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Sub-Saharan Africa

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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. [1]

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Abedi Pele

Abedi Ayew (born 5 November 1964), known professionally as Abedi Pele, is a Ghanaian former footballer who played as an attacking midfielder and who served as captain of the Ghana national team.

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Abidjan

Abidjan is the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire and is one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa.

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Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Abstinence, be faithful, use a condom

Abstinence, be faithful, use a condom, also known as the ABC strategy or abstinence-plus sex education, also known as abstinence-based sex education, is a sex education policy based on a combination of "risk avoidance" and harm reduction which modifies the approach of abstinence-only sex education by including education about the value of partner reduction safe sex and birth control methods.

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Abstract art

Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.

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Abuja

Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

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Abyssinian people

Abyssinian people (ሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.

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Abyssinian–Adal war

The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.

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Accra

Accra is the capital and largest city of Ghana, covering an area of with an estimated urban population of 2.27 million.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Acheulean

Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.

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Adal Sultanate

The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.

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Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.

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Adobe

Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.

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Aethiopia

Ancient Aethiopia (Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Africa Cup of Nations

The Total Africa Cup of Nations, officially CAN (Coupe d'Afrique des Nations), also referred to as African Cup of Nations, or AFCON, is the main international association football competition in Africa.

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African Cricket Association

The African Cricket Association (ACA) is an international body which oversees cricket in African countries.

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African Development Bank

The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) or Banque Africaine de Développement (BAD) is a multilateral development finance institution.

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African Great Lakes

The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.

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African immigration to the United States

African immigration to the United States refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of modern African countries.

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African Pygmies

The African Pygmies (or Congo Pygmies, variously also "Central African foragers", "African rainforest hunter-gatherers" (RHG) or "Forest People of Central Africa") are a group of tribal ethnicities, traditionally subsisting in a forager and hunter-gatherer lifestyle, native to Central Africa, mostly the Congo Basin.

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Afrikaans

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Afro-Arab

Afro-Arabs are individuals and groups from Africa who are of partial Arab descent.

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.

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Agbada

Agbada is one of the names for a flowing wide sleeved robe worn by men in much of West Africa, and to a lesser extent in North Africa, related to the dashiki suit.

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Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi

Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.

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Ahmed Yusuf (Gobroon)

Ahmed Yusuf (Axmed Yuusuf, أحمد يوسف) was a Somali ruler.

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Ajuran Sultanate

The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.

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Aka people

The Aka or Bayaka (also BiAka, Babenzele) are a nomadic Mbenga pygmy people.

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Akan language

Akan is a Central Tano language that is the principal native language of the Akan people of Ghana, spoken over much of the southern half of that country, by about 58% of the population, and among 30% of the population of Ivory Coast.

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Akan people

The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former Gold Coast region in what is today the nation of Ghana.

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Akan religion

Akan religion comprises the traditional beliefs and religious practices of the Akan people of Ghana and eastern Ivory Coast.

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.

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Al-Habash

Al-Habash was an ancient region in the Horn of Africa.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Amharic

Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anglo-Zulu War

The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.

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Angola

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Angolan kwanza

The kwanza (sign: Kz; ISO 4217 code: AOA) is the currency of Angola.

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Antananarivo

Antananarivo (French: Tananarive), also known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar.

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Antimony

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Anuak language

Anuak or Anywa is a Nilotic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Aro Confederacy

The Aro Confederacy (1690–1902) was a political union orchestrated by the Aro people, Igbo subgroup, centered in Arochukwu in present-day southeastern Nigeria.

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Asante dialect

Ashanti, Asante, or Asante Twi, is spoken by over 2.8 million Ashanti people.

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Ashanti Empire

The Ashanti Empire (also spelled Asante) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana from 1670 to 1957.

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Asmara

Asmara (ኣስመራ), known locally as Asmera (meaning "They made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest city of Eritrea.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Australopithecus

Australopithecus (informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus) is an extinct genus of hominins.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Azania

Azania (Ἀζανία) is a name that has been applied to various parts of southeastern tropical Africa.

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Azumah Nelson

Azumah Nelson (born 19 July 1958) is a Ghanaian former professional boxer.

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Babylonia

Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Bamako

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 1.8 million (2009 census, provisional).

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Bamako Initiative

The Bamako Initiative was a formal statement adopted by African health ministers in 1987 in Bamako, Mali, to implement strategies designed to increase the availability of essential drugs and other healthcare services for Sub-Saharan Africans.

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Banda languages

Banda is a family of Ubangian languages spoken by the Banda people of Central Africa.

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Bangui

Bangui (or Bangî in Sango, formerly written Bangi in English) is the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic.

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Banjul

Banjul, officially the City of Banjul and formerly known as Bathurst, is the capital of The Gambia and is in a division of the same name.

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Bantu expansion

The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Barbara (region)

Barbara, also referred to as Barbaria, referred to an ancient region in littoral Horn of Africa.

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Bartolomeu Dias

Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.

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Battling Siki

Battling Siki (September 16, 1897 – December 15, 1925), aka Louis Mbarick Fall, was a French-Senegalese light heavyweight boxer born in Senegal who fought from 1912 to 1925, and briefly reigned as the World light heavyweight champion after knocking out Georges Carpentier.

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Bauxite

Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.

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Bemba people

The Bemba (or 'BaBemba' using the Ba- prefix to mean 'people of', and also called 'Awemba' or 'BaWemba' in the past) belong to a large group of Bantu peoples mainly in the Northern province, Luapula and Copperbelt Provinces of Zambia who trace their origins to the Luba and Lunda states of the upper Congo basin, in what became Katanga Province in southern Congo-Kinshasa (DRC).

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Benue–Congo languages

Benue–Congo (sometimes called East Benue–Congo) is a major subdivision of the Niger–Congo language family which covers most of Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Berbers

Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.

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Bethwell Allan Ogot

Bethwell Allan Ogot (born 1929) is a historian from Kenya.

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Biltong

Biltong is a form of dried, cured meat that originated in Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia.

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Biome

A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.

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Bipedalism

Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Bissau

Bissau is the capital city of the African Republic of Guinea-Bissau.

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Black-eyed pea

The black-eyed pea, black-eyed bean or goat pea, a legume, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean.

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Bloemfontein

Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.

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Blombos Cave

Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa.

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Botswana pula

The pula is the currency of Botswana.

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Brazzaville

Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is on the north side of the Congo River, opposite Kinshasa.

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BRIC

In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.

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Bruce Grobbelaar

Bruce David Grobbelaar (born 6 October 1957) is a former Zimbabwe international footballer who played as a goalkeeper, most prominently for the English team Liverpool between 1981 and 1994.

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Buganda

Buganda is a subnational kingdom within Uganda.

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Bujumbura

Bujumbura, (formerly Usumbura), is the capital, largest city, and main port of Burundi.

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Burundi

Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

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Burundian franc

The franc (ISO 4217 code is BIF) is the currency of Burundi.

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Bushongo mythology

The Bushongo or Songora are an ethnic group from the Congo River and surrounding areas.

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Bushveld

The Bushveld is a sub-tropical woodland ecoregion of Southern Africa named after the term veld.

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CAF Champions League

The CAF Champions League is an annual continental club football competition run by the Confederation of African Football (CAF).

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CAF Confederation Cup

The CAF Confederation Cup, officially named Total CAF Confederation Cup is an international club association football competition run by the Confederation of African Football.

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Camel

A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Cameroon

No description.

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Candomblé

Candomblé (dance in honour of the gods) is an Afro-American religious tradition, practiced mainly in Brazil.

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Cape Colony

The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.

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Cape Guardafui

Cape Guardafui (Gees Gardafuul), also known historically as Aromata promontorium, is a headland in the autonomous Puntland region in Somalia.

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Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.

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Cape Town

Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.

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Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Cassava

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Cataracts of the Nile

The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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Central African CFA franc

The Central African CFA franc (French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XAF) is the currency of six independent states in central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

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Chad

Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chadic languages

The Chadic languages form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Chari River

The Chari River, or Shari River, is a long stream, flowing in Central Africa.

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Chewa language

Chewa, also known as Nyanja, is a language of the Bantu language family.

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Chimpanzee

The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Christopher Ehret

Christopher Ehret (born July 27, 1941), who currently holds the position of Distinguished Research Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, is an American scholar of African history and African historical linguistics particularly known for his efforts to correlate linguistic taxonomy and reconstruction with the archeological record.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Church of Saint George, Lalibela

The Church of Saint George (Bete Giyorgis) is one of eleven rock-hewn monolithic churches in Lalibela, a city in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Colonial empire

A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.

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Colonialism

Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Coltan

Coltan (short for columbite–tantalites and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore, from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted.

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Comorian franc

The franc (franc comorien; فرنك قمري) (ISO 4217 currency code KMF) is the official currency of Comoros.

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Comorian language

Comorian (Shikomori or Shimasiwa, the "language of islands") is an official language in the Comoros (an independent country of islands in the Indian Ocean, off Mozambique and Madagascar) and widely spoken on the disputed territory of Mayotte, claimed by both France and Comoros.

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Comoros

The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.

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Company rule in India

Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Conakry

Conakry (Sosso: Kɔnakiri) is the capital and largest city of Guinea.

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Congolese franc

The franc is the currency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cosmology

Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Couscous

Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.

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Cricket World Cup

The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.

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Cushitic languages

The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Dahomean religion

The Dahomean religion was practiced by the Fon people of the Dahomey Kingdom.

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Dakar

Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.

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Darfur

Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.

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Dashiki

The dashiki is a colorful garment for women and men worn mostly in West Africa.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Demographics of Nigeria

The demographic features of the population of Nigeria, including population density, ethnicity, vital statistics, education level, the health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other demographic aspects of the population.

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Dervish state

The Dervish state (Dawlada Daraawiish, دولة الدراويش Dawlat ad-Darāwīsh) was an early 20th-century Somali Muslim kingdom.

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Desert climate

The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.

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Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation

The Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation (DTHF) is a nonprofit organization founded to provide treatment for and conduct HIV/AIDS research.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Development aid

Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.

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Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Dick Tiger

Dick Tiger (born Richard Ihetu; August 14, 1929 – December 14, 1971) was a professional boxer who held the World Middleweight and World Light Heavyweight Championships.

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Didier Drogba

Didier Yves Drogba Tébily (born 11 March 1978) is an Ivorian professional footballer who plays as a striker for American club Phoenix Rising.

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Dinka language

Dinka (natively Thuɔŋjäŋ, Thuɔŋ ee Jieng or simply Jieng) is a Nilotic dialect cluster spoken by the Dinka people, the major ethnic group of South Sudan.

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Dinka religion

Dinka mythology refers to the traditional religion and folk tales of the Dinka, or Muonyjang, ethnic group of South Sudan.

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Djenné-Djenno

Djenné-Djenno (also Jenne-Jeno) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Niger River Valley in the country of Mali.

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Djibouti

Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Djiboutian franc

The Djiboutian franc (فرنك) is the currency of Djibouti.

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Dodoma

Dodoma (literally "It has sunk" in Gogo), officially Dodoma City, is the national capital of The United Republic Of Tanzania and the capital of Dodoma Region, with a population of 410,956.

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Donkey

The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.

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Eastern Cape

The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.

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Eastern Lunda

The Lunda people of the Luapula River valley in Zambia and DR Congo are called by others the Eastern Lunda to distinguish them from the 'western' Lunda people who remained in the heartland of the former Lunda Kingdom, but they themselves would use Kazembe-Lunda or Luunda with an elongated 'u' to make that distinction.

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Eastern miombo woodlands

The Eastern miombo woodlands (AT0706) are an ecoregion of grassland and woodland in southern Tanzania and northern Mozambique.

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Eblaite language

Eblaite (also known as Eblan ISO 639-3), or Paleo Syrian, is an extinct Semitic language which was used during the third millennium BCE by the populations of Northern Syria.

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Economic Community of Central African States

The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS; Communauté Économique des États de l'Afrique Centrale, CEEAC; Comunidad Económica de los Estados de África Central, CEEAC; Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Central, CEEAC) is an Economic Community of the African Union for promotion of regional economic co-operation in Central Africa.

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Economic Community of West African States

The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.

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Economic growth

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

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Eddoe

Eddoe or eddo is a tropical vegetable often considered identifiable as the species Colocasia antiquorum, closely related to taro (dasheen, Colocasia esculenta), which is primarily used for its thickened stems (corms).

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Education For All

Education For All (EFA) is a global movement led by UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015.

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Efik mythology

In Efik mythology, Abassi is considered to be the Supreme Creator (God).

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elaeis guineensis

Elaeis guineensis is a species of palm commonly called African oil palm or macaw-fat.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Emmanuel Adebayor

Sheyi Emmanuel Adebayor (born 26 February 1984) is a Togolese professional footballer who plays as a striker for Turkish club İstanbul Başakşehir.

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Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Ensete ventricosum

Ensete ventricosum, commonly known as the Ethiopian banana, Abyssinian banana, false banana, enset or ensete, is an herbaceous species of flowering plant in the banana family Musaceae.

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Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.

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Eragrostis tef

Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Eritrea

Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Eritrean nakfa

The nakfa (ISO 4217 code: ERN) is the currency of Eritrea and was introduced on 8 November 1997 to replace the Ethiopian birr at par.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethiopian birr

The birr (ብር) is the unit of currency in Ethiopia.

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Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.

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Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Forest-savanna mosaic

Forest-savanna mosaic is a transitory ecotone between the tropical moist broadleaf forests of Equatorial Africa and the drier savannas and open woodlands to the north and south of the forest belt.

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Fractal

In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.

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Freetown

Freetown is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fufu

Fufu (variants of the name include foofoo, fufuo, foufou) is a staple food common in many countries in Africa such as Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria.

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Fula language

Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.

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Fur

Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.

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Fur language

The Fur language (Fur: bèle fòòr or fòòraŋ bèle; Fûrâwî; sometimes called Konjara by linguists, after a former ruling clan) is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Fur of Darfur in western Sudan.

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Gabon

Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.

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Gaborone

Gaborone (English) is the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 based on the 2011 census, about 10% of the total population of Botswana.

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Gambian dalasi

The dalasi is the currency of the Gambia.

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Game (hunting)

Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.

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Garri

The word Garri originates from the Hausa Language in Northern Nigeria.

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Gbaya languages

The Gbaya languages, also known as Gbaya–Manza–Ngbaka, are a family of perhaps a dozen languages spoken mainly in the western Central African Republic and across the border in Cameroon, with one language (Ngbaka) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with a few small languages in the Republic of the Congo.

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Geography of Africa

Africa is a continent comprising 63 political territories, representing the largest of the great southward projections from the main mass of Earth's surface.

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George Soros

George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.

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George Taubman Goldie

Sir George Dashwood Taubman Goldie (20 May 1846 – 20 August 1925) was a Manx administrator who played a major role in the founding of Nigeria.

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George Weah

George Tawlon Manneh Oppong Ousman Weah (born 1 October 1966) is the 25th and current President of Liberia, in office since 2018.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Gerrie Coetzee

Gerhardus Christian "Gerrie" Coetzee (born 8 April 1955) is a South African former professional boxer who competed from 1974 to 1986, and in 1993 and 1997.

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Ghana

Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.

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Ghana Empire

The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.

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Ghana Health Service

The Ghana Health Service (GHS) is a Ghanaian government body established in 1996 as part of the Health Sector Reform of Ghana.

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Ghanaian cedi

The Ghanaian cedi (currency sign: GH₵; currency code: GHS) is the unit of currency of Ghana.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gorilla

Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Gourd

A gourd is a plant of the family Cucurbitaceae, particularly Cucurbita and Lagenaria or the fruit of the two genera of Bignoniaceae "calabash tree", Crescentia and Amphitecna.

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Great Fish River

The Great Fish River (called great to distinguish it from the Namibian Fish River) (Groot-Visrivier) is a river running through the South African province of the Eastern Cape.

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Great Lakes Bantu languages

The Great Lakes Bantu languages, also known as Lacustrine Bantu and Bantu zone J, are a group of Bantu languages of East Africa.

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Great Mosque of Djenné

The Great Mosque of Djenné (Grande mosquée de Djenné, الجامع الكبير في جينيه) is a large banco or adobe building that is considered by many architects to be one of the greatest achievements of the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style.

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Great Zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe is a medieval city in the south-eastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe and the town of Masvingo.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gross national product

Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.

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Guinea

Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.

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Guineafowl

Guineafowl (sometimes called "pet speckled hen", or "original fowl" or guineahen) are birds of the family Numididae in the order Galliformes.

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Guinean forest-savanna mosaic

The Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is an ecoregion of West Africa, a band of interlaced forest, savanna, and grassland running east to west and dividing the tropical moist forests near the coast from the West Sudanian savanna of the interior.

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Guinean franc

The Guinean franc (franc guinéen, ISO 4217 code: GNF) is the currency of Guinea.

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Guizotia abyssinica

Guizotia abyssinica is an erect, stout, branched annual herb, grown for its edible oil and seed.

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Gumuz language

Gumuz (also spelled Gumaz) is a dialect cluster spoken along the border of Ethiopia and Sudan.

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Gur languages

The Gur languages, also known as Central Gur, belong to the Niger–Congo languages.

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Hadza people

The Hadza, or Hadzabe, are an indigenous ethnic group in north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau.

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Haile Gebrselassie

Haile Gebrselassie (ኃይሌ ገብረ ሥላሴ, haylē gebre silassē; born 18 April 1973) is a retired Ethiopian long-distance track and road running athlete.

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Hamites

Hamites (from the biblical Ham) is a historical term in ethnology and linguistics for a division of the Caucasian race and the group of related languages these populations spoke.

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Harare

Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.

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Hausa language

Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.

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Health care reform

Health care reform is a general rubric used for discussing major health policy creation or changes—for the most part, governmental policy that affects health care delivery in a given place.

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Henotheism

Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.

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Highlife

Highlife is a music genre that originated in Ghana early in the 20th century.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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History of Australia (1788–1850)

The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies and the beginnings of representative democratic government.

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HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hogan Bassey

Hogan "Kid" Bassey MBE (3 June 1932 – 26 January 1998) was a Nigerian-British boxer; he was the first man of Nigerian descent to become a world boxing champion.

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Hominidae

The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo ergaster

Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.

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Homo floresiensis

Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit") is an extinct species in the genus Homo.

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Homo habilis

Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Hoover Institution

The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Human capital flight

Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.

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Human genetic clustering

Human genetic clustering is the degree to which human genetic variation can be partitioned into a small number of groups or clusters.

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Hydraulics

Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Hydropower

Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

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Ibibio language

Ibibio (proper) is the native language of the Ibibio people of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, belonging to the Ibibio-Efik dialect cluster of the Cross River languages.

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Ife

Ife (Ifè, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria.

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Igbo language

Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.

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Igbo people

The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.

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Imperial cult

An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.

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Imperialism

Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indiana University Press

Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Information and communications technology

Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

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Injera

Injera (Amharic: ənǧära እንጀራ; sometimes transliterated as enjera; or "taita"; Tigrinya: ጣይታ; Somali: Canjeero) is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.

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International Association of Athletics Federations

The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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Jacob Matlala

Jacob "Baby Jake" Matlala (1 August 1962 – 7 December 2013) was a South African boxer and junior flyweight champion from Meadowlands, Johannesburg.

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Jan van Riebeeck

Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (21 April 1619 – 18 January 1677) was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator who founded Cape Town in what then became the Dutch Cape Colony of the Dutch East India Company.

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Jay-Jay Okocha

Augustine Azuka "Jay-Jay" Okocha (born 14 August 1973) is a Nigerian former professional footballer who played as an attacking midfielder.

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Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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John Cheruiyot Korir

John Cheruiyot Korir (born 13 December 1981) is a Kenyan athlete who specializes in long-distance running.

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Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

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Jomtien Beach

Jomtien (จอมเทียน) or Jomtien Beach (หาดจอมเทียน, Haat Jomtien), on road signs and road maps also often written Chom Tian, is a town on the east coast of the Gulf of Thailand about 165 km south-east of Bangkok in Chonburi Province.

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Juba

Juba (جوبا) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of South Sudan.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kaftan

A kaftan or caftan (قفطان qafṭān) is a variant of the robe or tunic and has been worn by several cultures around the world for thousands of years.

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Kalahari Basin

The Kalahari Basin or Kalahari Depression is a large lowland area covering over 2.5 million km2 covering most of Botswana and parts of Namibia, South Africa, Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

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Kalahari Desert

The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.

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Kamba people

The Kamba or Akamba people are a Bantu ethnic group - or tribe - who live in the semi-arid formerly Eastern Province of Kenya stretching east from Nairobi to Tsavo and north up to Embu, Kenya.

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Kampala

Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda.

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Kanem–Bornu Empire

The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.

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Kanga (African garment)

The kanga, is a colourful fabric similar to kitenge, but lighter, worn by women and occasionally by men throughout the African Great Lakes region.

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Kanuri language

Kanuri is a dialect continuum spoken by some four million people, as of 1987, in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, as well as small minorities in southern Libya and by a diaspora in Sudan.

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Kanuri people

The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa, Bare Bari and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.

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Karagwe District

Karagwe is one of the six districts of the Kagera Region of Tanzania.

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Karoo

The Karoo (from a Khoikhoi word, possibly garo "desert") is a semidesert natural region of South Africa.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kenenisa Bekele

Kenenisa Bekele (ቀነኒሳ በቀለ; born 13 June 1982) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner and the current world record and Olympic record holder in both the 5,000 metre and 10,000 metre events.

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Kenkey

Kenkey or kormi or kokoe or dorkunu is a staple dish similar to sourdough dumpling from the Ga-inhabited regions of West Africa, usually served with pepper sauce and fried fish or soup, stew.

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Kente cloth

Kente, known as nwentom in Akan, is a type of silk and cotton fabric made of interwoven cloth strips and is native to the Akan ethnic group of West Ghana.

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Kenya

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Kenyan shilling

The shilling (sign: KSh; code: KES) is the currency of Kenya.

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Khartoum

Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.

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Khoe languages

The Khoe languages are the largest of the non-Bantu language families indigenous to southern Africa.

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Khoikhoi

The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.

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Khoisan

Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).

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Khoisan languages

The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.

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Kigali

Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda.

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Kikuyu language

Kikuyu or Gikuyu (Gĩkũyũ) is a language of the Bantu family spoken primarily by the Kikuyu people (Agĩkũyũ) of Kenya.

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King Ezana's Stela

King Ezana's Stela is an obelisk in the ancient city of Axum, Ethiopia.

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Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Kingdom of Benin

The Kingdom of Benin, also known as the Benin Kingdom, was a pre-colonial kingdom in what is now southern Nigeria.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Kingdom of Kongo

The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.

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Kingdom of Luba

The Kingdom of Luba or Luba Empire (1585–1889) was a pre-colonial Central African state that arose in the marshy grasslands of the Upemba Depression in what is now southern Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Kingdom of Lunda

The Nation of Lunda (c. 1665 CE – c. 1887 CE) was a confederation of states in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, north-eastern Angola, and north-western Zambia, its central state was in Katanga.

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Kingdom of Mutapa

The Kingdom of Mutapa – sometimes referred to as the Mutapa Empire, Mwenemutapa, (Shona: Mwene we Mutapa or more commonly and modern "Munhumutapa"; Monomotapa) – was a Karanga kingdom which stretched from the Zambezi through the Limpopo rivers to the Indian Ocean in southern Africa, in what are the modern states of Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique and parts of Namibia and Botswana; stretching well into modern Zambia.

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Kingdom of Ndongo

The Kingdom of Ndongo, formerly known as Dongo or Angola, was an early-modern African state located in what is now Angola.

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Kingdom of Nri

The Kingdom of Nri was a medieval polity.

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Kinshasa

Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Kinyarwanda

Kinyarwanda; known as Igifumbira in Uganda) is an official language of Rwanda and a dialect of the Rwanda-Rundi language spoken by 12 million people in Rwanda, Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjacent parts of southern Uganda. (The Kirundi dialect is the official language of neighbouring Burundi.) Kinyarwanda is one of the four official languages of Rwanda (along with English, French and Kiswahili) and is spoken by almost all of the native population. That contrasts with most modern African states, whose borders were drawn by colonial powers and do not correspond to ethnic boundaries or precolonial kingdoms.

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Kirundi

Kirundi, also known as Rundi, is a Bantu language spoken by 9 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in Uganda.

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Kizomba

Kizomba is a genre of dance and a musical genre originating in Angola in 1984 Kizomba means "party" in Kimbundu, an Angolan language.

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Kola nut

The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees that are native to the tropical rainforests of Africa.

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Kolo Touré

Kolo Abib Touré (born 19 March 1981) is an Ivorian former footballer.

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Kongo language

Kongo or Kikongo is one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo and Ndundu peoples living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola.

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Kordofan

Kordofan (كردفان) is a former province of central Sudan.

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Kordofanian languages

The Kordofanian languages are a geographic grouping of five language groups spoken in the Nuba Mountains of the Kurdufan, Sudan: Talodi–Heiban languages, Lafofa languages, Rashad languages, Katla languages and Kadu languages.

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Kuba Kingdom

The Kuba Kingdom, also rendered as the Kingdom of the Bakuba, Songora or Bushongo, was a pre-colonial kingdom in Central Africa.

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Kufi

A kufi or kufi cap is a brimless, short, and rounded cap worn by men in many populations in North Africa, East Africa, Western Africa and South Asia.

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Kunama language

The Kunama language has been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan language family, though it is distantly related to the other languages, if at all.

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Kwa languages

The Kwa languages, often specified as New Kwa, are a proposed but as-yet-undemonstrated family of languages spoken in the south-eastern part of Ivory Coast, across southern Ghana, and in central Togo.

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KwaZulu-Natal

KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.

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Lagos

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.

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Lamba (garment)

A lamba is the traditional garment worn by men and women that live in Madagascar.

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Lamu

Lamu or Lamu Town is a small town on Lamu Island, which in turn is a part of the Lamu Archipelago in Kenya.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Lesotho loti

The Loti (plural: maLoti) is the currency of the Kingdom of Lesotho.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Liberian dollar

The dollar (currency code LRD) has been the currency of Liberia since 1943.

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Libreville

Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in western central Africa.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Lilongwe

Lilongwe is the capital city of Malawi with an estimated population of 1,077,116 for 2015.

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Limpopo River

The Limpopo River rises in South Africa, and flows generally eastwards to the Indian Ocean in Mozambique.

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Lineage (anthropology)

A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor.

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Lingala

Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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List of sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate

This is a list of all sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.

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List of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregions

This is a list of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregions (TSMFs), arranged by ecozone.

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Lithic technology

Lithic technology refers to a broad array of techniques and styles in archaeology, which are used to produce usable tools from various types of stone.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lomé

Lomé, with a population of 837,437 (metro population 1,570,283), is the capital and largest city of Togo.

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Lotuko mythology

The Lotuko are an ethnic group from South Sudan.

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Lozi mythology

The main function of Lozi mythology is to show that the original Lozi people (the Luyi or Luyana) were dwellers on the Barotse Floodplain of the upper Zambezi River and that they are, therefore, entitled to claim unchallenged title to that homeland.

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Luanda

Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre.

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Luba-Kasai language

Luba-Kasai, also known as Western Luba, Bena-Lulua, Ciluba/Tshiluba, Luba-Lulua or Luva, is a Bantu language (Zone L) of Central Africa and an official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, alongside Lingala, Swahili, and Kikongo.

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Luganda

Luganda, or Ganda (Oluganda), is one of the major languages in Uganda and is spoken by more than five million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda.

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Lugbara mythology

The Lugbara live in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda.

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Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza

Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born 25 January 1922) is an Italian-born population geneticist, who has been a professor (now emeritus) at Stanford University since 1970.

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Luo dialect

The Luo dialect, Dholuo (pronounced) or Nilotic Kavirondo (pejorative colonial term), is the eponymous dialect of the Luo group of Nilotic languages, spoken by about 6 million Luo people of Kenya and Tanzania, who occupy parts of the eastern shore of Lake Victoria and areas to the south.

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Lusaka

Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.

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M'banza-Kongo

M'banza-Kongo (or, known as São Salvador in Portuguese from 1570 to 1975), is the capital of Angola's northwestern Zaire Province.

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Maasai language

Maasai (Masai) or Maa (autonym: ɔl Maa) is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania by the Maasai people, numbering about 800,000.

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Maasai mythology

The Maasai mythology involves several beliefs of the Maasai people, an ethnic group living in Kenya and Tanzania.

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Makhuwa language

Makhuwa (Emakhuwa; also spelt Makua and Macua) is the primary Bantu language of northern Mozambique.

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Makossa

Makossa is a noted Cameroonian popular urban musical style.

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Malabo

Malabo (formerly Santa Isabel) is the capital of Equatorial Guinea and the province of Bioko Norte.

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Malagasy ariary

The ariary (sign: Ar; ISO 4217 code MGA) is the currency of Madagascar.

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Malagasy language

Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.

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Malao

Malao was an ancient Somali port city in present-day Somalia.

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malawi

Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.

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Malawian kwacha

The kwacha (ISO 4217: MWK, official name Malawi Kwacha) is the currency of Malawi as of 1971, replacing the Malawian pound.

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Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Maputo

Maputo (formerly named Lourenço Marques until 1976) is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.

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Maputo Protocol

The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, better known as the Maputo Protocol, guarantees comprehensive rights to women including the right to take part in the political process, to social and political equality with men, improved autonomy in their reproductive health decisions, and an end to female genital mutilation.

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Marathon

The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.

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Masalit language

Masalit (autonym Masala/Masara) is a Maban language spoken by the Masalit people in western Darfur, Sudan.

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Masalit people

The Masalit (Masalit: masala/masara; ماساليت) are an ethnic group inhabiting western Sudan and eastern Chad.

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Maseru

Maseru is the capital and largest city of Lesotho.

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Maternal death

Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".

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Mauritania

Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.

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Mauritanian ouguiya

The ouguiya (sign: UM; أوقية; currency code: MRU), also spelled "ougiya", is the currency of Mauritania.

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Mauritian rupee

The rupee (sign: ₨; ISO 4217 code: MUR) is the currency of Mauritius.

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Mauritius

Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Mbabane

Mbabane (ÉMbábáne) is the capital and largest city in Swaziland.

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Mbalax

Mbalax (or Mbalakh) is the national popular dance music of Senegal and the Gambia.

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Mbaqanga

Mbaqanga is a style of South African music with rural Zulu roots that continues to influence musicians worldwide today.

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Mbuti mythology

Mbuti (Bambuti) mythology is the mythology of the African Mbuti (also known as Bambuti) Pygmies of Congo.

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Mbuti people

Mbuti or Bambuti are one of several indigenous pygmy groups in the Congo region of Africa.

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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Megadiverse countries

The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.

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Member states of the Arab League

The Arab League has 22 member states.

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Menouthias

Menouthias (Μενουθιάς in Ancient Greek) is ancient trading town most commonly identified with either Pemba Island, Mafia Island or Zanzibar in Tanzania or east Africa, that existed from at least 50 B.C. Along with Rhapta and Azania, the settlement is mentioned in early Greek writings, such as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which describes Rhapta as "the last marketplace of Azania", two days' travel south of the Menouthias islands.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Michael Essien

Michael Kojo Essien (sometimes written in French: Michaël Essien) (born 3 December 1982) is a Ghanaian professional footballer.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Ministry of Health (Ghana)

The Ministry of Health (MoH) is the government ministry of Ghana that is responsible for the health of Ghana.

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Mogadishu

Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.

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Mohammed Abdullah Hassan

Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (April 7, 1856 – December 21, 1920) was a Somali religious and patriotic leader.

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Monrovia

Monrovia is the capital city of the West African country of Liberia.

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Monthly Review

The Monthly Review, established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Moroni, Comoros

Moroni (Arabic: موروني Mūrūnī) is the largest city, federal capital and seat of the government of the Union of the Comoros, a sovereign archipelago nation in the Indian Ocean.

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Mossi language

The Mossi language (known in the language as Mooré; also Mòoré, Mõõré, Moré, Moshi, Moore, More) is a Gur language of the Oti–Volta branch and one of two official regional languages of Burkina Faso, closely related to the Frafra language spoken just across the border in the northern half of Ghana and less-closely to Dagbani and Mampruli further south.

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Mozambican metical

The metical (plural: meticais) is the currency of Mozambique, abbreviated with the symbol MZN or MT.

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Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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N'Djamena

N’Djamena (N'Djaména; انجمينا Injamīnā) is the capital and largest city of Chad.

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Nairobi

Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.

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Naledi Pandor

Grace Naledi Mandisa Pandor (née Matthews, born 7 December 1953) is the South African Minister of Higher Education, serving as of 28 February 2018, having previously held the post from 2009-2012.

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Namibia

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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Namibian dollar

The Namibian dollar (symbol: $; code: NAD; Namibiese dollar) has been the currency of Namibia since 1993.

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Nandi–Markweta languages

The Nandi languages, or Kalenjin proper, are a dialect cluster of the Kalenjin branch of the Nilotic language family.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Nara language

The Nara (Nera) or Barea (Barya) language is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken chiefly in western Eritrea.

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Negro

Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.

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Neolithic Subpluvial

The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa.

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New Partnership for Africa's Development

The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is an economic development program of the African Union.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Niamey

Niamey is the capital and largest city of the West African country Niger.

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Niger

Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Nigeria at the 1996 Summer Olympics

Nigeria competed at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States.

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Nigerian naira

The naira (sign: ₦; code: NGN) is the currency of Nigeria.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.

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Nilotic peoples

The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.

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Nok culture

The Nok culture is an early Iron Age population whose material remains are named after the Ham village of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their famous terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic

The Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic is a forest and savanna ecoregion of central Africa, part of the belt of transitional forest-savanna mosaic that lie between Africa's equatorial forests and the tropical dry forests, savannas, and grasslands that lie to the north and south.

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Northern Sotho language

Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa), also (incorrectly) known by the name of its standardised dialect version Sepedi (or Pedi) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages.

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Nouakchott

Nouakchott (نواكشوط, originally derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ, "place of the winds") page 273.

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Nuba peoples

Nuba is a collective term used for the various indigenous peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan state in Sudan.

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Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.

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Nubian languages

The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.

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Nubians

Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.

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Nuer language

The Nuer language (Thok Naath) is a Nilo-Saharan language of the Western Nilotic group.

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Nwankwo Kanu

Nwankwo Kanu, OON (born 1 August 1976), or simply Kanu, is a retired Nigerian footballer who played as a forward.

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Oasis

In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.

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Odinani

Odinani comprises the traditional religious practices and cultural beliefs of the Igbo people of southern Nigeria.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Okra

Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.

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Old Nubian language

Old Nubian (also called Middle Nubian or Old Nobiin) is an extinct Nubian language, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century CE.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Oldowan

The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.

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Oman

Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Onchocerciasis

Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus.

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Ontology

Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Opone

Opone (Οπώνη) was an ancient Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.

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Oromo language

Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.

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Oryza glaberrima

Oryza glaberrima, commonly known as African rice, is one of the two domesticated rice species.

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Ouagadougou

Ouagadougou (Mossi) is the capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative, communications, cultural, and economic centre of the nation.

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Overseas Development Institute

The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.

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Oyo Empire

The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria.

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Paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Pap (food)

Pap, also known as mieliepap (Afrikaans for maize porridge) in South Africa or Sadza in Shona or Isitshwala in Isindebele language in Zimbabwe, or Vhuswa in Tshivenda or bogobe in Northern Sotho, Sesotho and Setswana languages or Nsima Chewa in Malawi, or Nsima in Zambia, Ogi/ Akamu in Nigeria or phaletšhe in Botswana is a traditional porridge/polenta made from mielie-meal (coarsely ground maize) and a staple food of the Bantu peoples of Southern Africa (the Afrikaans word pap is taken from Dutch and simply means "porridge").

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Parthia

Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

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Paul Tergat

Paul Kibii Tergat (born 17 June 1969) is a Kenyan former professional long distance runner.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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Phytochorion

A phytochorion, in phytogeography, is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species.

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Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang

Pierre-Emerick Emiliano François Aubameyang (born 18 June 1989) is a Gabonese professional footballer who plays for English club Arsenal and captains the Gabonese national team.

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Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Pluvial

In geology and climatology, a pluvial is either a modern climate characterized by relatively high precipitation, or an interval of time of variable length – decades to thousands of years – during which a climate is characterized by either relatively high precipitation or humidity.

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Port Louis

Port Louis (Port-Louis, Mauritian Creole: Porlwi poːrlwi) is the capital city of Mauritius.

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Porto-Novo

Porto-Novo (also known as Hogbonu and Ajashe) is the capital of Benin, and was the capital of French Dahomey.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Pre-Pottery Neolithic

The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN, around 8500-5500 BCE) represents the early Neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent.

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Pretoria

Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.

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Pygmy peoples

In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Raffia palm

Raffia palms (Raphia) are a genus of about twenty species of palms native to tropical regions of Africa, and especially Madagascar, with one species (R. taedigera) also occurring in Central and South America.

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Rapping

Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.

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Recent African origin of modern humans

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Reggae

Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.

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Rhapta

Rhapta (Ράπτα) was a marketplace said to be on the coast of Southeast Africa, first described in the 1st century CE.

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Rhythm and blues

Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.

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Ricinus

Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.

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Roger Milla

Albert Roger Mooh Miller (born 20 May 1952), commonly known as Roger Milla, is a retired Cameroonian professional footballer who played as a forward.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Royal Niger Company

The Royal Niger Company was a mercantile company chartered by the British government in the nineteenth century.

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Rugby Africa

Rugby Africa, is the administrative body for rugby union within the continent of Africa under the authority of World Rugby, which is the world governing body of rugby union.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rugby World Cup

The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.

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Rwanda

Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.

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Rwandan franc

The Rwandan franc (sign: FRw,National Bank of Rwanda. "." Accessed 2017-02-20. and possibly RF or R₣; ISO 4217: RWF) is the currency of Rwanda.

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Sabaeans

The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.

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Sadio Mané

Sadio Mané (born 10 April 1992) is a Senegalese professional footballer who plays as a winger for Premier League club Liverpool and the Senegal national team.

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Sahara

The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Sahara pump theory

The Sahara pump theory is a hypothesis that explains how flora and fauna migrated between Eurasia and Africa via a land bridge in the Levant region.

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Saharan languages

The Saharan languages are a small family of languages spoken across parts of the eastern Sahara, extending from northwestern Darfur to southern Libya, north and central Chad, eastern Niger and northeastern Nigeria.

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Sahel

The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.

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Saif Saaeed Shaheen

Saif Saaeed Shaheen (سيف سعيد شاهين), formerly Stephen Cherono (born October 15, 1982), is a steeplechase runner.

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Salsa music

Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.

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Samba

Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.

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Samuel Eto'o

Samuel Eto'o Fils (born 10 March 1981) is a Cameroonian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Turkish club Konyaspor.

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Samuel Peter

Samuel Okon Peter (born September 6, 1980) is a Nigerian-American professional boxer who held the WBC heavyweight title in 2008.

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San people

No description.

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San religion

The traditional religion and mythology of the San people is poorly attested due to their interactions with Christianity.

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Sandawe people

The Sandawe are an indigenous ethnic group of Southeast Africa, based in the Kondoa District of Dodoma Region in central Tanzania.

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Sango language

Sango (also spelled Sangho) is a creole language in the Central African Republic and the primary language spoken in the country.

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Santería

Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.

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Sao civilisation

The Sao civilisation flourished in Middle Africa from ca.

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Sara languages

The Sara languages comprise over a dozen Bongo–Bagirmi languages spoken mainly in Chad; a few are also spoken in the north of the Central African Republic.

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Savanna

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

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São Tomé

São Tomé is the capital city of the African Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe and is by far the nation's largest town.

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São Tomé and Príncipe dobra

The dobra is the currency of São Tomé and Príncipe.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Sculpture

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Semitic people

Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Senegambian languages

The Senegambian or Northern (West) Atlantic languages are a branch of Niger–Congo languages centered on Senegal (and Senegambia), with most languages spoken there and in neighboring southern Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, and Guinea.

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Serengeti

The Serengeti ecosystem is a geographical region in Africa.

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Serer creation myth

The Serer creation myth is the traditional creation myth of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania.

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Serer religion

The Serer religion, or a ƭat Roog ("the way of the Divine"), is the original religious beliefs, practices, and teachings of the Serer people of Senegal in West Africa.

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Seychelles

Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.

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Seychellois Creole

Seychellois Creole, also known as kreol or seselwa, is the French-based creole language of the Seychelles.

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Seychellois rupee

The rupee is the currency of the Seychelles.

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Shilluk Kingdom

The Shilluk Kingdom was located along the banks of the White Nile river in modern South Sudan.

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Shilluk language

Shilluk (natively Dhøg Cøllø or d̪ɔ́cɔ̀llɔ̀) is a Luo language spoken by the Shilluk people of South Sudan and Sudan.

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Shona language

Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.

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Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.

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Sierra Leonean leone

The leone is the currency of Sierra Leone.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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Somali shilling

The Somali shilling (sign: Sh.So.; shilin; شلن; scellino; ISO 4217: SOS) is the official currency of Somalia.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Somaliland Campaign

The Somaliland Campaign, also called the Anglo-Somali War or the Dervish War, was a series of military expeditions that took place between 1900 and 1920 in the Horn of Africa, pitting the Dervishes led by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (nicknamed the "Mad Mullah", although he "was neither mad nor a mullah") against the British.

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Somalis

Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).

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Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.

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Songhai people

The Songhai people (also Songhay or Sonrai) are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages.

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Songhay languages

The Songhay or Songhai languages are a group of closely related languages/dialects centred on the middle stretches of the Niger River in the West African countries of Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso and Nigeria.

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Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Sotho language

Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.

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Soukous

Soukous (from French secouer, "to shake") is a popular genre of dance music from the Congo Basin.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South African rand

The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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South Semitic languages

South Semitic is a putative branch of the Semitic languages.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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Southeast Africa

Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

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Stele

A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.

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Strategic Studies Institute

The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the U.S. Army's institute for strategic and national security research and analysis.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sudan (region)

The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.

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Sudanese pound

The Sudanese pound (Arabic) is the currency of Sudan.

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Sultanate of Bagirmi

The Sultanate or Kingdom of Bagirmi or Baghermi (Royaume du Baguirmi) was a kingdom and Islamic sultanate southeast of Lake Chad in central Africa between 1522 and 1897.

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Sultanate of the Geledi

The Sultanate of the Geledi (Saldanadda Geledi, سلطنة غلدي) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century.

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Sumerian language

Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

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Sungbo's Eredo

Sungbo's Eredo is a system of defensive walls and ditches that is located to the southwest of the Yoruba town of Ijebu Ode in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria.

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Swahili coast

The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.

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Swahili culture

Swahili culture is the culture of the Swahili people inhabiting the Swahili Coast.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Swahili people

The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.

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Swazi language

The Swazi or Swati language (Swazi: siSwati) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa by the Swazi people.

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Swazi lilangeni

The lilangeni (plural: emalangeni, ISO 4217 code: SZL) is the currency of Swaziland and is subdivided into 100 cents.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Taforalt

Taforalt or Grotte des Pigeons is a cave in northern Oujda, Morocco, and possibly the oldest cemetery in North Africa (Humphrey 2012).

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tanzanian shilling

For earlier currencies used in Tanzania, see East African florin, East African rupee, East African shilling, Zanzibari rupee, Zanzibari ryal and German East African rupie. The shilingi (Swahili; English: shilling; sign: TSh; code: TZS) is the currency of Tanzania.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Terracotta

Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.

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Thailand

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Gambia

No description.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Tichit

Tichit or Tichitt (Ticit, تيشيت) is a partly abandoned village at the foot of the Tagant Plateau in central southern Mauritania that is known for its vernacular architecture.

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Tigrinya language

Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tourism

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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Trans-Saharan trade

Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.

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Tropical Africa

Although tropical Africa is most familiar in the West as depicted by its rain forests, this ecozone of Africa is far more diverse.

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Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.

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Tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.

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Tswana language

No description.

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Tumbuka mythology

The Tumbuka are an ethnic group living in Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Twi

Twi (pronounced, or Akan Kasa) is a dialect of the Akan language spoken in southern and central Ghana by about 6–9 million Ashanti people as a first and second language.

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Ubangian languages

The Ubangian languages form a fairly close-knit language family of some seventy languages centered on the Central African Republic.

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Ugali

Ugali (also sometimes called kimnyet, sima, sembe, obokima, kaunga, dona, obusuma, ngima, kwon, arega or posho) is a dish made of maize flour (cornmeal), millet flour, or sorghum flour (sometimes mixed with cassava flour) cooked in boiling liquid (water or milk) to a stiff or firm dough-like consistency (when it is cooked as porridge, it is called uji) and served with salad.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Ugandan shilling

The shilling (sign: USh; code: UGX) is the currency of Uganda.

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Umbundu

Umbundu, or South Mbundu (autonym úmbúndú), one of two Bantu languages of Angola called Mbundu (see Kimbundu), is the most widely spoken language of Angola.

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UNESCO Institute for Statistics

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for cross-nationally comparable statistics on education, science and technology, culture, and communication.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations geoscheme

The United Nations geoscheme is a system which divides the countries of the world into regional and subregional groups.

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United Nations Population Fund

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.

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Universal Primary Education

The second goal in the United Nations Millennium Development Goal is to achieve Universal Primary Education, more specifically, to "ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling." Education is vital to meeting all other Millennium Development Goals: " gives the next generation the tools to fight poverty and prevent disease, including malaria and AIDS." Despite the significance of investing in education, the recent report, —produced by UNESCO Institute for Statistics and UNICEF found that the world has missed this 2015 target of universal primary education, and there are currently 58 million children, of primary school age, worldwide.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Vanadium

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

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Victoria, Seychelles

Victoria is the capital city of Seychelles and is situated on the north-eastern side of Mahé island, the archipelago's main island.

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Victualler

A victualler is traditionally a person who supplies food, beverages and other provisions for the crew of a vessel at sea.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Volta–Niger languages

The Volta–Niger family of languages, also known as West Benue–Congo or East Kwa, is one of the branches of the Niger–Congo language family, with perhaps 50 million speakers.

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Wadai Empire

The Wadai Empire or Sultanate (سلطنة وداي, royaume du Ouaddaï; 1635–1912) was a kingdom located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad and in the Central African Republic.

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Walls of Benin

The Walls of Benin were a combination of ramparts and moats, called ya in the local language, used as a defense of the ancient Kingdom of Benin, which is present-day Benin City, the capital of present-day Edo, Nigeria.

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Walter de Gruyter

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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Water supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.

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Watermelon

Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from Africa.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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West African CFA franc

The West African CFA franc (franc CFA; franco CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XOF) is the currency of eight independent states in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo.

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West African Vodun

Vodun (meaning spirit in the Fon and Ewe languages, with a nasal high-tone u; also spelled Vodon, Vodoun, Vodou, Voudou, Voodoo, etc.) is practiced by the Fon people of Benin, and southern and central Togo; as well in Ghana, and Nigeria.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Sahara

Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

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Western Sudan

The Western Sudan is a historic region in the northern part of West Africa.

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Whole genome sequencing

Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.

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William Buller Fagg

William Buller Fagg (28 April 1914 – 10 July 1992) was the Keeper of the Department of Anthropology at the British Museum (1969–1974) and pioneering historian of Yoruban and Nigerian art, with a particular focus on the art of Benin.

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Windhoek

Windhoek (Windhuk; ǀAiǁgams; Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia.

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Wolof language

Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Education Forum

The World Education Forum is a premium body comprising representatives of major organisations involved in education and related activities across the world.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Xhosa language

Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.

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Xhosa people

The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.

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Yam (vegetable)

Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.

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Yamoussoukro

Yamoussoukro is the political capital and administrative capital of Ivory Coast and an autonomous district of the country.

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Yaoundé

Yaoundé (Jaunde) is the capital of Cameroon and, with a population of approximately 2.5 million, the second largest city in the country after the port city Douala.

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Yaya Touré

Gnégnéri Yaya Touré (born 13 May 1983) is an Ivorian professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder.

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Yoruba language

Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.

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Yoruba people

The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.

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Yoruba religion

The Yoruba religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people.

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Zaghawa language

Zaghawa is a Saharan language spoken by the Zaghawa people of east-central Chad (in the Sahel) and northwestern Sudan (Darfur).

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Zaghawa people

The Zaghawa people, also called Beri or Zakhawa, are a Central African Muslim ethnic group of eastern Chad and western Sudan, including Darfur.

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Zagwe dynasty

The Zagwe dynasty (ዛጉዌ ሥርወ መንግስት) was the ruling dynasty of a Medieval kingdom in present-day northern Ethiopia.

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Zambezi

The Zambezi (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa.

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Zambia

Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zambian kwacha

The Kwacha (ISO 4217 code: ZMW) is the currency of Zambia.

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Zande language

Zande is the largest of the Zande languages.

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Zanj

Zanj (زَنْج, meaning "Blacks"Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Volume 131 (Kommissionsverlag F. Steiner, 1981), p. 130.) was a name used by medieval Muslim geographers to refer to both a certain portion of Southeast Africa (primarily the Swahili Coast), and to the area's Bantu inhabitants.

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Zanzibar

Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.

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Zarma language

Zarma (also spelled Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Adzerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma, Zarmaci or Zerma) is one of the Songhay languages.

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Zarma people

The Zarma people are an ethnic group predominantly found in westernmost Niger also found in significant numbers in the adjacent areas of Nigeria and Benin, along with smaller numbers in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Ghana.

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Zigula language

Zigula (Zigua, Chizigua) is a Bantu language of Tanzania and of Somalia, where it is known as Mushunguli (Mushungulu).

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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Zimbabwean dollar

The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009.

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Zoblazo

Zoblazo is a musical style from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, created in the early 1990s.

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Zulu Kingdom

The Kingdom of Zulu, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.

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Zulu language

Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.

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Zulu mythology

Zulu mythology contains numerous deities commonly associated with animals or general classes of natural phenomena.

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1995 Rugby World Cup

The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup.

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2007 Rugby World Cup

The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987.

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2010 FIFA World Cup

The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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5.9 kiloyear event

A satellite image of the Sahara. The Congolese rainforests lie to its south. The 5.9-kiloyear event was one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene.

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Redirects here:

Africa south of the Sahara, Africa south of the sahara, Africa, Sub-Saharan, African Uplands, African upland, Archaeogenetics of sub-Saharan Africa, Black Africa, Dark Africa, Genetic history of Sub-Saharan Africa, History of Sub-Saharan Africa, History of sub-Saharan Africa, Negro Africa, Sub Saharan, Sub Saharan Africa, Sub sahara, Sub sahara africa, Sub-Sahara, Sub-Sahara Africa, Sub-Saharan, Sub-Saharan African, Sub-Saharan African populations, Sub-Saharan Africans, Sub-saharah, Sub-saharan Africa, Sub-saharan africa, Subsahara, Subsaharan, Subsaharan Africa.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-Saharan_Africa

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