77 relations: Antiparticle, Asymptotic freedom, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Baryon, Basic Books, Big Bang, Binding energy, Boson, Color charge, Color confinement, Coupling constant, Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electroweak epoch, Electroweak interaction, Femtometre, Fundamental interaction, Gamma ray, Gauge theory, Gluon, Grand unification energy, Grand unification epoch, Grand Unified Theory, Gravity, Group theory, Hadron, Intermolecular force, Isotope, Isotopes of hydrogen, Jet (particle physics), John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Henry Press, Lead, List of unsolved problems in physics, Mass–energy equivalence, Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model, Meson, Neutron, Newton (unit), Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear fission, Nuclear force, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear power, Nuclear weapon, Nucleon, Particle accelerator, ..., Particle physics, Perseus Books Group, Photon, Pion, Plutonium, Princeton University Press, Proton, QCD matter, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quark, Quark–gluon plasma, Rho meson, Special unitary group, Standard Model, Star, Sun, Symmetry group, Thermonuclear weapon, Uranium, Van der Waals force, Vortex, Weak interaction, Yang–Mills theory, Yukawa interaction, Yukawa potential. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
In particle physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes interactions between particles to become asymptotically weaker as the energy scale increases and the corresponding length scale decreases.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).
In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
In physical cosmology, the electroweak epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the temperature of the universe had fallen enough that the strong force separated from the electroweak interaction, but was high enough for electromagnetism and the weak interaction to remain merged into a single electroweak interaction (above energies of about 246 GeV).
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
The femtometre (American spelling femtometer, symbol fm derived from the Danish and Norwegian word femten, "fifteen"+Ancient Greek: μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement") is an SI unit of length equal to 10−15 metres, which means a quadrillionth of one.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
The grand unification energy \Lambda_, or the GUT scale, is the energy level above which, it is believed, the electromagnetic force, weak force, and strong force become equal in strength and unify to one force governed by a simple Lie group.
In physical cosmology, assuming that nature is described by a Grand Unified Theory, the grand unification epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe following the Planck epoch, starting at about 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang, in which the temperature of the universe was comparable to the characteristic temperatures of grand unified theories.
A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
A jet is a narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Joseph Henry Press is an American publisher which is an imprint of the National Academies Press, publisher for the United States National Academy of Sciences.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.
In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Perseus Books Group was an American publishing company founded in 1996 by investor Frank Pearl.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.
QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter is an adaptation for the general reader of four lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED) published in 1985 by American physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman.
In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
In particle physics, a rho meson is a short-lived hadronic particle that is an isospin triplet whose three states are denoted as, and.
In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
In group theory, the symmetry group of an object (image, signal, etc.) is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on the SU(''N'') group, or more generally any compact, reductive Lie algebra.
In particle physics, Yukawa's interaction or Yukawa coupling, named after Hideki Yukawa, is an interaction between a scalar field ϕ and a Dirac field ψ of the type The Yukawa interaction can be used to describe the nuclear force between nucleons (which are fermions), mediated by pions (which are pseudoscalar mesons).
In particle and atomic physics, a Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form where g is a magnitude scaling constant, i.e. is the amplitude of potential, m is the mass of the particle, r is the radial distance to the particle, and k is another scaling constant, so that 1/km is the range.