90 relations: Action potential, Addiction, Alfentanil, Alpha-synuclein, Atypical antipsychotic, Basal ganglia, Blood–brain barrier, Butyrophenone, Calbindin, Calcium, Cannula, Caudate nucleus, Cerebral peduncle, Chemical synapse, Clozapine, Cocaine, Depression (mood), Desmethylprodine, Direct pathway, Dopamine, Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic, Dysbindin, Endocytosis, Epilepsy, Episodic-like memory, Eye movement, Fatigue, Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, Fentanyl, GABAergic, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Globus pallidus, Glutamatergic, Glutamic acid, Hippocampus, Hypokinesia, Indirect pathway, Insomnia, Internal capsule, L-DOPA, Latin, Learning, Lesion, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, Midbrain, Mitochondrion, Model organism, ..., Motor control, Motor system, MPTP, Multiple system atrophy, Muscle tone, Neurodegeneration, Neuromelanin, Neuron, Neuropharmacology, Nigrostriatal pathway, NMDA receptor, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Opioid, Paliperidone, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Pars compacta, Pars reticulata, Phenothiazine, Phosphorylation, Protein kinase, Radical (chemistry), Rapid eye movement sleep, Remifentanil, Reward system, Saccade, Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, Schizophrenia, Sleep disorder, Striatum, Subthalamic nucleus, Superior colliculus, TAAR1, Thalamus, Thioxanthene, Toxicology, Tremor, Typical antipsychotic, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Wooden chest syndrome. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the SNCA gene.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Butyrophenone is a chemical compound; some of its derivatives (called commonly butyrophenones) are used to treat various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, as well as acting as antiemetics.
Calbindin refers to several calcium-binding proteins.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A cannula (from Latin "little reed"; plural cannulae or cannulas) is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data.
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.
The cerebral peduncles are structures at the front of the midbrain which arise from the front of the pons and contain the large ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) nerve tracts that run to and from the cerebrum from the pons.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Desmethylprodine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP, Ro 2-0718) is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the 1940s by researchers at Hoffmann-La Roche.
The direct pathway, sometimes known as the direct pathway of movement, is a neural pathway within the central nervous system (CNS) through the basal ganglia which facilitates the initiation and execution of voluntary movement.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia or the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis is a model that attributes symptoms of schizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Dysbindin, short for dystrobrevin-binding protein 1, is a protein constituent of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DPC) of skeletal muscle cells.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Episodic-like memory is the memory system in animals that is comparable to human episodic memory.
Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Félix Vicq d'Azyr (23 April 1748 – 20 June 1794) was a French physician and anatomist, the originator of comparative anatomy and discoverer of the theory of homology in biology.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
GABAergic means "pertaining to or affecting the neurotransmitter GABA".
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.
Glutamatergic means "related to glutamate".
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.
The indirect pathway sometimes known as the indirect pathway of movement is a neuronal circuit through the basal ganglia and several associated nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) which helps to prevent unwanted muscle contractions from competing with voluntary movements.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The internal capsule is a white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.
The motor system is the part of the central nervous system that is involved with movement.
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a prodrug to the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease by destroying dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy–Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Paliperidone, sold under the trade name Invega among others, is a dopamine antagonist and 5-HT2A antagonist of the atypical antipsychotic class of medications.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
The pars compacta is a portion of the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain.
The pars reticulata is a portion of the substantia nigra.
Phenothiazine, abbreviated PTZ, is an organic compound that has the formula S(C6H4)2NH and is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Remifentanil is a potent, short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
A saccade (French for jerk) is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction.
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring (28 January 1755 – 2 March 1830) was a German physician, anatomist, anthropologist, paleontologist and inventor.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Thioxanthene is a chemical compound in which the oxygen atom in xanthene is replaced with a sulfur atom.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Wooden chest syndrome is a rigidity of the chest following the administration of high doses of opioids during anaesthesia.