Anticoagulant, Antidepressant, Antioxidant, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Antiplatelet drug, Anxiety, Aortic dissection, Aortic valve, Apathy, Aphasia, Apoplexy, Apoptosis, Apraxia, Apraxia of speech, Arachnoid mater, Arterial embolism, Arteriovenous fistula, Arteriovenous malformation, Artery, Artificial heart valve, Ascending aorta, Aspiration pneumonia, Aspirin, Assistive technology, Atherosclerosis, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Atrial septal defect, Aura (symptom), Autopsy, Bacteria, Balance disorder, Barthel scale, Basilar artery, ..., Beta blocker, Bleeding, Bleeding diathesis, Blood cell, Blood test, Blood type, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Bone fracture, Bone marrow, Brain, Brain ischemia, Brainstem, Brainstem stroke syndrome, Broca's area, Cancer, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac myxoma, Cardiac output, Carotid artery, Carotid artery dissection, Carotid artery stenosis, Carotid endarterectomy, Cavernous hemangioma, Cell death, Cellular respiration, Central facial palsy, Cerebellum, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Cerebral angiography, Cerebral arteriovenous malformation, Cerebral circulation, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral edema, Cerebral infarction, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Cerebrolysin, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cerebrovascular disease, CHA2DS2–VASc score, Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale, Circle of Willis, Clinical pharmacy, Clinical trial, Clopidogrel, Coagulation, Cocaine, Coeliac disease, Coma, Common carotid artery, Comorbidity, Computed tomography angiography, Connective tissue, Constraint-induced movement therapy, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis, Corticospinal tract, Cranial nerves, Cranial vault, Craniotomy, CT scan, Dabigatran, Danaparoid, Death, Deep vein thrombosis, Dejerine–Roussy syndrome, Dementia, Department of Health and Social Care, Developed country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Dipyridamole, Disease, Disufenton sodium, Dizziness, Doppler ultrasonography, Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway, Dura mater, Dysarthria, Dyslexia, Dysphagia, Echocardiography, Ejection fraction, Electrocardiography, Embolic stroke of undetermined source, Embolism, Embolus, Emergency department, Emotional lability, Endocarditis, Endothelium, Epidural hematoma, Epileptic seizure, Exercise, Exponential growth, Expressive aphasia, Extraocular muscles, FAST (stroke), Fat embolism, Fibromuscular dysplasia, Flaccid paralysis, Folate, Functional Independence Measure, Gait abnormality, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Giant-cell arteritis, Glial scar, Greek language, Haemophilia, Head injury, Headache, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Hemiparesis, Hemispatial neglect, High-energy phosphate, Hippocrates, Holter monitor, Homocysteine, Homocystinuria, Homonymous hemianopsia, Hyaluronic acid, Hyperbaric medicine, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperreflexia, Hypersexuality, Hypertension, Hypoglycemia, Hypoxia (medical), Idiopathic disease, Induced coma, Infarction, Infective endocarditis, Internal carotid artery, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracranial aneurysm, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intracranial pressure, Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, Intraventricular hemorrhage, Ischemia, Ischemic cascade, Johann Jakob Wepfer, Lactic acid, Lacunar stroke, Lesion, Libman–Sacks endocarditis, Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing, Lipid-lowering agent, Lipohyalinosis, Lipoprotein(a), Long-term effects of alcohol consumption, Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen (LAPSS), Luxol fast blue stain, Magnetic resonance angiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain, Medical history, Medical imaging, Medical ultrasound, Mediterranean diet, Meninges, Menopause, Methamphetamine, Micrograph, Migraine, Mirror box, Mitochondrion, Mitral valve, Mitral valve stenosis, Mortality rate, Motor coordination, Motor learning, Motor speech disorders, Moyamoya disease, Myocardial infarction, Nasogastric intubation, National Health Service, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, National Stroke Association, Necrosis, Neural pathway, Neurology, Neuroprotection, Neurosurgery, Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, Number needed to treat, Nursing, Nystagmus, Obesity, Occupational therapist, Occupational therapy, Orthotics, Pain, Panic attack, Papillary fibroelastoma, Paradoxical embolism, Paralysis, Parietal lobe, Partial anterior circulation infarct, Penumbra (medicine), Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Pericardial effusion, Persistent vegetative state, Physical examination, Physical therapy, Pia mater, Platelet, Pneumonia, Post-stroke depression, Posterior circulation infarct, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Pre-eclampsia, Pressure ulcer, Preventive healthcare, Prothrombin time, Psychologist, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Ptosis (eyelid), Public health, Pulmonary embolism, Radical (chemistry), Randomized controlled trial, Reactive oxygen species, Receptive aphasia, Recreational drug use, Red meat, Reduced affect display, Rehabilitation robotics, Rheumatic fever, Risk factor, Rudolf Virchow, Screening (medicine), Self-esteem, Sensitivity and specificity, Shock (circulatory), Sick sinus syndrome, Sickle cell disease, Silent stroke, Skin, Sleep disorder, Social work, Southeastern United States, Spasticity, Speech-language pathology, Spinal cord, Spinothalamic tract, Standard of care, Statin, Stent, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Stimulant, Stroke, Stroke Association, Stroke Belt, Stroke recovery, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subdural hematoma, Subdural space, Systolic hypertension, Takayasu's arteritis, Temporal lobe, Thienopyridine, Thrombectomy, Thrombocythemia, Thrombolysis, Thrombosis, Thrombus, Thunderclap headache, Ticlopidine, Tissue plasminogen activator, Tobacco smoking, Total anterior circulation infarct, Transcranial direct-current stimulation, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Transient ischemic attack, U.S. state, Ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis, Unconsciousness, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Uric acid, Urinary incontinence, Vasculitis, Vasoconstriction, Venous thrombosis, Ventricular septal defect, Ventricular system, Vertebral artery, Vertebral artery dissection, Vertebral column, Vertigo, Virtual reality, Visual field, Visual impairment, Vital signs, Von Willebrand factor, Warfarin, Watershed stroke, Weber's syndrome, Wernicke's area, Wheelchair, World Health Organization. Expand index (309 more) »

Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Agraphia is an acquired neurological disorder causing a loss in the ability to communicate through writing, either due to some form of motor dysfunction or an inability to spell.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Alteplase (trade names Activase, Actilyse) is a thrombolytic drug, used to treat acute myocardial infarctions (heart attacks) and other severe conditions caused by blood clotting by breaking up the blood clots that cause them.

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American Academy of Emergency Medicine

The American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) is a nonprofit professional medical association of emergency medicine physicians.

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American Academy of Neurology

The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is a professional society representing over 34,000 neurologists and neuroscientists.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.

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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.

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Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

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Anosognosia (from Ancient Greek ἀ- a-, "without", νόσος nosos, "disease" and γνῶσις gnōsis, "knowledge") is a deficit of self-awareness, a condition in which a person with some disability seems unaware of its existence.

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Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering reduction–oxidation (redox) signaling and antioxidant research.

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Antiplatelet drug

An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.

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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.

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Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.

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Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.

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Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex) in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.

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Apraxia of speech

Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired oral motor speech disorder affecting an individual's ability to translate conscious speech plans into motor plans, which results in limited and difficult speech ability.

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Arachnoid mater

The arachnoid mater is one of the three meninges, the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Arterial embolism

Arterial embolism is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to an embolus adhering to the wall of an artery blocking the flow of blood, the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism).

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Arteriovenous fistula

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.

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Arteriovenous malformation

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Artificial heart valve

An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease.

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Ascending aorta

The ascending aorta (AAo) is a portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum.

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Aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Assistive technology

Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities while also including the process used in selecting, locating, and using them.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common abnormal heart rhythm that starts in the atrial chambers of the heart.

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Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.

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Aura (symptom)

An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Balance disorder

A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking.

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Barthel scale

The Barthel scale or Barthel ADL index is an ordinal scale used to measure performance in activities of daily living (ADL).

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Basilar artery

In human anatomy, the basilar artery is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Bleeding diathesis

In medicine (hematology), bleeding diathesis (h(a)emorrhagic diathesis) is an unusual susceptibility to bleed (hemorrhage) mostly due to hypocoagulability, in turn caused by a coagulopathy (a defect in the system of coagulation).

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Blood cell

A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood type

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Bone fracture

A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain ischemia

Brain ischemia (a.k.a. cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular ischemia) is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Brainstem stroke syndrome

A brainstem stroke syndrome is a condition involving a stroke of the brainstem.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Cardiac myxoma

An atrial myxoma is a benign tumor of the heart, most commonly found within the left and then the right atria on the interatrial septum.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Carotid artery

Carotid artery may refer to.

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Carotid artery dissection

Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain and is the most common cause of stroke in young adults.

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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of any part of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis.

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Carotid endarterectomy

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure used to reduce the risk of stroke by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery.

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Cavernous hemangioma

Cavernous hemangioma, also called cavernous angioma, cavernoma, or cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) (when referring to presence in the brain) is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a benign tumor.

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Cell death

Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Central facial palsy

Central facial palsy (colloquially referred to as central seven) is a symptom or finding characterized by paralysis or paresis of the lower half of one side of the face.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), also known as congophilic angiopathy, is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid deposits form in the walls of the blood vessels of the central nervous system.

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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is a form of angiography which provides images of blood vessels in and around the brain, thereby allowing detection of abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms.

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Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, cAVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain—specifically, an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebrum.

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Cerebral circulation

Cerebral circulation is the movement of blood through the network of cerebral arteries and veins supplying the brain.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.

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Cerebral infarction

A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the brain.

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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain.

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Cerebrolysin (developmental code name FPF-1070) is a mixture of peptides purified from pig brains, including (and not limited to) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF).

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.

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CHA2DS2–VASc score

The CHADS2 score and its updated version, the CHA2DS2-VASc score, are clinical prediction rules for estimating the risk of stroke in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation (AF), a common and serious heart arrhythmia associated with thromboembolic stroke.

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Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale

The Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (abbreviated CPSS) is a system used to diagnose a potential stroke in a pre-hospital setting.

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Circle of Willis

The circle of Willis (also called Willis' circle, loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis polygon) is a circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures.

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Clinical pharmacy

Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which doctor of pharmacy provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Clopidogrel, sold as the brandname Plavix among others, is an antiplatelet medication that is used to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in those at high risk.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Common carotid artery

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Computed tomography angiography

Computed tomography angiography (also called CT angiography or CTA) is a computed tomography technique used to visualize arterial and venous vessels throughout the body.

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Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.

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Constraint-induced movement therapy

Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI, CIT, or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis

Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis, also known as cortical laminar necrosis and simply laminar necrosis, is the (uncontrolled) death of cells in the (cerebral) cortex of the brain in a band-like pattern, with a relative preservation of cells immediately adjacent to the meninges.

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Corticospinal tract

The corticospinal tract is a white matter motor pathway starting at the cerebral cortex that terminates on lower motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord, controlling movements of the limbs and trunk.

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Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).

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Cranial vault

The cranial vault is the space in the skull within the neurocranium, occupied by the brain.

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A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Dabigatran, sold under the brand name Pradaxa among others, is an anticoagulant medication which can be taken by mouth.

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Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran) is an anticoagulant with an antithrombotic action due to inhibition of thrombin generation (TGI) by two mechanisms: indirect inactivation of Factor Xa via AT and direct inhibition of thrombin activation of Factor IX (an important feedback loop for thrombin generation).

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.

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Dejerine–Roussy syndrome

Dejerine–Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome is a condition developed after a thalamic stroke, a stroke causing damage to the thalamus.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Department of Health and Social Care

The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) is a department of Her Majesty's Government, responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.

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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood effectively.

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Dipyridamole (trademarked as Persantine and others) is a medication that inhibits blood clot formation when given chronically and causes blood vessel dilation when given at high doses over a short time.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Disufenton sodium

Disufenton sodium (NXY-059, Cerovive) is the disulfonyl derivative of the neuroprotective spin trap phenylbutylnitrone or "PBN".

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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Doppler ultrasonography

Doppler ultrasonography is medical ultrasonography that employs the Doppler effect to generate imaging of the movement of tissues and body fluids (usually blood), and their relative velocity to the probe.

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Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway

The dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway (DCML) (also known as the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (PCML)) is a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys sensations of fine touch, vibration, two-point discrimination, and proprioception (position) from the skin and joints.

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Dura mater

Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

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Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.

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Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Ejection fraction

An ejection fraction (EF) is the volumetric fraction of fluid (usually blood) ejected from a chamber (usually the heart) with each contraction (or heartbeat).

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Embolic stroke of undetermined source

Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) is a type of ischemic stroke with an unknown origin, defined as a non-lacunar brain infarct without proximal arterial stenosis or cardioembolic sources.

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An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.

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An embolus (plural emboli; from the Greek ἔμβολος "wedge", "plug") is an unattached mass that travels through the bloodstream and is capable of clogging arterial capillary beds (create an arterial occlusion) at a site distant from its point of origin.

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Emergency department

An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.

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Emotional lability

In medicine and psychology, emotional lability is a sign or symptom typified by exaggerated changes in mood or affect in quick succession.

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Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Epidural hematoma

Epidural hematoma is when bleeding occurs between the tough outer membrane covering the brain (dura mater), and the skull.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Exponential growth

Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.

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Expressive aphasia

Expressive aphasia, also known as Broca's aphasia, is a type of aphasia characterized by partial loss of the ability to produce language (spoken, manual, or written), although comprehension generally remains intact.

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Extraocular muscles

The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).

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FAST (stroke)

FAST is an acronym used as a mnemonic to help detect and enhance responsiveness to the needs of a person having a stroke.

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Fat embolism

A fat embolism (which via major trauma may progress to fat embolism syndrome) is a type of embolism in which the embolus consists of fatty material.

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Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that causes abnormal growth within the wall of an artery.

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Flaccid paralysis

Flaccid paralysis is an illness characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma).

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Functional Independence Measure

The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is an assessment tool that aims to evaluate the functional status of patients throughout the rehabilitation process following a stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or cancer.

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Gait abnormality

Gait abnormality is a deviation from normal walking (gait).

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Gastrointestinal bleeding

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.

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Giant-cell arteritis

Giant-cell arteritis (GCA), also called temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels.

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Glial scar

Glial scar formation (gliosis) is a reactive cellular process involving astrogliosis that occurs after injury to the central nervous system.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.

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Head injury

A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Hemiparesis, or unilateral paresis, is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means "half").

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Hemispatial neglect

Hemispatial neglect, also called hemiagnosia, hemineglect, unilateral neglect, spatial neglect, contralateral neglect, unilateral visual inattention,Unsworth, C. A. (2007).

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High-energy phosphate

High-energy phosphate can mean one of two things.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Holter monitor

In medicine, a Holter monitor (often simply Holter) is a type of ambulatory electrocardiography device, a portable device for cardiac monitoring (the monitoring of the electrical activity of the cardiovascular system) for at least 24 to 48 hours (often for two weeks at a time).

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Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.

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Classical homocystinuria, also known as cystathionine beta synthase deficiency or CBS deficiency, is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine due to a deficiency of cystathionine beta synthase.

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Homonymous hemianopsia

Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline.

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Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.

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Hyperbaric medicine

Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.

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Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.

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Induced coma

An induced coma, also known as a medically-induced coma, a barbiturate-induced coma, or a barb coma, is a temporary coma (a deep state of unconsciousness) brought on by a controlled dose of a barbiturate drug, usually pentobarbital or thiopental.

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Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.

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Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is an infection of the inner surface of the heart, usually the valves.

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Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy.

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Intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.

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Intracranial aneurysm

Intracranial aneurysm, also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel.

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Intracranial hemorrhage

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.

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Intracranial pressure

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is one form of intracerebral bleeding in which there is bleeding within brain parenchyma.

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Intraventricular hemorrhage

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), also known as intraventricular bleeding, is a bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulates through towards the subarachnoid space.

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Ischemic cascade

The ischemic (ischaemic) cascade is a series of biochemical reactions that are initiated in the brain and other aerobic tissues after seconds to minutes of ischemia (inadequate blood supply).

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Johann Jakob Wepfer

Johann Jakob Wepfer (December 23, 1620 – January 26, 1695) was a Swiss pathologist and pharmacologist who was a native of Schaffhausen.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lacunar stroke

Lacunar stroke or lacunar infarct (LACI) is the most common type of ischaemic stroke, and results from the occlusion of small penetrating arteries that provide blood to the brain's deep structures.

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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Libman–Sacks endocarditis

Libman–Sacks endocarditis (often misspelled Libmann–Sachs) is a form of nonbacterial endocarditis that is seen in association with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing

In evidence-based medicine, likelihood ratios are used for assessing the value of performing a diagnostic test.

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Lipid-lowering agent

Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia).

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Lipohyalinosis is a cerebral small vessel disease affecting the small arteries, arterioles or capillaries in the brain.

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Lipoprotein(a) (also called Lp(a) or LPA) is a lipoprotein subclass.

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Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

The long-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular diseaseAssociation of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen (LAPSS)

The Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen (LAPSS) is a method of identifying potential stroke patients in a pre-hospital setting.

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Luxol fast blue stain

Luxol fast blue stain, abbreviated LFB stain or simply LFB, is a commonly used stain to observe myelin under light microscopy, created by Heinrich Klüver and Elizabeth Barrera in 1953.

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Magnetic resonance angiography

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

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Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain

Anoxic depolarization is a progressive and uncontrollable depolarization of neurons during stroke or brain ischemia in which there is an inadequate supply of blood to the brain.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Mediterranean diet

The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.

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The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.

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Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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Mirror box

A mirror box is a box with two mirrors in the center (one facing each way), invented by Vilayanur S. Ramachandran to help alleviate phantom limb pain, in which patients feel they still have a limb after having it amputated.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mitral valve

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

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Mitral valve stenosis

Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Motor coordination

Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.

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Motor learning

Motor learning is a change, resulting from practice or a novel experience, in the capability for responding.

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Motor speech disorders

Motor speech disorders are a class of speech disorders that disturb the body's natural ability to speak due to neurologic impairments.

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Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease is a disease in which certain arteries in the brain are constricted.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Nasogastric intubation

Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, or NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a tool used by healthcare providers to objectively quantify the impairment caused by a stroke.

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National Stroke Association

The National Stroke Association is a U.S.-based nonprofit organization working to reduce the incidence and impact of stroke, the fourth leading cause of death in the United States.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Neural pathway

A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.

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Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a form of endocarditis in which small sterile vegetations are deposited on the valve leaflets.

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Number needed to treat

The number needed to treat (NNT) is an epidemiological measure used in communicating the effectiveness of a health-care intervention, typically a treatment with medication.

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Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Occupational therapist

An occupational therapist works with a client to help them achieve a fulfilled and satisfied state in life through the use of "purposeful activity or interventions designed to achieve occupational outcomes which promote health, prevent injury or disability to develop, improve, sustain or restore the highest possible level of independence." A practical definition for OT can also be illustrated with the use of models such as the Occupational Performance Model (Australia), known as the OPM(A).

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.

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Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses.

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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

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Papillary fibroelastoma

A papillary fibroelastoma is a primary tumor of the heart that typically involves one of the valves of the heart.

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Paradoxical embolism

A paradoxical embolism, also called a crossed embolism, refers to an embolus which is carried from the venous side of circulation to the arterial side, or vice versa.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Partial anterior circulation infarct

Partial Anterior Circulation Infarct (PACI) is a type of cerebral infarction affecting part of the anterior circulation supplying one side of the brain.

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Penumbra (medicine)

In pathology and anatomy the penumbra is the area surrounding an ischemic event such as thrombotic or embolic stroke.

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Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an endoscopic medical procedure in which a tube (PEG tube) is passed into a patient's stomach through the abdominal wall, most commonly to provide a means of feeding when oral intake is not adequate (for example, because of dysphagia or sedation).

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Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusion ("fluid around the heart") is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.

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Persistent vegetative state

A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

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Pia mater

Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Post-stroke depression

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is considered the most frequent and important neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke.

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Posterior circulation infarct

A Posterior Circulation Infarct (POCI) is a type of cerebral infarction affecting the posterior circulation supplying one side of the brain.

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Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.

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Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

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Pressure ulcer

Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure sores, pressure injuries, bedsores, and decubitus ulcers, are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Prothrombin time

The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

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A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Ptosis (eyelid)

Ptosis (/ˈtoʊsɪs/) is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Receptive aphasia

Wernicke's aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia, sensory aphasia, or posterior aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Red meat

In gastronomy, red meat is commonly red when raw and a dark color after it is cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.

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Reduced affect display

Reduced affect display, sometimes referred to as emotional blunting, is a condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual.

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Rehabilitation robotics

Rehabilitation robotics is a field of research dedicated to understanding and augmenting rehabilitation through the application of robotic devices.

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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Rudolf Virchow

Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.

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Screening (medicine)

Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.

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Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.

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Sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.

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Shock (circulatory)

Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Sick sinus syndrome

Sick sinus syndrome (SSS), also called sinus dysfunction, or sinoatrial node disease ("SND"), is a group of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's primary pacemaker.

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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.

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Silent stroke

A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke.

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Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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Sleep disorder

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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Southeastern United States

The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.

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Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Spinothalamic tract

The spinothalamic tract (also known as anterolateral system or the ventrolateral system) is a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus.

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Standard of care

In tort law, the standard of care is the only degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.

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Sternocleidomastoid muscle

The sternocleidomastoid muscle (also known as sternomastoid, commonly abbreviated as SCM or simply referred to as sterno muscle), is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the side of the neck.

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Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Stroke Association

The Stroke Association is a charity in the United Kingdom.

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Stroke Belt

Stroke Belt or Stroke Alley is a name given to a region in the southeastern United States that has been recognized by public health authorities for having an unusually high incidence of stroke and other forms of cardiovascular disease.

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Stroke recovery

The primary goals of stroke management are to reduce brain injury and promote maximum patient recovery.

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Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.

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Subdural hematoma

A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.

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Subdural space

The subdural space (or subdural cavity) is a potential space that can be opened by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma, pathologic process, or the absence of cerebrospinal fluid as seen in a cadaver.

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Systolic hypertension

In medicine, systolic hypertension is defined as an elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP).

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Takayasu's arteritis

Takayasu's arteritis (also known as Takayasu's disease, "aortic arch syndrome," "nonspecific aortoarteritis," and "pulseless disease") is a form of large vessel granulomatous vasculitisAmerican College of Physicians (ACP).

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Thienopyridines are a class of selective, irreversible ADP receptor/P2Y12 inhibitors used for their anti-platelet activity.

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Mechanical thrombectomy, or simply thrombectomy, is the interventional procedure of removing a blood clot (thrombus) from a blood vessel.

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Thrombocythemia (also thrombocytosis) is the presence of high platelet (thrombocyte) counts in the blood, and can be either primary (also termed essential thrombocythemia, and caused by a myeloproliferative disease) or secondary (also termed reactive).

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Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication.

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.

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Thunderclap headache

A thunderclap headache, also referred to as a lone acute severe headache, is a headache that is severe and sudden-onset.

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Ticlopidine (trade name Ticlid) is an antiplatelet drug in the thienopyridine family which is an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitor.

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Tissue plasminogen activator

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Total anterior circulation infarct

A Total Anterior Circulation Infarct (TACI) is a type of cerebral infarction affecting the entire anterior circulation supplying one side of the brain.

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Transcranial direct-current stimulation

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neurostimulation that uses constant, low direct current delivered via electrodes on the head; it can be contrasted with cranial electrotherapy stimulation which generally uses alternating current the same way.

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.

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Transient ischemic attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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Ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis

Ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis (UEST) is a medical technology that uses ultrasound to enhance the effects of thrombolytic drugs.

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Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.

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Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Venous thrombosis

A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.

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Ventricular septal defect

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.

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Ventricular system

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.

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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries are major (main) arteries of the neck.

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Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a flap-like tear of the inner lining of the vertebral artery, which is located in the neck and supplies blood to the brain.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.

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Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

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Visual field

The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Vital signs

Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.

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Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a blood glycoprotein involved in hemostasis.

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Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Watershed stroke

A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as a brain ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied by the anterior, posterior and middle cerebral arteries.

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Weber's syndrome

Weber's syndrome (superior alternating hemiplegia) is a form of stroke characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia.

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Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).

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A wheelchair, often abbreviated to just "chair", is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke

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