249 relations: A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, Absolute monarchy, Acts of Union 1707, Alan Macfarlane, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Anne Hyde, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Anthropology, Aristocracy, Bank of England, Banqueting House, Whitehall, Barebone's Parliament, Baronet, Battle of Marston Moor, Battle of Vigo Bay, Battle of Worcester, Bible, Bill of Rights 1689, Book of Common Prayer, Bourgeoisie, Bristol, British Army, Bureaucracy, Caroline era, Cavalier, Cádiz, Charles Edward Stuart, Charles Harding Firth, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Christopher Hill (historian), Christopher Wren, Church of England, Clan Bruce, Class conflict, Commonwealth of England, Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, Connecticut Colony, Continental Europe, Convention Parliament (1660), Council of the North, Counter-Reformation, Court of High Commission, Covenanter, Crown colony, Cruel and unusual punishment, Daniel Defoe, Darien scheme, Declaration of Right, 1689, Determinism, ..., Devil, Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, 1st Count of Gondomar, Divine right of kings, Dominion of New England, Duchy of Bavaria, Dutch Republic, Dynasty, East India Company, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, Electoral Palatinate, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, Elizabethan era, English Civil War, English general election, 1661, Excessive Bail Clause, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Feudalism, Fifth Monarchists, First Anglo-Dutch War, First English Civil War, Franco-Dutch War, Francophobia, Fraudulent Mediums Act 1951, Frederick V of the Palatinate, Freedom of religion, Gentry, George Frideric Handel, George I of Great Britain, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Georgian era, Glasgow, Glorious Revolution, Great Fire of London, Great Turkish War, Greater London, Hanseatic League, Hedonism, Heidelberg, Henry VIII of England, High Court of Justice for the trial of King Charles I, Historical revisionism, Historiography, Holland, Holy Roman Empire, House of Hanover, House of Stuart, House of Tudor, Hudson's Bay Company, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Huguenots, Humble Petition and Advice, Ideal (ethics), Indemnity and Oblivion Act, Individualism, Inigo Jones, Instrument of Government, Interregnum (1649–1660), Interregnum (England), Isaac Newton, Jacobean era, Jacobitism, James Boswell, James Erskine, Lord Grange, James Francis Edward Stuart, James II of England, James VI and I, Jane Wenham (alleged witch), Janet Horne, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, John Croker (engraver), John Felton (assassin), John Finch, 1st Baron Finch, Keith Thomas (historian), Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Scotland, Knight, Lawrence Stone, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Libertine, Liberty, List of Archbishops of Canterbury, List of Christopher Wren churches in London, List of Lord Chancellors and Lord Keepers, Lloyd's Coffee House, Lloyd's of London, Long Parliament, Lord Deputy of Ireland, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Louis XIV of France, Magic (supernatural), Maria Anna of Spain, Marxist historiography, Mary II of England, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Mercantilism, Middle class, Militia, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Muscovy Company, New Model Army, New Netherland, Nine Years' War, Nine Years' War (Ireland), Noble House, Nonconformist, Nontrinitarianism, Norwich, Nouveau riche, Oliver Cromwell, Paganism, Papal States, Parliament of England, Parliament of Great Britain, Parliament of Scotland, Patronage, Post-war, Presbyterianism, Primogeniture, Protestant Union, Province of New York, Puritans, Quakers, R. H. Tawney, Rake (stock character), Regicide, Religiosity, Resettlement of the Jews in England, Restoration (England), Richard Cromwell, Right to keep and bear arms, Right to petition, Robert Blake (admiral), Robert Boyle, Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, Robert Hooke, Roundhead, Royal African Company, Royal assent, Royal Navy, Royal prerogative, Royal Society, Rump Parliament, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, Sanhedrin, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, Scottish clan, Scottish Highlands, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Second English Civil War, Ship money, Ship of the line, Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, South America, Spanish match, St Paul's Cathedral, St. James's Day Battle, Standing army, Star Chamber, Stephen B. Baxter, Steven Pincus, Storm over the gentry, Suriname, The Crown, The Guianas, The Protectorate, Third Anglo-Dutch War, Third English Civil War, Thirteen Colonies, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Harrison (soldier), Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, Toleration, Toleration Act 1689, Tories (British political party), Tory, Treaty of Breda (1667), Treaty of Ryswick, Triennial Acts, Ulster, Ulster Scots people, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Upper class, Vienna, War of the Spanish Succession, Whig history, Whig Junto, Whiggism, William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, William III of England, William Laud, Witch-hunt, Witchcraft, Witchcraft Act 1735, World War I. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775) is a travel narrative by Samuel Johnson about an eighty-three-day journey through Scotland, in particular the islands of the Hebrides, in the late summer and autumn of 1773.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
Alan Donald James Macfarlane FBA FRHistS (born 20 December 1941 in Shillong, Meghalaya, India) is an anthropologist and historian and a Professor Emeritus of King's College, Cambridge.
The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Anne Hyde (12 March 163731 March 1671) was Duchess of York and of Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Banqueting House, Whitehall, is the grandest and best known survivor of the architectural genre of banqueting house and the only remaining component of the Palace of Whitehall.
Barebone's Parliament, also known as the Little Parliament, the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on 4 July 1653, and was the last attempt of the English Commonwealth to find a stable political form before the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector.
A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.
The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646.
The Battle of Vigo Bay, also known as the Battle of Rande, was a naval engagement fought on 23 October 1702 during the opening years of the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The Caroline or Carolean era refers to the era in English and Scottish history during the Stuart period (1603–1714) that coincided with the reign of Charles I (1625–1642), Carolus being Latin for Charles.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain.
Sir Charles Harding Firth, FBA (16 March 1857 – 19 February 1936) was a British historian.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and academic, specialising in 17th-century English history.
Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Clan Bruce (Brùs) is a Scottish clan from Kincardine in Scotland.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Company of Merchant Adventurers of London brought together London's leading overseas merchants in a regulated company in the early 15th century, in the nature of a guild.
The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in North America that became the U.S. state of Connecticut.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The Convention Parliament (25 April 1660 – 29 December 1660) followed the Long Parliament that had finally voted for its own dissolution on 16 March that year.
The Council of the North was an administrative body set up in 1472 by King Edward IV of England, the first Yorkist monarch to hold the Crown of England, to improve government control and economic prosperity, to benefit all of Northern England.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The Court of High Commission was the supreme ecclesiastic court in England.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.
Daniel Defoe (13 September 1660 - 24 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy.
The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to become a world trading nation by establishing a colony called "Caledonia" on the Isthmus of Panama on the Gulf of Darién in the late 1690s.
The Declaration of Right, also known as the Declaration of Rights, is a document written to detail the wrongs committed by the King of England, James II, and specify the rights that all citizens of England should be entitled to and that all English monarchs should abide by.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Count of Gondomar (es: Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, conde de Gondomar) (Gondomar, Galicia November 1, 1567 – Casa la Reina, Logroño, October 2, 1626), was a Spanish (Galician) diplomat, the Spanish ambassador to England from 1613 to 1622 and afterwards, as a kind of ambassador emeritus, Spain's leading expert on English affairs until his death.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
The Dominion of New England in America (1686–89) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic Colonies (except for the Colony of Pennsylvania).
The Duchy of Bavaria (German: Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674) was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
The 1661 English general election returned a majority of members in accord with Charles II of England.
The Excessive Bail Clause of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits excessive bail set in pre-trial detention.
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were an extreme Puritan sect active from 1649 to 1660 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century.
The First Anglo-Dutch War, or, simply, the First Dutch War, (Eerste Engelse zeeoorlog "First English Sea War") (1652–54) was a conflict fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").
The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often simply called the Dutch War (Guerre de Hollande; Hollandse Oorlog), was a war fought by France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.
Anti-French sentiment (Francophobia) refers to an extreme or irrational fear of France, the French people, the French government or the Francophonie (set of political entities that use French as an official language or whose French-speaking population is numerically or proportionally large).
The Fraudulent Mediums Act 1951 was a law in England and Wales which prohibited a person from claiming to be a psychic, medium, or other spiritualist while attempting to deceive and to make money from the deception (other than solely for the purpose of entertainment).
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628), was an English courtier, statesman, and patron of the arts.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
The High Court of Justice was the court established by the Rump Parliament to try King Charles I of England.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Humble Petition and Advice was the second, and last, codified constitution of England after the Instrument of Government.
An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal, usually in the context of ethics, and one's prioritization of ideals can serve to indicate the extent of one's dedication to each.
The Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 is an Act of the Parliament of England (12 Cha. II c. 11), the long title of which is "An Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion".
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect (of Welsh ancestry) in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.
The Instrument of Government was a constitution of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The "interregnum" in England, Scotland, and Ireland started with the execution of Charles I in January 1649 (September 1651 in Scotland) and ended in May 1660 when his son Charles II was restored to the thrones of the three realms, although he had been already acclaimed king in Scotland since 1650.
The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland (1567–1625), who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, and is often used for the distinctive styles of Jacobean architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature which characterized that period.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.
James Erskine, Lord Grange (167920 January 1754) was a Scottish advocate, judge and politician.
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jane Wenham (died 1730) was one of the last people to be condemned to death for witchcraft in England, although her conviction was set aside.
Janet Horne (died 1727) was a woman accused of witchcraft from Scotland, and the last person to be executed legally for witchcraft in the British Isles.
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.
John Croker (21 October 1670 – 21 March 1741), born in Saxony and known in his youth as Johann Crocker, was a master jeweller who migrated to London, where he became a medallist and engraved dies for English and later British coins and medals.
John Felton (– 29 November 1628) was a lieutenant in the English Army who stabbed George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham to death in the Greyhound Pub of Portsmouth on 23 August 1628.
John Finch, 1st Baron Finch (17 September 1584 – 27 November 1660) was an English judge, and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1629.
Sir Keith Vivian Thomas, (born 2 January 1933) is a British historian of the early modern world based at Oxford University.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Lawrence Stone (4 December 1919 – 16 June 1999) was an English historian of early modern Britain.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
A libertine is one devoid of most moral or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the "Primate of All England" (the "first bishop" of England),, the Archbishop of Canterbury's official website effectively serving as the head of the established Church of England and, symbolically, of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Eighty-eight parish churches were burned during the Great Fire of London in 1666.
The following is a list of Lord Chancellors and Lord Keepers of the Great Seal of England and Great Britain.
A 19th-century drawing of Lloyd's Coffee House Lloyd's Coffee House was a significant meeting place in London in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Lloyd's of London, generally known simply as Lloyd's, is an insurance market located in London, United Kingdom.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
The Lord Deputy was the representative of the monarch and head of the Irish executive under English rule, during the Lordship of Ireland and then the Kingdom of Ireland.
The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, and later of Great Britain, was formerly an officer of the English Crown charged with physical custody of the Great Seal of England.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Infanta Maria Anna of Spain (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646),.
Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The Muscovy Company (also called the Russian Company or the Muscovy Trading Company, Московская компания, Moskovskaya kompaniya) was an English trading company chartered in 1555.
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
The Nine Years' War or Tyrone's Rebellion took place in Ireland from 1593 to 1603.
A Noble House is an aristocratic family or kinship group, usually British or European, either currently or historically of national or international significance, and usually associated with one or more hereditary titles, the most senior of which will be held by the "Head of the House" or patriarch.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
"Nouveau riche" (French: 'new rich') is a term, usually derogatory, to describe those whose wealth has been acquired within their own generation, rather than by familial inheritance.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the end of a war.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
The Protestant Union (Protestantische Union), also known as the Evangelical Union, Union of Auhausen, German Union or as the Protestant Action Party, was a coalition of Protestant German states that was formed on May 14th, 1608 by Calvinist Frederick IV, Elector Palatine in order to defend the rights, lands and person of each member.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Richard Henry "R.
In a historical context, a rake (short for rakehell, analogous to "hellraiser") was a man who was habituated to immoral conduct, particularly womanising.
The broad definition of regicide (regis "of king" + cida "killer" or cidium "killing") is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty.
Religiosity is difficult to define, but different scholars have seen this concept as broadly about religious orientations and involvement.
The resettlement of the Jews in England was an informal arrangement during the Commonwealth of England in the mid-1650s, which allowed Jews to practise their faith openly.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.
The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.
The right to petition government for redress of grievances is the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's government, without fear of punishment or reprisals.
Robert Blake (27 September 1598 – 7 August 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England and one of the most famous English admirals of the 17th century, whose successes have "never been excelled, not even by Nelson" according to one biographer.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, KG (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724) was an English and later British statesman of the late Stuart and early Georgian periods.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
The Royal African Company (RAC) was an English mercantile (trading) company set up by the Stuart family and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Rawson Gardiner (4 March 1829 – 24 February 1902) was an English historian, who specialized in 17th-century English history.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (née Jenyns, spelt Jennings in most modern references; 5 June 1660 (Old Style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship with Queen Anne of Great Britain.
A Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group among the Scottish people.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War (or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
Ship money was a tax of medieval origin levied intermittently in the Kingdom of England until the middle of the 17th century.
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, (15 June 1645 – 15 September 1712) was a leading British politician of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Spanish Match was a proposed marriage between Prince Charles, the son of King James I of Great Britain, and Infanta Maria Anna of Spain, the daughter of Philip III of Spain.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
The naval St James' Day Battle (also known as the St James' Day Fight), the Battle of the North Foreland and the Battle of Orfordness) took place on 25 July 1666 — St James' day in the Julian calendar then in use in England (4 August 1666 in the Gregorian calendar), during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. It was fought between fleets of England, commanded jointly by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, and the United Provinces commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. In the Netherlands, the battle is known as the Two Days' Battle.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters.
Stephen B. Baxter is an American historian specialising in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century English history.
Steven Pincus is a Bradford Durfee Professor of History at Yale University, where he specializes in 17th- and 18th-century British and European history.
The Storm over the gentry was a major historiographical debate among scholars that took place in the 1940s and 1950s regarding the role of the gentry in causing the English Civil War of the 17th century.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories.
The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.
The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the last of the English Civil Wars (1642–1651), a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Major-General Thomas Harrison (1606 – 13 October 1660) sided with Parliament in the English Civil War.
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (13 April 1593 (O.S.) – 12 May 1641) was an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
The Toleration Act 1689 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration, was an Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689.
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July (Gregorian calendar), 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway.
The Treaty or Peace of Ryswick, also known as The Peace of Rijswijk was a series of agreements signed in the Dutch city of Rijswijk between 20 September and 30 October 1697, ending the 1689-97 Nine Years War between France and the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic.
The Triennial Act 1641 (16 Cha. I c. 1) (also known as the Dissolution Act) was an Act passed on 15 February 1641,, Accessed 7 May 2008 by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
The Whig Junto is the name given to a group of leading Whigs who were seen to direct the management of the Whig Party and often the government, during the reigns of William III and Anne.
Whiggism (in North America sometimes spelled Whigism) is a historical political philosophy that grew out of the Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651).
Hans William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, Baron Bentinck of Diepenheim and Schoonheten, (20 July 1649, Diepenheim, Overijssel – 23 November 1709, Bulstrode Park, Buckinghamshire) was a Dutch and English nobleman who became in an early stage the favourite of William, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder in the Netherlands, and future King of England.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The Witchcraft Act (9 Geo. II c. 5) was a law passed by the Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1735 which made it a crime for a person to claim that any human being had magical powers or was guilty of practising witchcraft.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.