145 relations: Addiction, Addictive personality, Adolescence, Alcohol, Alcohol (drug), Alcohol abuse, Alcohol and health, Alcoholics Anonymous, Alcoholism, Alkyl nitrites, American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, Amphetamine, Amphetamine dependence, Anabolic steroid, Analgesic, Anti-social behaviour, Anxiolytic, Applied behavior analysis, Arguments for and against drug prohibition, Assault, Barbiturate, Behaviorism, Benzodiazepine, British Columbia, Buprenorphine, Bupropion, Burglary, Caffeine, CAGE questionnaire, Cannabinoid, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), Capital punishment, Central nervous system, Child abuse, Cigarette, Clinical trial, Cocaine, Cocaine dependence, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Combined drug intoxication, Community reinforcement approach and family training, Contingency management, Controlled Substances Act, CRAFFT Screening Test, Death, Depressant, Designer drug, Development of the nervous system, ..., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Disease, Dissociative, Disulfiram, Doctor shopping, Domestic violence, Drug cartel, Drug class, Drug diversion, Drug overdose, Drug prohibition law, Drug withdrawal, Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act, DSM-5, Dysthymia, Empathogen–entactogen, Ethanol, European Union, Exposure therapy, Family therapy, FOSB, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Hallucinogen, Harm reduction, Heroin, Home Office, Homicide, Impulsivity, Inhalant, Injury, Integrative behavioral couples therapy, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Iowa gambling task, Kenya, Ketamine, Khat, Legislation, License, List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication, Low-threshold treatment programs, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Major depressive disorder, MDMA, Methadone, Methaqualone, Methylphenidate, Modafinil, Monitoring the Future, Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions, Motivational interviewing, Naltrexone, Narcotics Anonymous, National Health Service, Needle exchange programme, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Opioid, Opioid use disorder, Opposite (semantics), Pearson correlation coefficient, Philip Jenkins, Physical dependence, Poly drug use, Polysubstance dependence, Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, Prefrontal cortex, Prescription drug, Prohibition of drugs, Psychedelic drug, Psychiatry, Psychological dependence, Psychosis, Public health, Rape, Safe sex, Sedative, Serotonin releasing agent, Social issue, Social skills, Stimulant, Street children, Substance dependence, Substance intoxication, Substance use disorder, Substance-related disorder, Substituted amphetamine, Suicide, Tobacco, Traffic collision, Unintended consequences, United States, Violence, World Health Organization, 4-Methylthioamphetamine. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An addictive personality refers to a particular set of personality traits that make an individual predisposed to developing addictions.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
Alcohol (also known as ethanol) has a number of effects on health.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an international mutual aid fellowship whose stated purpose is to enable its members to "stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety." It was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alkyl nitrites are a group of chemical compounds based upon the molecular structure R-ONO.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Amphetamine dependence refers to a state of psychological dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anti-social behaviours are actions that harm or lack consideration for the well-being of others.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.
Arguments about the prohibition of drugs, and over drug policy reform, are subjects of considerable controversy.
An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Burglary (also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking) is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
The CAGE questionnaire, the name of which is an acronym of its four questions, is a widely used screening test for problem drinking and potential alcohol problems.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocaine dependence is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Combined drug intoxication (CDI), also known as multiple drug intake (MDI) or lethal polydrug/polypharmacy intoxication, is an unnatural cause of human death.
Community reinforcement approach and family training (CRAFT) is a behavior therapy approach for treating addiction.
Contingency management (CM) is most-widely used in the field of substance abuse, often implemented as part of clinical behavior analysis.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The CRAFFT Screening Test is a short clinical assessment tool designed to screen for substance-related risks and problems in adolescents.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse and Antabus) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol).
Doctor shopping is the practice of visiting multiple physicians to obtain multiple prescriptions for otherwise illegal drugs, or the medical opinion that one wants to hear.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
A drug cartel is any criminal organization with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations.
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
Drug diversion is a medical and legal concept involving the transfer of any legally prescribed controlled substance from the individual for whom it was prescribed to another person for any illicit use.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Drug prohibition law is prohibition-based law by which governments prohibit, except under licence, the production, supply, and possession of many, but not all, substances which are recognized as drugs, and which corresponds to international treaty commitments in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1988.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Drugs controlled by the United Kingdom (UK) Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 are listed in this article.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Exposure therapy is a technique in behavior therapy thought to help treat anxiety disorders.
Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Behavioral marital therapy, sometimes called behavioral couples therapy, has its origins in behaviorism and is a form of behavior therapy.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
The Iowa gambling task (IGT) is a psychological task thought to simulate real-life decision making.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
Drug overdose and intoxication are significant causes of accidental death, and can also be used as a form of suicide.
Low-threshold treatment programs are harm reduction-based health care centers targeted towards drug users.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude (pronounced) and sometimes stylized "Quāālude" in the United States and Mandrax in the United Kingdom and South Africa, is a sedative and hypnotic medication.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, also known as the National High School Senior Survey, is a long-term epidemiological study that surveys trends in legal and illicit drug use among American adolescents and adults as well as personal levels of perceived risk and disapproval for each drug.
Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions is a dictionary of health related topics.
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling approach developed in part by clinical psychologists William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
Narcotics Anonymous (NA) describes itself as a "nonprofit fellowship or society of men and women for whom drugs had become a major problem".
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
A needle and syringe programme (NSP), syringe-exchange programme (SEP), or needle exchange program (NEP) is a social service that allows injecting drug users (IDUs) to obtain hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at little or no cost.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big: small, long: short, and precede: follow.
In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, pronounced), also referred to as Pearson's r, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) or the bivariate correlation, is a measure of the linear correlation between two variables X and Y. It has a value between +1 and −1, where 1 is total positive linear correlation, 0 is no linear correlation, and −1 is total negative linear correlation.
Philip Jenkins (born April 3, 1952) is a Professor of History at Baylor University in the United States, and Co-Director for Baylor's Program on Historical Studies of Religion in the Institute for Studies of Religion.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.
A person with polysubstance dependence is psychologically addicted to being in an intoxicated state without a preference for one particular substance.
Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) describe a set of persistent impairments that occur after withdrawal from alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.
A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.
A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Street children are children experiencing poverty, homelessness or both, who are living on the streets of a city, town, or village.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) is a designer drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols, an American pharmacologist and medical chemist, at Purdue University.
Abuse liability, Abuse of drugs, Abuse potential, Abusing drugs, Abusive drug use, Alcohol and drug abuse, Anti-drug, Drug Abuse, Drug abuse, Drug abuser, Drug misuse, Drug of abuse, Drug-abuse, Drugs in Tanzania, Drugs of abuse, IV drug abuse, Illegal drug abuse, Illegal drug use, Misuse of drugs, Narcotic abuse theory, Nondependent abuse of drugs, Prescription Drug Misuse, Prescription drug abuse, Substance abuses, Substance usage.