66 relations: Ablation, Alchemy, Alembic, Ammonium chloride, Arsenic, Atmospheric pressure, Basil Valentine, Boiling, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemist, Cold finger, Cold trap, Deposition (phase transition), Dry ice, Dye-sublimation printer, Endothermic process, Enthalpy of fusion, Enthalpy of sublimation, Enthalpy of vaporization, Entropy, Equipartition theorem, Evaporation, Fingerprint, Forensic science, Freeze-drying, Freezer burn, Gas, George Ripley (alchemist), Ice, Ideal gas, Impurity, Intermolecular force, Iodine, Lattice energy, Liquid, Magnum opus (alchemy), Melting point, Molar concentration, Molecular vibration, Mothball, Naphthalene, Organic electronics, Paraffin wax, Partial pressure, Phase diagram, Pressure, Retort, ..., Rigid rotor, Rosary of the Philosophers, Snow, Snow field, Solid, Spagyric, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Sublimation apparatus, Temperature, Temperature gradient, Triple point, Vacuum, Van der Waals force, Vapor pressure, Volatility (chemistry), Water vapor. Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling chemicals.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Basil Valentine is the Anglicised version of the name Basilius Valentinus, ostensibly a 15th-century alchemist, possibly Canon of the Benedictine Priory of Saint Peter in Erfurt, Germany but more likely a pseudonym used by one or several 16th-century German authors.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
A cold finger is a piece of laboratory equipment that is used to generate a localized cold surface.
In vacuum applications, a cold trap is a device that condenses all vapors except the permanent gases into a liquid or solid.
Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
A dye-sublimation printer is a computer printer which uses heat to transfer dye onto materials such as a plastic, card, paper, or fabric.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
The enthalpy of sublimation, or heat of sublimation, is the heat required to change one mole of a substance from solid state to gaseous state at a given combination of temperature and pressure, usually standard temperature and pressure (STP).
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
Freeze drying, also known as lyophilisation or cryodessication, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation.
Freezer burn is a condition that occurs when frozen food has been damaged by dehydration and oxidation, due to air reaching the food.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Sir George Ripley (c. 1415–1490) was an English Augustinian canon, author, and alchemist.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
The Great Work (Latin: Magnum opus) is an alchemical term for the process of working with the prima materia to create the philosopher's stone.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.
Mothballs are small balls of chemical pesticide and deodorant, sometimes used when storing clothing and other articles susceptible to damage from mold or moth larvae (especially clothes moths like Tineola bisselliella).
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
Organic electronics is a field of materials science concerning the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of organic small molecules or polymers that show desirable electronic properties such as conductivity.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.
The rigid rotor is a mechanical model that is used to explain rotating systems.
The Rosary of the Philosophers (Rosarium philosophorum sive pretiosissimum donum Dei) is a 16th-century alchemical treatise.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
A snow field, snowfield or neve is an accumulation of permanent snow and ice, typically found above the snow line, normally in mountainous and glacial terrain.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
A spagyric is a word in English that means "alchemy." Some people have coined the use of the word to mean an herbal medicine produced by alchemical procedures.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Simple sublimation apparatus. Water usually cold, is circulated in cold finger to allow the desired compound to be deposited.'''1''' Cooling water in '''2''' Cooling water out '''3''' Vacuum/gas line '''4''' Sublimation chamber '''5''' Sublimed compound '''6''' Crude material '''7''' External heating Sublimation apparatus is equipment, commonly laboratory glassware, for purification of compounds by selective sublimation.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.