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Structure and genome of HIV

Index Structure and genome of HIV

The genome and proteins of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983. [1]

54 relations: Arginine, Biomolecular structure, Capsid, CCR5, CD4, Cell cycle, Cis-regulatory element, COS cells, CXCR4, Cytokine, Endoplasmic reticulum, Env (gene), Envelope glycoprotein GP120, Enzyme, Five-prime cap, Furin, Genome, Gp41, Group-specific antigen, HeLa, HIV, HIV gag stem loop 3 (GSL3), HIV Rev response element, HIV vaccine, HIV-1 protease, HIV/AIDS research, Integrase, Lentivirus, Nef (protein), Nuclear localization sequence, Nuclease, Nucleotide, Open reading frame, P24 capsid protein, Pol (HIV), Polyadenylation, Proteasome, Protein, Retroviral matrix protein, Retrovirus, Rev (HIV), Reverse transcriptase, RNA, RNA splicing, Sense (molecular biology), Simian immunodeficiency virus, Stem-loop, Subtypes of HIV, Tat (HIV), Trans-activation response element (TAR), ..., Viral envelope, Viral infectivity factor, Vpr, Vpu protein. Expand index (4 more) »

Arginine

Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Capsid

A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.

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CCR5

C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.

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CD4

In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cis-regulatory element

Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are regions of non-coding DNA which regulate the transcription of neighboring genes.

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COS cells

COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue.

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CXCR4

C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR4 gene.

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Cytokine

Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Env (gene)

Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope.

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Envelope glycoprotein GP120

Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Five-prime cap

In molecular biology, the five-prime cap (5′ cap) is a specially altered nucleotide on the 5′ end of some primary transcripts such as precursor messenger RNA.

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Furin

Furin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FURIN gene.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Gp41

Gp41 also known as glycoprotein 41 is a subunit of the envelope protein complex of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Group-specific antigen

Group-specific antigen, or gag, is the genetic material that codes for the core structural proteins of a retrovirus.

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HeLa

HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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HIV gag stem loop 3 (GSL3)

HIV gag stem loop 3 (GSL3) is a secondary structural component of the Retroviral Psi packaging element, also known as the psi recognition element.

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HIV Rev response element

The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a highly structured, ~350 nucleotide RNA segment present in the Env coding region of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNAs.

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HIV vaccine

An HIV vaccine is a vaccine which would either protect individuals who do not have HIV from contracting that virus, or otherwise may have a therapeutic effect for persons who have or later contract HIV/AIDS.

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HIV-1 protease

HIV-1 protease (PR) is a retroviral aspartyl protease (retropepsin), an enzyme involved with peptide bond hydrolysis in retroviruses, that is essential for the life-cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS.

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HIV/AIDS research

HIV/AIDS research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure HIV/AIDS, as well as fundamental research about the nature of HIV as an infectious agent and AIDS as the disease caused by HIV.

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Integrase

Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.

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Lentivirus

Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow") is a genus of retroviruses that cause chronic and deadly diseases characterized by long incubation periods, in the human and other mammalian species.

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Nef (protein)

Nef (Negative Regulatory Factor) is a small 27-35 kDa myristoylated protein encoded by primate lentiviruses.

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Nuclear localization sequence

A nuclear localization signal or sequence (NLS) is an amino acid sequence that 'tags' a protein for import into the cell nucleus by nuclear transport.

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Nuclease

A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Open reading frame

In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.

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P24 capsid protein

p24 is a component of the HIV particle capsid.

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Pol (HIV)

Pol (DNA ymerase) refers to a gene in retroviruses, or the protein produced by that gene.

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Polyadenylation

Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA.

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Proteasome

Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Retroviral matrix protein

Retroviral matrix proteins are components of envelope-associated capsids of retroviruses.

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Retrovirus

A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.

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Rev (HIV)

Rev is a transactivating protein that is essential to the regulation of HIV-1 protein expression.

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Reverse transcriptase

A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA splicing

In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

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Sense (molecular biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.

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Simian immunodeficiency virus

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are retroviruses that cause persistent infections in at least 45 species of African non-human primates.

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Stem-loop

Stem-loop intramolecular base pairing is a pattern that can occur in single-stranded DNA or, more commonly, in RNA.

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Subtypes of HIV

One of the obstacles to treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus is its high genetic variability.

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Tat (HIV)

In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.

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Trans-activation response element (TAR)

The HIV trans-activation response (TAR) element is an RNA element which is known to be required for the trans-activation of the viral promoter and for virus replication.

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Viral envelope

Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.

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Viral infectivity factor

Viral infectivity factor, or Vif, is a protein found in HIV and other retroviruses.

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Vpr

Vpr is a Human immunodeficiency virus gene and protein product.

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Vpu protein

Vpu is an accessory protein that in HIV is encoded by the vpu gene.

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Core protein, HIV genome, HIV structure, HIV structure and genome, Hiv envelope protein gp160, Hiv envelope protein gp41, Hiv structure and genome, P17 protein, P6 protein, P7 protein, V3 loop.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure_and_genome_of_HIV

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