267 relations: 'Amr ibn al-'As, 'Urabi revolt, Abbasid Caliphate, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Admiral, Admiralty, Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel, Ain Sokhna, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Al-Mansur, Alexandria, Alois Negrelli, Amphibious assault ship, Ancient Egypt, Ancient history, Ancient Records of Egypt, Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, Anwar Sadat, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Archaeology, Arctic, Arish, Aristotle, Arsinoe (Gulf of Suez), Aswan Dam, Atlantic Ocean, August Heinrich Petermann, Auguste-Louis-Albéric, prince d'Arenberg, Austrian Empire, Avaris, Axis powers, Édouard Naville, Barbara W. Tuchman, Barbarian, Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin, Bartolomeu Dias, Battle of Tell El Kebir, Beam (nautical), Bedouin, Beluga Shipping, Benjamin Disraeli, Bremen, British Empire, British Raj, Bubastis, Cairo, Caliphate, Cambyses II, Canal, ..., Canal of the Pharaohs, Cape Agulhas, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Route, Capesize, Cartography, Channel (geography), Charles Jonnart, Cleopatra, Climate change in the Arctic, Convention of Constantinople, Corvée, Cost overrun, Daily Mail, Dar Al-Handasah, Darius I, Darius the Great's Suez Inscriptions, Deadweight tonnage, Description de l'Égypte, Doctor (title), Dorling Kindersley, Draft (hull), East Port Said Industrial Zone, Egypt, Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, Egyptian Public Works, El Ferdan Railway Bridge, El Qantara, Egypt, El Tor, Egypt, Endemism, Eugénie de Montijo, Ferdinand de Lesseps, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, First Transcontinental Railroad, François Charles-Roux, Francis Rawdon Chesney, French campaign in Egypt and Syria, Gamal Abdel Nasser, George Nares, Granite, Great Bitter Lake, Greeks, Hatshepsut, Herodotus, Heroopolite Gulf, High-speed railway to Eilat, Histories (Herodotus), HMS Abdiel (N21), HMS Wilton (M1116), Icebreaker, Indian Ocean, Indiana University Press, Institution of Civil Engineers, International Commission for the piercing of the isthmus of Suez, International trade, Introduced species, Isma'il Pasha, Ismailia, Ismailia Governorate, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Isthmus of Suez, James Henry Breasted, James Mayer de Rothschild, John Robinson McClean, Kajima, Kanal İstanbul, Kassassin, Khedivate of Egypt, Khedive, Korea, Lake Timsah, Land of Punt, Lessepsian migration, Lester B. Pearson, Lionel de Rothschild, Lock (water navigation), Louis Maurice Adolphe Linant de Bellefonds, Mahmoud Younis, Mandate (international law), Marine biology, Mashhour Ahmed Mashhour, Mediterranean Sea, Meteorology (Aristotle), Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Mohab Mamish, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Moorsom System, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Multinational Force and Observers, Napoleon, Nationalization, Navigation, Nebuchadnezzar II, Necho II, Negev, Net register tonnage, Net tonnage, Netherlands, New Imperialism, Nile, Nile Delta, Nobel Peace Prize, North African Campaign, Northern Sea Route, Oil tanker, Old Cairo, OpenStreetMap, Operation Badr (1973), Operation Musketeer (1956), Oracle, Order of the Medjidie, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17), P&O (company), Panama Canal, Panamax, Panic of 1873, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Paul-Adrien Bourdaloue, Persian Gulf, Pharaoh, Piracy off the coast of Somalia, Pithom, Pliny the Elder, Port Said, Port Said Governorate, Pound sterling, President of Egypt, Protocol of Sèvres, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Raid on the Suez Canal, Ramesses II, Red Sea, Republic of Venice, Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran, Robert Stephenson, Rothschild banking family of England, Rothschild banking family of France, Rotterdam, Routledge, Royal Navy, Russian Empire, Sa'id of Egypt, Saint-Simonianism, Scramble for Africa, Sea ice, Sea level, Selim I, Senusret II, Senusret III, Sesostris, Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion, Silt, Sinai Interim Agreement, Sinai Peninsula, Six-Day War, Sluice, Société d'Études du Canal de Suez, Soviet Union, Stadion (unit), Stele, Strabo, Straits of Tiran, Suez, Suez Canal Area Development Project, Suez Canal Authority, Suez Canal Bridge, Suez Canal Company, Suez Canal overhead powerline crossing, Suez Crisis, Suez Governorate, Suez Port, Suezmax, Sukuk, Sursock family, Svyataya Anna, Sweet Water Canal, Swing bridge, Syria, Tawfiq of Egypt, Thomas Fletcher Waghorn, Tide, Trajan, Treatise, Trireme, Tsunami, Tugboat, Turbidity, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, Tyro, Ulsan, Umar, Unfree labour, United Kingdom, United Nations Emergency Force, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States dollar, USS Barnstable County (LST-1197), USS Inchon, USS Little Rock (CL-92), Valley, Venice, Victorian Studies, Wadi Tumilat, Wake, War of Attrition, Watercraft, Waterway, William Ewart Gladstone, World War I, World War II, Yellow Fleet, Yom Kippur War, ZDF, 1974 Suez Canal Clearance Operation. Expand index (217 more) » « Shrink index
'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
The 'Urabi revolt, also known as the 'Urabi Revolution (الثورة العرابية), was a nationalist uprising in Egypt from 1879 to 1882.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي,; born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the current sixth President of Egypt, in office since 2014.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
The Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel is 1640 meter long tunnel, for automobiles, under the Suez Canal, at Shallufa.
Ain Sokhna (العين السخنة, "the Hot Spring") is a town in the Suez Governorate, lying on the western shore of the Red Sea's Gulf of Suez.
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).
Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Nikolaus Alois Maria Vinzenz Negrelli, Ritter von Moldelbe (also: Louis Negrelli) (January 23, 1799 - October 1, 1858), was a Tyrolean civil engineer and railroad pioneer mostly active in parts of the Austrian Empire, Switzerland, Germany and Italy.
An amphibious assault ship (also commando carrierIn historical use, commando carriers have not necessarily operated landing craft, e.g. British aircraft carrier conversions or an amphibious assault carrier) is a type of amphibious warfare ship employed to land and support ground forces on enemy territory by an amphibious assault.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Ancient Records of Egypt is a five-volume work by James Henry Breasted, published in 1906, in which the author has attempted to translate and publish all of the ancient written records of Egyptian history which had survived to the time of his work at the start of the twentieth century.
The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 (officially, The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arsinoe (Greek: Ἀρσινόη) or Arsinoites or Cleopatris or Cleopatra, was an ancient city at the northern extremity of the Heroopolite Gulf (Gulf of Suez), in the Red Sea.
The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Augustus Heinrich Petermann (18 April 182225 September 1878) was a German cartographer.
Auguste Louis Albéric, Prince of Arenberg (15 September 1837 – 24 January 1924) was a French noble and monarchist politician, born in Paris.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Avaris (Egyptian: ḥw.t wꜥr.t, sometimes transcribed Hut-waret in works for a popular audience, Αὔαρις, Auaris) was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Henri Édouard Naville (14 June 1844 – 17 October 1926) was a Swiss archaeologist, Egyptologist and Biblical scholar.
Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 – February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin (8 February 17961 September 1864) was a French social reformer, one of the founders of Saint-Simonianism.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The Battle of Tel El Kebir was fought between the Egyptian army led by Ahmed Urabi and the British military near Tell El Kebir.
The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point as measured at the ship's nominal waterline.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beluga Shipping was a German heavy-lift shipping company in the Hanseatic city of Bremen.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Bubastis (Bohairic Coptic: Ⲡⲟⲩⲃⲁⲥϯ Poubasti; Greek: Βούβαστις Boubastis or Βούβαστος Boubastos), also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
The Canal of the Pharaohs, also called the Ancient Suez Canal or Necho's Canal, is the forerunner of the Suez Canal, constructed in ancient times.
Cape Agulhas (Cabo das Agulhas, "Cape of the Needles") is a rocky headland in Western Cape, South Africa.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The European-Asian sea route, also known as the sea route to India or the Cape Route is a shipping route from European coast of the Atlantic Ocean to Asia's coast of the Indian Ocean passing by the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Agulhas at the southern edge of Africa.
Capesize ships are the largest dry cargo ships.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait.
Charles Célestin Auguste Jonnart (27 December 1857 – 30 December 1927) was a French politician.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
, observed in recent years.
The Convention of Constantinople was a treaty signed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire on 29 October 1888.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
A cost overrun, also known as a cost increase, underrated or budget overrun, involves unexpected costs incurred in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) (دار الهندسة) is an international project design, management and supervision consultancy and founding member of the Dar Group.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darius the Great's Suez Inscriptions were texts written in Old Persian, Elamite, Babylonian and Egyptian on five monuments erected in Wadi Tumilat, commemorating the opening of a canal between the Nile and the Bitter Lakes.
Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load.
The Description de l'Égypte (Description of Egypt) was a series of publications, appearing first in 1809 and continuing until the final volume appeared in 1829, which aimed to comprehensively catalog all known aspects of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history.
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.
Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.
The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel), with the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being included the draft outline would be obtained.
East Port Said Industrial Zone is an industrial park with a total area of 1600 ha in Port Fuad, Egypt.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية, Mu`āhadat as-Salām al-Misrīyah al-'Isrā'īlīyah; הסכם השלום בין ישראל למצרים, Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim) was signed in Washington, D.C., United States on 26 March 1979, following the 1978 Camp David Accords.
The Egyptian Department of Public Works was established in the early 19th century, and concentrates mainly on public works relating to irrigation and hydraulic engineering.
The El Ferdan Railway Bridge is a swing bridge that spans the western shipping lane of the Suez Canal near Ismailia, Egypt.
El Qantara (the bridge) is a northeastern Egyptian city on both sides of the Suez Canal located in the Egyptian governorate of Ismailia, northeast of Cairo and south of Port Said.
El Tor (الطور  / ), also romanized as Al-Tur and At-Tur and known as Tur Sinai, formerly Raithu, is a small city and the seat of government of the South Sinai Governorate of Egypt.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Doña María Eugenia Ignacia Augustina de Palafox y KirkPatrick, 16th Countess of Teba, 15th Marchioness of Ardales (5 May 1826 – 11 July 1920), known as Eugénie de Montijo, was the last Empress Consort of the French (1853–70) as the wife of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
Ferdinand Marie, Vicomte de Lesseps, GCSI (19 November 1805 – 7 December 1894) was a French diplomat and later developer of the Suez Canal, which in 1869 joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas, substantially reducing sailing distances and times between Europe and East Asia.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The First Transcontinental Railroad (also called the Great Transcontinental Railroad, known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay.
François Charles-Roux (19 November 1879 – 26 June 1961) was a French businessman, historian and diplomat.
Francis Rawdon Chesney (16 March 1789 – 30 January 1872) was a British general and explorer.
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Vice-Admiral Sir George Strong Nares KCB FRS (24 April 1831 – 15 January 1915) was a British naval officer and Arctic explorer.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The Great Bitter Lake (البحيرة المرة الكبرى; transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra al-Kubra) is a saltwater lake in Egypt, connected to the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
In ancient times, the Heroopolite Gulf was the Gulf of Suez in the vicinity of Heroopolis; there is evidence indicating that the Red Sea and its Gulf of Suez extended as far northward as the Bitter Lakes of Egypt.
The High-speed railway to Eilat (Med-Red) is a proposed Israeli railway that will enable the connection of the main Israeli population centers and Mediterranean ports to the southern city of Eilat on the Red Sea coast, as well as serve commercial freight between the Mediterranean Sea (city of Ashdod) and Red Sea (Eilat).
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
HMS Abdiel was a Royal Navy minelayer that saw service during the Cold War.
HMS Wilton (M1116) was a prototype coastal minesweeper/minehunter for the Royal Navy.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association for civil engineers and a charitable body in the United Kingdom.
The International Commission for the piercing of the isthmus of Suez (Commission Internationale pour le percement de l'isthme des Suez) was the commission consisting of various European experts convened in 1855 by Ferdinand de Lesseps as instructed by the viceroy of Egypt Muhammad Sa'id in order to ascertain the feasibility of a canal between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea and to evaluate the best alternative for such a canal.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.
Ismailia (الإسماعيلية) is a city in north-eastern Egypt.
Ismailia Governorate (محافظة الإسماعيلية) is one of the Canal Zone governorates of Egypt.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Isthmus of Suez is the 75-mile-wide (125-km) strip of land.
James Henry Breasted (August 27, 1865 – December 2, 1935) was an American archaeologist, Egyptologist, and historian.
James Mayer de Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild (15 May 1792 – 15 November 1868), born Jakob Mayer Rothschild, was a German-French banker and the founder of the French branch of the Rothschild family.
John Robinson McClean CB FRS FRAS (21 March 1813 – 13 July 1873), was a British civil engineer and Liberal Party politician.
is a Japanese construction company.
Kanal İstanbul (Channel Istanbul) is a Turkish project for the artificial sea-level waterway, which is being built by the Republic of Turkey on the European side of Turkey, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, and thus to the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.
Kassassin (القصاصين) is a village of Lower Egypt by rail, west of Ismailia on the Suez Canal.
The Khedivate of Egypt (خدیویت مصر) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.
The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Lake Timsah, also known as Crocodile Lake, is a lake in Egypt on the Nile delta.
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.
The Lessepsian migration (also called Erythrean invasion) is the migration of marine species across the Suez Canal, usually from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and more rarely in the opposite direction.
Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson (23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier, prime minister, and diplomat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis.
Lionel Nathan Freiherr de Rothschild (22 November 1808 – 3 June 1879) was a British banker, politician and philanthropist who was a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family of England.
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.
Louis Maurice Adolphe Linant de Bellefonds better known as Linant Pasha (Lorient, France, November 23, 1799 – Cairo July 9, 1883) was an explorer of Egypt and, as the chief engineer of Egypt's public works, 1831–1869, the chief engineer of the Suez Canal.
Mahmoud Younis (محمود يونس; April 12, 1911 – April 18, 1976) was an engineer of the Suez Canal nationalization on July 26, 1956.
In international law, a mandate is a binding obligation issued from an inter-governmental organization (e.g. the United Nations) to a country which is bound to follow the instructions of the organization.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Engineer Mashhour Ahmed Mashhour (Arabic: مشهور أحمد مشهور) (April 1, 1918 – July 6, 2008) was the Chairman of the Suez Canal Authority (October 1965 – December 1983).
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meteorology (Greek: Μετεωρολογικά; Latin: Meteorologica or Meteora) is a treatise by Aristotle.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Vice Admiral Mohab Mamish (مهاب مميش; born 6 August 1948) is the chairman of the Suez Canal Authority.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
The Moorsom System is a method created in Great Britain of calculating the tonnage or cargo capacity of sailing ships as a basis for assessing harbour and other vessel fees.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force overseeing the terms of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
Necho II (sometimes Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β') of Egypt was a king of the 26th Dynasty (610–595 BC).
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Net register tonnage (NRT, nrt, n.r.t.) is a ship's cargo volume capacity expressed in "register tons", one of which equals to a volume of.
Net tonnage (often abbreviated as NT, N.T. or nt) is a dimensionless index calculated from the total moulded volume of the ship's cargo spaces by using a mathematical formula.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The Northern Sea Route (Се́верный морско́й путь, Severnyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping route officially defined by Russian legislation as lying east of Novaya Zemlya and specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: مصر القديمه, Masr el-Qadīma), also known as "Historic Cairo," or "Islamic Cairo," is a part of Cairo, Egypt which pre-dates the Fatimid city of Cairo, founded in 969 CE.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world.
Operation Badr (عملية بدر; ʻAmaliyat Badr) or Plan Badr (خطة بدر; Khitat Badr) was the code name for the Egyptian military operation to cross the Suez Canal and seize the Bar-Lev Line of Israeli fortifications on October 6, 1973.
Operation Musketeer (Opération Mousquetaire) was the Anglo-French plan for the invasion of the Suez canal zone to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis in 1956.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
Medjidie or Mejidie (Mecidiye Nişanı, August 29, 1852 – 1922) is the name of a military and knightly order of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
P&O (formerly the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company) was a British shipping and logistics company dating from the early 19th century.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
Panamax and New Panamax (or Neopanamax) are terms for the size limits for ships travelling through the Panama Canal.
The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879, and even longer in some countries (France and Britain).
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Paul Adrien Bourdaloue (4 January 1798, Bourges - 21 June 1868, Bourges) was a French civil engineer and topographer, who proposed the first orthometric levelling of France.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War, around 2000, when foreign ships exploited the absence of an effective national coast guard by invading the fishing grounds and also dumping illegal waste that would further diminish the local catch.
Pithom (פיתום) also called Per-Atum or Heroöpolis or Heroonopolis (Greek: Ἡρώων πόλις or Ἡρώ) was an ancient city of Egypt.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from Arabic; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).
Port Said Governorate (محافظة بورسعيد) is one of the Canal Zone governorates of Egypt.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.
The Protocol of Sèvres (French, Protocole de Sèvres) was a secret agreement reached between the governments of Israel, France and the United Kingdom during discussions held between 22 and 24 October 1956 at Sèvres, France.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
The Raid on the Suez Canal, also known as Actions on the Suez Canal, took place between 26 January and 4 February 1915 after a German-led Ottoman Army force advanced from Southern Palestine to attack the British Empire-protected Suez Canal, before the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Substantial Ottoman forces crossed the Sinai peninsula, but their attack failed mainly because of strongly held defences and alert defenders.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Reza Pahlavi (رضا پهلوی; born 31 October 1960) is the last heir apparent to the defunct throne of the Imperial State of Iran and is the current head of the exiled House of Pahlavi.
Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an early railway and civil engineer.
The Rothschild banking family of England was founded in 1798 by Nathan Mayer von Rothschild (1777–1836) who first settled in Manchester but then moved to London.
The Rothschild banking family of France is a French banking dynasty founded in 1812 in Paris by James Mayer de Rothschild (1792–1868).
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Mohamed Sa'id Pasha (محمد سعيد باشا, Mehmed Said Paşa, March 17, 1822 – January 17, 1863) was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence.
Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825).
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Khakheperre Senusret II was the fourth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
Khakaure Senusret III (also written as Senwosret III or the hellenised form, Sesostris III) was a pharaoh of Egypt.
Sesostris (Σέσωστρις) was the name of a king of ancient Egypt who, according to Herodotus, led a military expedition into parts of Europe.
The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
The Sinai Interim Agreement, also known as the Sinai II Agreement, was a diplomatic agreement signed by Egypt and Israel on September 4, 1975.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
The Société d'études du Canal de Suez (more correctly the Société d'études de l'Isthme de Suez) was a society set up in 1846 by the Saint-Simonist Prosper Enfantin in Paris to study the Isthmus of Suez and the possibility of a Suez Canal.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The stadion (στάδιον; stadium), formerly also anglicized as stade, was an ancient Greek unit of length, based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Straits of Tiran (مضيق تيران) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea proper.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
The Suez Canal Corridor Area Project (مشروع تطوير محور قناة السويس.) is a mega project in Egypt that was launched on 5 August 2014 by president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.
Suez Canal Authority (SCA) is a state owned authority which owns, operates and maintains the Suez Canal.
The Mubarak Peace Bridge, also known as the Egyptian-Japanese Friendship Bridge, Al Salam Bridge, or Al Salam Peace Bridge, is a road bridge crossing the Suez Canal at El-Qantara, whose name means "the bridge" in Arabic.
Participating certificate of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez, issued 1. January 1889 The Universal Maritime Suez Canal Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short) was the corporation that constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869 and operated it until 1956.
The Suez Canal overhead powerline crossing is a major electrical power line built across the Suez Canal in 1998, located near Suez, Egypt.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Suez Governorate (محافظة السويس) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
The Suez Port is an Egyptian port located at the southern boundary of the Suez Canal.
"Suezmax" is a naval architecture term for the largest ship measurements capable of transiting the Suez Canal in a laden condition, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers.
Sukuk (صكوك ṣukūk, plural of صك ṣakk, "legal instrument, deed, cheque") is the Arabic name for financial certificates, also commonly referred to as "sharia compliant" bonds.
The Sursock family (also Sursuq) is a Greek Orthodox Christian family from Lebanon, and one of the “Seven Families”” of Beirut.
The ''Philomel''-class gunvessel HMS Newport was launched in England in 1867.
Sweet Water Canal, also known as Fresh Water Canal and currently known as Ismaïlia Canal, is a canal which was dug by thousands of Egyptian fellahin to facilitate the construction of the Suez Canal.
A swing bridge is a movable bridge that has as its primary structural support a vertical locating pin and support ring, usually at or near to its center of gravity, about which the turning span can then pivot horizontally as shown in the animated illustration to the right.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Mohamed Tewfik Pasha (محمد توفيق باشا, Muhammed Tevfik Paşa; April 30 or November 15, 1852 – January 7, 1892), also known as Tawfiq of Egypt, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
Thomas Fletcher Waghorn (1800–1850), whose statue stands in Chatham, Kent, was a postal pioneer who developed a new route from Great Britain to India.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.
A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
A tug (tugboat or towboat) is a type of vessel that maneuvers other vessels by pushing or pulling them either by direct contact or by means of a tow line.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.
In Greek mythology, Tyro (Τυρώ) was a Thessalian princess.
Ulsan, officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh-largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million inhabitants.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
USS Barnstable County (LST-1197) was the nineteenth ship of the ''Newport'' class of tank landing ships.
USS Inchon (LPH/MCS-12) was an of the United States Navy named for the Battle of Inchon, a turning point of the Korean War.
USS Little Rock (CL-92/CLG-4/CG-4) was one of 27 United States Navy light cruisers completed during or shortly after World War II, and one of six to be converted to guided missile cruisers.
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Victorian Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Indiana University Press.
Wadi Tumilat (Old Egyptian Tjeku/Tscheku/Tju/Tschu) is the dry river valley (wadi) to the east of the Nile delta.
In fluid dynamics, a wake may either be.
The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف Ḥarb al-Istinzāf, מלחמת ההתשה Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.
Watercraft or marine vessel are water-borne vehicles including ships, boats, hovercraft and submarines.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yellow Fleet was the name given to a group of fifteen ships trapped in the Suez Canal (in the Great Bitter Lake section) from 1967 to 1975 as a result of the Six-Day War.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), usually shortened to ZDF, is a German public-service television broadcaster based in Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate.
Following the Yom Kippur War between Egypt and Israel in 1973, an international agreement was reached in October 1973 to provide measures to reopen the Suez Canal.