79 relations: Albedo, Alkali metal, Ammonia, Atmosphere, Carbon monoxide, Celestia, Cirrus cloud, COROT-9b, David Sudarsky, Earth, Earth mass, Exoplanet, Gas giant, Gliese 876 b, Gliese 876 c, Harvard University, HAT-P-11b, HAT-P-7b, HD 10180, HD 178911 Bb, HD 189733 b, HD 205739 b, HD 209458 b, HD 28185 b, HD 37124 b, HD 45364 b, HD 45364 c, HD 85512 b, Hot Jupiter, Hydrogen, Ice giant, Internal heating, Iron, Jupiter, Kepler (spacecraft), Kepler-7b, Kepler-86, Kepler-89e, Kepler-90h, List of planet types, Mercury (planet), Methane, Neptune, OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb, Phosphorus, Planetary system, Potassium, Rayleigh scattering, Roman numerals, Saturn, ..., Silicate, Sodium, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Spectral line, Spectrum, Star, Stratosphere, Sun, Super-Jupiter, Terrestrial planet, The Astrophysical Journal, Tholin, TrES-2b, Upsilon Andromedae b, Upsilon Andromedae c, Upsilon Andromedae d, Upsilon Andromedae e, Uranus, Venus, Water vapor, 47 Ursae Majoris b, 47 Ursae Majoris c, 47 Ursae Majoris d, 51 Pegasi b, 55 Cancri b, 55 Cancri c, 55 Cancri d, 55 Cancri f. Expand index (29 more) » « Shrink index
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Celestia is a 3D astronomy program created by Chris Laurel.
Cirrus (cloud classification symbol: Ci) is a genus of atmospheric cloud generally characterized by thin, wispy strands, giving the type its name from the Latin word cirrus, meaning a ringlet or curling lock of hair.
COROT-9b is an exoplanet orbiting the star COROT-9, approximately 1500 light years away in the constellation Serpens.
David Sudarsky is an astrophysicist at the University of Arizona.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth mass (where ⊕ is the standard astronomical symbol for planet Earth) is the unit of mass equal to that of Earth.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Gliese 876 b is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 876.
Gliese 876 c is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 876, taking about 30 days to complete an orbit.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
HAT-P-11b (or Kepler-3b) is an extrasolar planet.
HD 10180 is a Sun-like star in the southern constellation Hydrus that is notable for its large planetary system.
HD 178911 Bb is a planet discovered in 2001 by Zucker who used the radial velocity method.
HD 189733 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 63 light-years away from the Solar System in the constellation of Vulpecula.
HD 205739 b is an extrasolar planet located approximately 350 light-years away in the constellation of Piscis Austrinus, orbiting the star HD 205739.
HD 209458 b, also given the nickname Osiris,http://exoplanets.co/exoplanets-tutorial/extrasolar-planet-hd-209458-b.html is an exoplanet that orbits the solar analog HD 209458 in the constellation Pegasus, some 159 light-years from the Solar System.
HD 28185 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 138 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Eridanus.
HD 37124 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 108 light-years away in the constellation of Taurus (the Bull).
HD 45364 b is an extrasolar planet located approximately 107 light years away in the constellation of Canis Major, orbiting the 8th magnitude G-type main sequence star HD 45364.
HD 45364 c is an extrasolar planet located approximately 107 light years away in the constellation of Canis Major, orbiting the eighth magnitude G-type main sequence star HD 45364.
HD 85512 b is an exoplanet orbiting HD 85512, a K-type main-sequence star approximately 36 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Vela.
Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital period (P The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". Hot Jupiters are the easiest extrasolar planets to detect via the radial-velocity method, because the oscillations they induce in their parent stars' motion are relatively large and rapid compared to those of other known types of planets. One of the best-known hot Jupiters is 51 Pegasi b. Discovered in 1995, it was the first extrasolar planet found orbiting a Sun-like star. 51 Pegasi b has an orbital period of about 4 days.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Internal heat is the heat source from the interior of celestial objects, such as stars, brown dwarfs, planets, moons, dwarf planets, and (in the early history of the Solar System) even asteroids such as Vesta, resulting from contraction caused by gravity (the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism), nuclear fusion, tidal heating, core solidification (heat of fusion released as molten core material solidifies), and radioactive decay.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.
Kepler-7b is one of the first five exoplanets to be confirmed by NASA's Kepler spacecraft, and was confirmed in the first 33.5 days of Kepler's science operations.
Kepler-86, PH2 or KIC 12735740 (2MASS 19190326+5157453), is a G-type star distant within the constellation Cygnus.
Kepler-89e, also known as KOI-94e, is an exoplanet in the constellation of Cygnus.
Kepler-90h (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-351.01) is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the early G-type main sequence star Kepler-90, the outermost of eight such planets discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft.
The following is a list of planet types.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (known sometimes as Hoth by NASA) is a super-Earth exoplanet orbiting OGLE-2005-BLG-390L, a star 21,500 ± 3,300 light years from Earth near the center of the Milky Way.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A super-Jupiter is an astronomical object that is more massive than the planet Jupiter.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Tholins (after the Greek θολός (tholós) "hazy" or "muddy"; from the ancient Greek word meaning "sepia ink") are a wide variety of organic compounds formed by solar ultraviolet irradiation or cosmic rays from simple carbon-containing compounds such as carbon dioxide, methane or ethane, often in combination with nitrogen.
TrES-2b (TrES-2 or Kepler-1b) is an extrasolar planet orbiting the star GSC 03549-02811 located 750 light years away from the Solar System.
Upsilon Andromedae b (υ Andromedae b, abbreviated Upsilon And b, υ And b), also named Saffar, is an extrasolar planet approximately 44 light-years away from the Sun in the constellation of Andromeda.
Upsilon Andromedae c (υ Andromedae c, abbreviated Upsilon And c, υ And c), also named Samh, is an extrasolar planet orbiting the Sun-like star Upsilon Andromedae A every 241.3 days.
Upsilon Andromedae d (υ Andromedae d, abbreviated Upsilon And d, υ And d), also named Majriti, is a super-Jupiter exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the Sun-like star Upsilon Andromedae A, approximately 44 light-years (13.5 parsecs, or nearly km) away from Earth in the constellation of Andromeda.
Upsilon Andromedae e is the outermost extrasolar planet orbiting the star Upsilon Andromedae A in the constellation of Andromeda.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
47 Ursae Majoris b (abbreviated 47 UMa b), also named Taphao Thong (ตะเภาทอง), is an extrasolar planet approximately 46 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ursa Major.
47 Ursae Majoris c (abbreviated 47 UMa c), also named Taphao Kaew (ตะเภาแก้ว), is an extrasolar planet approximately 46 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ursa Major.
47 Ursae Majoris d (sometimes abbreviated 47 Uma d) is an extrasolar planet approximately 46 light-years away in the constellation of Ursa Major.
51 Pegasi b (abbreviated 51 Peg b), unofficially dubbed Bellerophon, later named Dimidium, is an extrasolar planet approximately 50 light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus.
55 Cancri b (abbreviated 55 Cnc b), occasionally designated 55 Cancri Ab (to distinguish it from the star 55 Cancri B), also named Galileo, is an exoplanet orbiting the Sun-like star 55 Cancri A every 14.65 days.
55 Cancri c (abbreviated 55 Cnc c), also named Brahe, is an extrasolar planet in an eccentric orbit around the Sun-like star 55 Cancri A, making one revolution every 44.34 days.
55 Cancri d (abbreviated 55 Cnc d), also named Lipperhey, is an extrasolar planet in a long-period orbit around the Sun-like star 55 Cancri A. Located at a similar distance from its star as Jupiter is from our Sun, it is the fifth and outermost known planet in its planetary system.
55 Cancri f (abbreviated 55 Cnc f), also designated Rho1 Cancri f and named Harriot, is an extrasolar planet approximately 41 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Cancer (the Crab).
Alkali giant, Alkali jovian, Ammonia giant, Ammonia jovian, Appearance of extrasolar planets, Clear giant, Clear jovian, Gas giant classes, Gas giant classification, Iron jovian, Planetary appearance classification, Planetary appearance type, Silicate giant, Silicate jovian, Sudarsky classes, Sudarsky classification system, Sudarsky exoplanet classification, Sudarsky extrasolar planet classification, Sudarsky gas giant classes, Sudarsky planet classification, Sudarsky planet type, Sudarsky's classes, Sudarsky's extrasolar gas giant classification, Sulfur giant, Sulfur jovian, Water Cloud Jovian, Water cloud Jovian, Water cloud jovian, Water giant, Water jovian, Water-Cloud Jovian, Water-Cloud jovian, Water-cloud Jovian.