183 relations: -ose, Acer saccharum, Activated carbon, Adolf Ferdinand Wenceslaus Brix, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Animal feed, Anticaking agent, Apricot, Bacteria, Beetroot, Biosynthesis, Blood sugar level, Body mass index, Bone char, Brazil, Brix, Brown sugar, C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation, Cake, Calcination, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium phosphate, Calorie, Candy, Caramel, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbonatation, Cell membrane, Centrifuge, Chemical formula, Chloric acid, Chocolate, Citric acid, Common Agricultural Policy, Confectionery, Corn starch, Corn syrup, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Crusades, Cuba, Date palm, Dessert, ..., Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diffuser (heat), Disaccharide, Duodenum, Egypt, Empty calorie, Energy, Enzyme, Ethanol, Ethanol fuel, European Union, Fair trade, Fanjul brothers, Fermentation in food processing, Food and Drug Administration, Franz Karl Achard, Free sugar, Free trade, Fructose, Fructose 6-phosphate, G20 developing nations, Glucose, Glucose syrup, Glycation, Glycemic index, Glycogen, Glycoside hydrolase, Glycosidic bond, Glycosyl, Gout, Grape, Gupta Empire, Heat of combustion, High-fructose corn syrup, Honey, Honey bee, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrolysis, Hyperglycemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypoglycemia, Indus River, Industrialisation, Insulin, Insulin resistance, Invertase, Isomaltase, Isotope analysis, Jamaica, Joule, Juice, Junk food, Kashrut, Lactic acid, Lactose, Least Developed Countries, Limewater, Liver, Maize, Maltodextrin, Maltose, Marcellin Berthelot, Metabolic syndrome, Micronutrient, Microvillus, Molasses, Monoclinic crystal system, Monosaccharide, Most favoured nation, Napoleonic Wars, National Academy of Sciences, Nectar, Nutrient, Organ (anatomy), Organism, Pareve, Pear, Phosphoric acid, Photosynthesis, Pineapple, Polarimetry, Polarization (waves), Portugal, Potassium bitartrate, Potassium chlorate, Potassium nitrate, Powdered sugar, Precipitation (chemistry), Primetime Emmy Award, Raymond Lemieux, Recipe, Reducing sugar, Rocket candy, Sicily, Sorghum, Space group, Spain, Specific rotation, Starch, Steam engine, Streptococcus mutans, Subsidy, Sucrase, Sucrose-phosphate synthase, Sugar, Sugar beet, Sugar caster, Sugar industry, Sugar nips, Sugar substitute, Sugarcane, Sugarcane juice, Sugaring, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Tariff, The New York Times, Tonne, Tooth decay, Treacle, Triglyceride, U.S. Sugar Program, United States Department of Agriculture, Uridine diphosphate, Uridine diphosphate glucose, Water-gas shift reaction, West Indies, Wheat, William Allen Miller, World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, Xylose. Expand index (133 more) » « Shrink index
The suffix -ose is used in biochemistry to form the names of sugars.
Acer saccharum, the sugar maple or rock maple, is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia west through Quebec and southern Ontario to southeastern Manitoba around Lake of the Woods, and the northern parts of the Central and Eastern United States, from Minnesota eastward to the highlands of the eastern states.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Adolf Ferdinand Wenceslaus Brix (20 February 1798 – 14 February 1870) was a German mathematician and engineer.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.
Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.
An anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt or confectionaries to prevent the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, and consumption.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Bone char (carbo animalis.) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bones.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Degrees Brix (symbol °Bx) is the sugar content of an aqueous solution.
Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.
carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient.
Caramel is a medium- to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons.
Carbonatation is a chemical reaction in which calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide and forms insoluble calcium carbonate: The process of forming a carbonate is sometimes referred to as "carbonation", although this term usually refers to the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward) that can be very strong.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade.
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Dessert is a confectionery course that concludes a main meal.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A Heat Diffuser is a cooking utensil that is placed on top of a ring on a cooktop in order to separate the pan/pot from the direct source of heat.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In human nutrition, the term empty calories applies to foods and beverages composed primarily or solely of sugar, fats or oils, or alcohol-containing beverages.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
The Fanjul brothers — Cuban born Alfonso "Alfy" Fanjul Jr., José "Pepe" Fanjul, Alexander Fanjul, and Andres Fanjul — are owners of Fanjul Corp., a vast sugar and real estate conglomerate in the United States and the Dominican Republic.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Franz Karl Achard (April 28, 1753 – April 20, 1821) was a German (Prussian) chemist, physicist and biologist.
Free sugar is defined by the World Health Organization and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization in multiple reports as "all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook, or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, and fruit juices".
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fructose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6-hydroxy group.
The G20 developing nations (and, occasionally, the G21, G23 or G20+) was a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch.
Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.
The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars.
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
A glycosyl group is a univalent free radical or substituent structure obtained by removing the hemiacetal hydroxyl group from the cyclic form of a monosaccharide and, by extension, of a lower oligosaccharide.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypertriglyceridemia denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar) into fructose and glucose.
Isomaltase is an enzyme that breaks the bonds linking saccharides, which cannot be broken by amylase or maltase.
Isotope analysis is the identification of isotopic signature, the abundance of certain stable isotopes and chemical elements within organic and inorganic compounds.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.
Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the ThomsenendashBerthelot principle of thermochemistry.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
In kashrut, the dietary laws of Judaism, pareve (from Yiddish פאַרעוו for "neutral", in Hebrew, and also parve and other variant English spellings) is a classification of edible substances that contain neither dairy nor meat ingredients.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
Polarimetry is the measurement and interpretation of the polarization of transverse waves, most notably electromagnetic waves, such as radio or light waves.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula K C4 H5 O6, is a byproduct of winemaking.
Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Powdered sugar, also called confectioners' sugar, icing sugar, and icing cake, is a finely ground sugar produced by milling granulated sugar into a powdered state.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
The Primetime Emmy Award is an American award bestowed by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS) in recognition of excellence in American primetime television programming.
Raymond Urgel Lemieux, CC, AOE, FRS (June 16, 1920 – July 22, 2000) was a Canadian organic chemist, who pioneered a number of discoveries in the field of chemistry, his first and most famous being the synthesis of sucrose.
A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a culinary dish.
A reducing sugar is any sugar that is capable of acting as a reducing agent because it has a free aldehyde group or a free ketone group.
Rocket Candy, or R-Candy, is a type of rocket propellant for model rockets made with sugar as a fuel, and containing an oxidizer.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
In chemistry, specific rotation is a property of a chiral chemical compound.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Streptococcus mutans is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Sucrase is a digestive enzyme secreted in the small intestine.
Sucrose-phosphate synthase is a plant enzyme involved in sucrose biosynthesis.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
A sugar caster is a small container, with a perforated top, larger than a salt shaker but similar in form.
The sugar industry subsumes the production, processing and marketing of sugars (mostly saccharose and fructose).
Sugar nips are a large pair of pincers with sharp blades, designed to cut sugar from a block.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sugarcane juice is the syrup extracted from pressed sugarcane.
Sugaring is a food preservation method similar to pickling.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Treacle is any uncrystallised syrup made during the refining of sugar.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
The U.S. Sugar program is the federal commodity support program that maintains a minimum price for sugar, authorized by the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec. 1401-1403) to cover the 2002-2007 crops of sugar beets and sugarcane.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Uridine diphosphate, abbreviated UDP, is a nucleotide diphosphate.
Uridine diphosphate glucose (uracil-diphosphate glucose, UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
William Allen Miller FRS (17 December 1817 – 30 September 1870) was a British scientist.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Xylose (cf. ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it.