148 relations: Aerodynamic heating, Airbus, Alan Shepard, Altitude, Ansari X Prize, Apsis, ARCA Space Corporation, Armadillo Aerospace, Astronaut badge, Asymptote, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Australia, Ballistic missile, Ballistic missile flight phases, BFR (rocket), Blue Origin, Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar, Brian Binnie, British Interplanetary Society, Business jet, California, Canadian Arrow, Copenhagen Suborbitals, CORONA (SSTO), Courier, Delta-v, DH-1 (rocket), Distance, Earth, Earth radius, Ellipse, Elliptic orbit, Energia, Engine, Europe, Extreme sport, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Flight, Foot per second, Fractional Orbital Bombardment System, Free fall, Fuel, Gravity, Gus Grissom, Hybrid-propellant rocket, Hypersonic speed, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, ..., Interorbital Systems, JAXA, Joseph A. Walker, Kármán line, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Launch vehicle, Lift (force), Liquid fuel, List of rocket launch sites, Low Earth orbit, Lunar Lander Challenge, Masten Space Systems, McDonnell Douglas DC-X, Mercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-Redstone 4, Metre per second, Micro-g environment, Mike Melvill, Military, Moon, NASA, Nonprofit organization, North American X-15, Oberth effect, Office of Commercial Space Transportation, Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov, Orbit, Orbit equation, Orbital mechanics, Orbital spaceflight, Orbital speed, Outer space, Peenemünde, Pioneer 1, Polyus (spacecraft), Private spaceflight, Privately held company, Project Mercury, Project Morpheus, Project VR-190, Quad (rocket), Reusable Vehicle Testing, Richard A. Searfoss, Richard Branson, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket, Rocketplane XP, RTV-G-4 Bumper, Scaled Composites, Scaled Composites White Knight Two, Science, Scramjet, Sea level, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Sounding rocket, Soviet Union, Soyuz 7K-T No.39, Space, Space gun, Space probe, Space tourism, Spacecraft, Spaceflight, SpaceLiner, Spaceplane, Spaceport, Spaceport America, SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipOne flight 15P, SpaceShipOne flight 16P, SpaceShipOne flight 17P, SpaceShipTwo, SpaceX, SpaceX reusable launch system development program, Specific orbital energy, Speed, Standard gravitational parameter, Supersonic transport, Trajectory, Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, United States Department of State, V-2 rocket, V-2 sounding rocket, Vasily Lazarev, Vehicle, Virgin Galactic, Virgin Group, VMS Eve, Vostok 1, VSS Enterprise, VSS Enterprise crash, Weightlessness, White Sands Missile Range, X-15 Flight 90, X-15 Flight 91, XCOR Aerospace, XCOR Lynx, Yuri Gagarin. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
Aerodynamic heating is the heating of a solid body produced by its high-speed passage through air (or by the passage of air past a test object in a wind tunnel), whereby its kinetic energy is converted to heat by skin friction on the surface of the object at a rate that depends on the viscosity and speed of the air.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
The Ansari X Prize was a space competition in which the X Prize Foundation offered a US$10,000,000 prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
ARCA Space Corporation is an aerospace company based in Las Cruces, New Mexico United States, that builds space rockets and other manned and unmanned aircraft intended for space exploration.
Armadillo Aerospace was an aerospace startup company based in Mesquite, Texas.
The astronaut badge is a badge of the United States, awarded to military pilots, naval flight officers, navigators/combat systems officers (this badge can also be awarded to USAF officer astronauts who are not navigators/CSOs, but who wear the same insignia while designated as astronaut-qualified Air Force "observers"), flight surgeons, and civilian pilots who have completed training and performed a successful spaceflight.
In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
A ballistic missile goes through several distinct phases of flight that are common to almost all such designs.
BFR is a privately funded next-generation reusable launch vehicle and spacecraft system developed by SpaceX.
Blue Origin, LLC is an American privately funded aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company headquartered in Kent, Washington.
The Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar ("Dynamic Soarer") was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including aerial reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and as a space interceptor to sabotage enemy satellites.
William Brian Binnie (born 1953) is a former United States Navy officer and is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.
The British Interplanetary Society (BIS), founded in Liverpool in 1933 by Philip E. Cleator, is the oldest space advocacy organisation in the world.
A business jet, private jet, or bizjet, or simply B.J., is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Canadian Arrow was a privately funded, early-2000s rocket and space tourism project concept founded by London, Ontario, Canada entrepreneurs Geoff Sheerin, Dan McKibbon and Chris Corke.
Copenhagen Suborbitals is the world's only manned, amateur, crowd funded space programme.
CORONA is an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle developed by Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau from 1992 to 2012.
A courier is a company that delivers messages, packages, and mail.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
The DH-1 was a circa-2005 reusable two-stage-to-orbit rocket concept proposed in the book ''The Rocket Company'' by Patrick J. G. Stiennon, David M. Hoerr, Doug Birkholz (AIAA, 2005).
Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth radius is the approximate distance from Earth's center to its surface, about.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
Energia (Энергия, Energiya, "Energy") (GRAU 11K25) was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Extreme sports are recreational activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk.
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.
The foot per second (plural feet per second) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity, which includes direction).
The Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet ICBM program in the 1960s that after launch would go into a low Earth orbit and would then de-orbit for an attack.
In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Lieutenant Colonel Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts, a United States Air Force test pilot, and a mechanical engineer.
A hybrid-propellant rocket is a rocket with a rocket motor which uses rocket propellants in two different phases.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
Interorbital Systems Corporation (IOS) is an American aerospace manufacturer active in Mojave, California.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
Joseph Albert "Joe" Walker (February 20, 1921 – June 8, 1966) flew the world's first two spaceplane flights in 1963, thereby becoming the United States' seventh man in space.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.
This article constitutes a list of rocket launch sites.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge was a competition funded by NASA's Centennial Challenges program.
Masten Space Systems is an aerospace manufacturer startup company in Mojave, California (formerly Santa Clara, California) that is developing a line of vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) rockets, initially for unmanned research sub-orbital spaceflights and eventually intended to support unmanned orbital spaceflight launches.
The DC-X, short for Delta Clipper or Delta Clipper Experimental, was an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle built by McDonnell Douglas in conjunction with the United States Department of Defense's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) from 1991 to 1993.
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
Mercury-Redstone 4 was the second United States human spaceflight, on July 21, 1961.
Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.
Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill (born November 30, 1940 Johannesburg) is a world-record-breaking pilot and one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
In astronautics, a powered flyby, or Oberth maneuver, is a maneuver in which a spacecraft falls into a gravitational well, and then accelerates when its fall reaches maximum speed.
The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (generally referred to as FAA/AST or simply AST) is the branch of the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that approves any commercial rocket launch operations — that is, any launches that are not classified as model, amateur, or "by and for the government" — in the case of a U.S. launch operator and/or a launch from the U.S.
Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov (Оле́г Григо́рьевич Мака́ров) (6 January 1933 – 28 May 2003) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
In astrodynamics an orbit equation defines the path of orbiting body m_2\,\! around central body m_1\,\! relative to m_1\,\!, without specifying position as a function of time.
Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Peenemünde ("Peene Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
On October 11, 1958, Pioneer 1 became the first spacecraft launched by NASA, the newly formed space agency of the United States.
The Polyus spacecraft (Полюс, pole), also known as Polus, Skif-DM, GRAU index 17F19DM, was a prototype orbital weapons platform designed to destroy Strategic Defense Initiative satellites with a megawatt carbon-dioxide laser.
Private spaceflight is flight beyond the Kármán line (above the nominal edge of space at Earth altitude)—or the development of new spaceflight technology—that is conducted and paid for by an entity other than a government agency.
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Project Morpheus is a NASA project that began in 2010 to develop a vertical takeoff and vertical landing (VTVL) test vehicle called the Morpheus Lander.
VR-190 (Vysotnaya Raketa, literally, high-altitude rocket) was the first draft of human launch on a rocket into suborbital space flight on a ballistic trajectory at USSR between 1940s and 1950s.
In rocketry, the Armadillo Aerospace Quad vehicle called Pixel is a computer-controlled VTVL rocket that was used in 2006 to compete in the Lunar Lander Challenge.
The Reusable Vehicle Testing (RVT) project was conducted by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) from 1998 until 2003.
Richard Alan Searfoss (born June 5, 1956) is a retired United States Air Force colonel, NASA astronaut and test pilot.
Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English business magnate, investor and philanthropist.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The Rocketplane XP was a suborbital spaceplane design that was under development c. 2005 by Rocketplane Kistler.
The RTV-G-4 Bumper was a sounding rocket built by the United States.
Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.
The Scaled Composites Model 348 White Knight Two (WK2) is a jet-powered cargo aircraft that is used to lift the SpaceShipTwo spacecraft to release altitude.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz 7K-T No.39, (also named Soyuz 18a or Soyuz 18-1 by some sources and also known as the April 5 Anomaly) was an unsuccessful launch of a manned Soyuz spacecraft by the Soviet Union in 1975.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
A space gun, sometimes called a Verne gun because of its appearance in From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne, is a method of launching an object into space using a large gun- or cannonlike structure.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
SpaceLiner is a concept for a suborbital, hypersonic, winged passenger transport, conceived at the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, or DLR) in 2005.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft, by analogy to seaport for ships or airport for aircraft.
Spaceport America is an FAA-licensed spaceport located on of State Trust Land in the Jornada del Muerto desert basin in New Mexico, United States directly west and adjacent to U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range.
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.
Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne (X0) was the first privately funded human spaceflight.
Flight 16P of SpaceShipOne was a spaceflight in the Tier One program that took place on September 29, 2004.
Flight 17P of SpaceShipOne was a spaceflight in the Tier One program that took place on October 4, 2004.
The Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2) is an air-launched suborbital spaceplane type designed for space tourism.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
The SpaceX reusable launch system development program is a privately funded program to develop a set of new technologies for an orbital launch system that may be reused many times in a manner similar to the reusability of aircraft.
In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body.
A supersonic transport (SST) is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation, describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself using thrust by expelling part of its mass with high velocity and thereby move due to the conservation of momentum.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
German V-2 rockets captured by the United States Army at the end of World War II were used as sounding rockets to carry scientific instruments into the earth's upper atmosphere at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) for a program of atmospheric and solar investigation through the late 1940s.
Vasily Grigoryevich Lazarev (Васи́лий Григо́рьевич Ла́зарев; February 23, 1928 – December 31, 1990) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 12 spaceflight as well as the abortive Soyuz 18a launch in April 5, 1975.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group.
Virgin Group Ltd. is a British multinational corporation venture capital conglomerate founded by entrepreneurs Sir Richard Branson and Nik Powell.
VMS Eve--> (Tail number: N348MS) is a carrier mothership for Virgin Galactic and launch platform for Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo-based Virgin SpaceShips.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
VSS Enterprise (tail number: N339SS) was the first SpaceShipTwo (SS2) spaceplane, built by Scaled Composites for Virgin Galactic.
On October 31, 2014, the VSS ''Enterprise'', a Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo experimental spaceflight test vehicle-->, suffered a catastrophic in-flight breakup and crashed in the Mojave Desert, California, United States, while performing a test flight.
Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area of almost in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico.
Flight 90 of the North American X-15 was a test flight conducted by NASA and the US Air Force in 1963.
X-15 Flight 91 was a 1963 American manned mission, and the second and final flight in the program to achieve sub-orbital spaceflight—a flight over 100 km in altitude—which was previously achieved during Flight 90 a month earlier.
XCOR Aerospace was an American private spaceflight and rocket engine development company based at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California, Midland International Air and Spaceport in Midland, Texas and the Amsterdam area, the Netherlands.
The XCOR Lynx was a proposed suborbital horizontal-takeoff, horizontal-landing (HTHL), rocket-powered spaceplane that was under development by the California-based company XCOR Aerospace to compete in the emerging suborbital spaceflight market.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Ballistic flight, Sub-Orbital spaceflight, Sub-orbit, Sub-orbital, Sub-orbital flight, Sub-orbital space flight, Sub-orbital trajectory, Suborbital, Suborbital flight, Suborbital space flight, Suborbital spaceflight, Suborbital trajectory, Suborbital transportation.