387 relations: A. J. P. Taylor, A. N. Wilson, Abd al-Karim Qasim, Abdel Hakim Amer, Abu Ageila, Aden, Aircraft carrier, Alexandria, Algeria, Allen Dulles, Allies of World War I, American Journal of International Law, Amman, AMX-13, An-Nekhel Fortress, André Beaufre, Aneurin Bevan, Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, Anglo-Egyptian War, Anglo-German Naval Agreement, Anthony Eden, Arab citizens of Israel, Arab Cold War, Arab world, Arab–Israeli conflict, Ariel Sharon, Arish, Arkhangelsk, Arms race, Arthur L. Herman, Asaf Simhoni, Aswan Dam, Atlanticism, Avraham Adan, Avraham Yoffe, Baghdad Pact, Baltic Sea, Bandung Conference, Barbara Castle, Barry Turner (author), Battle of annihilation, Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Battle of Stalingrad, Battleship, BBC, Beirut, Benito Mussolini, Benjamin Disraeli, Benny Morris, Berlin Crisis of 1961, ..., Bizerte, Black Swan-class sloop, Brinkmanship, British Army of the Rhine, British Empire, Cairo, Cairo fire, Central Intelligence Agency, Centurion (tank), Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Keightley, Charles R. Brown, Chatham House, Chief of staff, Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom), Christian Pineau, Cold War, Colombia, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference, Convention of Constantinople, Cuban Missile Crisis, Cyclothymia, Cyprus, Cyprus Emergency, Czechoslovakia, D. R. Thorpe, Dag Hammarskjöld, Daniel Yergin, Dassault Mystère IV, Dassault Ouragan, David Ben-Gurion, David Pryce-Jones, De Havilland Sea Venom, De Havilland Vampire, Decolonization, Defile (geography), Democratic Party (United States), Diane Kunz, Dominion, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Daily Press, Edward Boyle, Baron Boyle of Handsworth, Edward Heath, Egypt, Egyptian Air Force, Egyptian Armed Forces, Egyptian National Military Museum, Egyptian National Railways, Egyptian Navy, Egyptian revolution of 1952, Egyptian–Czechoslovak arms deal, Eilat, Eisenhower Doctrine, El Gamil, English Electric Canberra, Entente Cordiale, European Economic Community, European Union, Faisal II of Iraq, Farouk of Egypt, Fedayeen, Ferdinand de Lesseps, Fifth column, First emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly, First Sea Lord, Flag of Canada, Flag of Egypt, Flanking maneuver, Foreign relations of South Africa during apartheid, France, France–United Kingdom relations, France–United States relations, Francophile, Free Officers Movement (Egypt), French cruiser Georges Leygues, French Fourth Republic, French Naval Aviation, French Navy, Friendly fire, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaza City, Gaza Strip, George M. Humphrey, Gerald Templer, Gerboise Bleue, Gilbert Murray, Glossary of French expressions in English, Gloster Meteor, Gold reserve, Green Line (Israel), Gulf of Aqaba, Gunnar Hägglöf, Guy Millard, Guy Mollet, Haifa, Haim Bar-Lev, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, Hashemites, Hawker Sea Hawk, Helicopter, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., Henry Luce, Herbert Hoover Jr., Herbert Morrison, HMS Mendip (L60), Hodder & Stoughton, House of Saud, Hugh Gaitskell, Hugh Stockwell, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Ilyushin Il-14, Ilyushin Il-28, Imperialism, Indian Ocean, Iraq, Ismailia, Israel, Israel Border Police, Israel Defense Forces, Israel Railways, Israel Tal, Israel–United States relations, Israeli Air Force, Israeli casualties of war, Israeli Navy, Ivone Kirkpatrick, J. G. 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Anderson, Robert Boothby, Baron Boothby, Robert Daniel Murphy, Robert Menzies, Robert Speaight, Roy Harrod, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, Russo-Japanese War, Saud of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia, Sèvres, Selwyn Lloyd, Sharm El Sheikh, Shimon Peres, Sidney Holland, Sinai Peninsula, Six-Day War, Sniper, Sortie, South End Press, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Soviet Union, Special Relationship, Stanley Evans, Sten, Sterling area, Straits of Tiran, SU-100, Sudan, Suez Canal, Suez Canal Company, Suppressive fire, Suzerainty, Syria, T-34, Taiwan, Task force, The Economist, The Guardian, The Journal of American History, The Observer, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, The Spectator, Torah, Tripartite Declaration of 1950, Unit 101, United Kingdom, United Kingdom general election, 1959, United Kingdom–United States relations, United Nations, United Nations Emergency Force, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 377, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 119, United Nations Security Council Resolution 95, United States, United States presidential election, 1956, United States Senate, United States Sixth Fleet, UNRWA, Vickers Valiant, Vietnam War, Violet Bonham Carter, Voice of the Arabs, Vought F4U Corsair, Vyacheslav Molotov, Warsaw Pact, Warwick and Leamington by-election, 1957, West Bank, Western world, Westland Wyvern, William Knowland, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Yom Kippur War, Zhou Enlai, 10 Downing Street, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1949 Armistice Agreements, 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement, 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment, 2nd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, 3rd Battalion, Parachute Regiment, 40 Commando, 42 Commando, 45 Commando, 6th Royal Tank Regiment. 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Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer and newspaper columnist known for his critical biographies, novels and works of popular history.
Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Mohamed Abdel Hakim Amer (محمد عبد الحكيم عامر,; 11 December 1919 – 13 September 1967) was an Egyptian general and political leader.
Abu Ageila is a strategically important road junction and dam in the north of the Sinai peninsula, because of its proximity to the border with Israel, approximately 25 km from Auja al-Hafir and 45 km southeast of El Arish.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The American Journal of International Law is an English-language scholarly journal focusing on international law and international relations.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
The AMX-13 is a French light tank produced from 1952 to 1987.
The Fortress of an-Nekhel is a Ksar (castle) located in the Nekhel Municipality of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
André Beaufre (25 January 1902 – 13 February 1975) was a French Army officer and military strategist who attained the rank of Général d'Armée (Army General) before his retirement in 1961.
Aneurin Bevan (15 November 1897 – 6 July 1960), often known as Nye Bevan, was a Welsh Labour Party politician who was the Minister for Health in the post-war Attlee ministry from 1945-51.
The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 (officially, The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt.
The Anglo-Egyptian War (al-āḥalāl al-Brīṭānnī al-Miṣr) occurred in 1882 between Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi and the United Kingdom.
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 18 June 1935 was a naval agreement between the United Kingdom and Germany regulating the size of the Kriegsmarine in relation to the Royal Navy.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens whose primary language or linguistic heritage is Arabic. Many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the terminology and self-identification sections for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.
The Arab Cold War (الحرب العربية الباردة al-Harb al-`Arabbiyah al-bārdah) was a series of conflicts in the Arab world between the new republics led by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and espousing Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, and Pan-Arabism and the more traditionalist kingdoms, led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Arthur L. Herman (born 1956) is an American popular historian, currently serving as a senior fellow at Hudson Institute.
Asaf Simhoni (Also spelled Asaf Simchoni; אסף שמחוני; October 9, 1922 - November 6, 1956) was a Major General in the IDF, served as head of Northern Command, Assistant Head of Operations Directorate, and later as the Head of Southern Command.
The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.
Atlanticism, also known as Transatlanticism, is the belief in or support for a close relationship between the United States, Canada and Europe regarding political, economic and defence issues, with the belief that it would maintain security and prosperity of the participating countries and protect perceived values that unite them.
Avraham "Bren" Adan (אברהם "ברן" אדן, 5 October 1926.
Avraham Yoffe (אברהם יפה, born 25 October 1913, died 11 April 1983) was an Israeli general during the Six-Day War.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.
Barbara Anne Castle, Baroness Castle of Blackburn, PC, GCOT (née Betts; 6 October 1910 – 3 May 2002) was a British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament for Blackburn from 1945 to 1979, making her the longest-serving female MP in the history of the House of Commons, until that record was broken in 2007 by Gwyneth Dunwoody.
Barry Turner is a British writer and editor.
A battle of annihilation is a military strategy in which an attacking army seeks to destroy the military capacity of the opposing army in a single planned pivotal battle.
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.
The Berlin Crisis of 1961 (Berlin-Krise) occurred between 4 June – 9 November 1961, and was the last major politico-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the German capital city, Berlin, and of post–World War II Germany.
Bizerte (بنزرت); historically: Phoenician: Hippo Acra, Hippo Diarrhytus and Hippo Zarytus), also known in English as Bizerta, is a town of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. It is the northernmost city in Africa, located 65 km (40mil) north of the capital Tunis. The city had 142,966 inhabitants in 2014.
The Black Swan class and Modified Black Swan class were two classes of sloop of the Royal Navy and Royal Indian Navy.
Brinkmanship (also brinksmanship) is the practice of trying to achieve an advantageous outcome by pushing dangerous events to the brink of active conflict.
There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine (BAOR).
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Cairo fire, also known as Black Saturday,King 1989, p. 207Goldschmidt & Johnston 2004, p. 83 was a series of riots that took place on 26 January 1952, marked by the burning and looting of some 750 buildings —retail shops, cafes, cinemas, hotels, restaurants, theatres, nightclubs and the country's Opera House— in Downtown Cairo.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
General Sir Charles Frederic Keightley, (24 June 1901 – 17 June 1974) was a British Army officer during and following the Second World War.
Charles Randall Brown (23 December 1899 – 8 December 1983) was a United States Navy four-star admiral.
The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.
Christian Pineau (14 October 1904, in Chaumont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, France – 5 April 1995, in Paris) was a noted French Resistance fighter, who later served an important term as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the late 1950s.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference were biennial meetings of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominion members of the British Commonwealth of Nations.
The Convention of Constantinople was a treaty signed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire on 29 October 1888.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Cyprus Emergency was a military action that took place in British Cyprus primarily consisting of an insurgent campaign by the Greek Cypriot militant group, the National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA), to remove the British from Cyprus so it could be unified with Greece.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Daniel Howard Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author, speaker, energy expert, and economic historian.
The Dassault MD.454 Mystère IV is a 1950s French fighter-bomber aircraft, the first transonic aircraft to enter service with the French Air Force.
The Dassault M.D.450 Ouragan (Hurricane) is a French fighter-bomber developed and produced by Dassault Aviation.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Eugene Henry Pryce-Jones FRSL (born 15 February 1936) is a conservative British author and commentator.
The de Havilland Sea Venom is a British postwar carrier-capable jet aircraft developed from the de Havilland Venom.
The de Havilland Vampire is a British jet fighter developed and manufactured by the de Havilland Aircraft Company.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
In geography, a defile is a narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Diane Bernstein Kunz (born November 9, 1952 in Queens, New York) is an American author, historian, and lawyer from Durham, North Carolina, and executive director of a not-for-profit adoption advocacy group, the Center for Adoption Policy.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Daily Press (EDP) is a regional newspaper covering Norfolk, and northern parts of Suffolk and eastern Cambridgeshire, and is published daily in Norwich, UK.
Edward Charles Gurney Boyle, Baron Boyle of Handsworth, (31 August 1923 – 28 September 1981) was a British Conservative Party politician and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (القوات الجوية المصرية), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces, is responsible for all airborne defence missions and operates all military aircraft, including those used in support of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy and the Egyptian Air Defense Forces, created as a separate command in the 1970s, coordinates with the Air Force to integrate air and ground-based air defense operations.
The Egyptian Armed Forces are the state military organisation responsible for the defence of Egypt.
The Egyptian National Military Museum is the official museum of the Egyptian Army.
Egyptian National Railways (ENR; السكك الحديدية المصرية Al-Sikak al-Ḥadīdiyyah al-Miṣriyyah) is the national railway of Egypt and managed by the parastatal Egyptian Railway Authority (ERA; الهيئة القومية لسكك حديد مصر Al-Haī'ah al-Qawmiyya li-Sikak Ḥadīd Miṣr, literally, "National Agency for Egypt's Railways").
The Egyptian Navy is the maritime branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces.
The Egyptian coup d'etat of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
The Egyptian-Czechoslovak arms deal was an agreement between the USSR and Egypt led by Gamal Abdel Nasser, announced in September 1955, to supply Egypt with more than $250 million worth of modern Soviet weaponry, through Czechoslovakia.
Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.
The Eisenhower Doctrine was a policy enunciated by Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 5, 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East".
El Gamil (الجميل; also called Gamil or El Gamīl; Romanized Arabic: Ṭâbiyet el-Gamîl) is a fortress with an airfield in Port Said Governorate, Egypt.
The English Electric Canberra is a British first-generation jet-powered medium bomber that was manufactured during the 1950s.
The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Republic which saw a significant improvement in Anglo-French relations.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq.
Farouk I (فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.
Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.
Ferdinand Marie, Vicomte de Lesseps, GCSI (19 November 1805 – 7 December 1894) was a French diplomat and later developer of the Suez Canal, which in 1869 joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas, substantially reducing sailing distances and times between Europe and East Asia.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
The first emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly was convened on 1 November and ended on 10 November 1956 resolving the Suez Crisis by creating the United Nations Emergency Force to provide an international presence between the belligerents in the canal zone.
The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1SL/CNS) is the professional head of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service.
The flag of Canada, often referred to as the Canadian flag, or unofficially as the Maple Leaf and l'Unifolié (French for "the one-leafed"), is a national flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre in the ratio of 1:2:1, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the centre.
The flag of Egypt (علم مصر) is a tricolour consisting of the three equal horizontal red, white, and black bands of the Egyptian revolutionary flag dating back to the 1952 Egyptian Revolution.
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy.
Foreign relations of South Africa during apartheid are studied as the foreign relations of South Africa between 1948 and 1993.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France–United Kingdom relations are the relations between the governments of the French Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK).
French–American relations refers to the relations between France and the United States since 1776.
A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people.
The Free Officers (حركة الضباط الأحرار) were a group of Egyptian nationalist officers in the armed forces of Egypt and Sudan that instigated the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.
Georges Leygues was a French light cruiser of the.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
French Naval Aviation (often abbreviated in French to: « l'Aéronavale », or « Aviation navale » or more simply « l'Aéro ») is the naval air arm of the French Navy.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
George Magoffin Humphrey (March 8, 1890January 20, 1970) was an American lawyer, businessman and banker.
Field Marshal Tun Sir Gerald Walter Robert Templer,, SMN (11 September 1898 – 25 October 1979) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the world wars.
Gerboise Bleue ("blue jerboa") was the name of the first French nuclear test.
George Gilbert Aimé Murray, (2 January 1866 – 20 May 1957) was an Australian-born British classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres.
Around 45% of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English.
The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during the Second World War.
A gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.
The Green Line, or (pre-) 1967 border or 1949 Armistice border, is the demarcation line set out in the 1949 Armistice Agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its neighbors (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
The Gulf of Aqaba (خليج العقبة, Khalij al-Aqabah) or Gulf of Eilat (מפרץ אילת, Mifrats Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.
Bo Gunnar Rickardsson Hägglöf GCVO (12 December 1904 – 12 January 1994) was a Swedish diplomat, in 1939 briefly cabinet member, then head of the foreign ministry's bureau for foreign trade during World War II, after the war participating in the preparations of the United Nations' 1947 UN Partition Plan of Palestine, then ambassador to London 1948–1967 and Paris 1967–1971.
Sir Guy Millard (22 January 1917 – 26 April 2013) was a British diplomat who was closely involved in the Suez crisis, and afterwards ambassador to Hungary, Sweden and Italy.
Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 – 3 October 1975) was a French politician.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Haim "Kidoni" Bar-Lev (חיים בר-לב, 16 November 1924 – 7 May 1994) was a military officer during Israel's pre-state and early statehood eras and later a government minister.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
The Hawker Sea Hawk is a British single-seat jet fighter of the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), the air branch of the Royal Navy (RN), built by Hawker Aircraft and its sister company, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (July 5, 1902 – February 27, 1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II, was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador.
Henry Robinson Luce (April 3, 1898 – February 28, 1967) was an American magazine magnate who was called "the most influential private citizen in the America of his day".
Herbert Charles Hoover Jr. (August 4, 1903 – July 9, 1969) was an engineer, businessman, and politician.
Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth, (3 January 1888 – 6 March 1965) was a British Labour politician who held a variety of senior positions in the Cabinet.
HMS Mendip (L60) was a destroyer of the Royal Navy.
Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hachette.
The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.
Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (9 April 1906 – 18 January 1963) was a British politician and Leader of the Labour Party.
General Sir Hugh Charles Stockwell, (16 June 1903 – 27 November 1986) was a senior British Army officer most remembered for commanding the Anglo-French ground forces during the Suez Crisis and his service as Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO from 1960 to 1964.
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
The Ilyushin Il-14 (NATO reporting name: Crate) was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950, and entered service in 1954.
The Ilyushin Il-28 (Илью́шин Ил-28 NATO reporting name: Beagle) is a jet bomber of the immediate postwar period that was originally manufactured for the Soviet Air Forces.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ismailia (الإسماعيلية) is a city in north-eastern Egypt.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Border Police (מִשְׁמַר הַגְּבוּל, Mišmar Ha-Gvul) is the gendarmerie and border security branch of the Israel National Police.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Israel Railways corporation Ltd., dba Israel Railways (רַכֶּבֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Rakevet Yisra'el, خطوط السكك الحديدية الإسرائيلية) is the state-owned principal railway company responsible for all inter-city, commuter, and freight rail transport in Israel.
Israel Tal (ישראל טל, September 13, 1924, – September 8, 2010) also known as Talik (Hebrew: טליק), was an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) general known for his knowledge of tank warfare and for leading the development of Israel's Merkava tank.
Israel–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the State of Israel and the United States of America.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
Israeli casualties of war, in addition to those of Israel's seven major wars, include 9,745 soldiers and security forces personnel killed in "miscellaneous engagements and terrorist attacks", which includes security forces members killed during military operations, by fighting crime, natural disasters, diseases, traffic or labor accidents and disabled veterans whose disabilities contributed to their deaths.
The Israeli Navy (חיל הים הישראלי, Ḥeil HaYam HaYisraeli (English: Sea Corps of Israel); البحرية الإسرائيلية) is the naval warfare service arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea theater.
Sir Ivone Augustine Kirkpatrick (1897 – 25 May 1964) was a British diplomat who served as the British High Commissioner in Germany after World War II, and as the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (the highest-ranking civil servant in the Foreign Office).
Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom, (also spelled Strydom) commonly called Hans Strydom (14 July 1893 – 24 August 1958), nicknamed the Lion of the North, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 30 November 1954 to 24 August 1958.
Jacques Émile Massu (5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, the First Indochina War, the Algerian War and the Suez crisis.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jefferson Caffery (December 1, 1886 – April 13, 1974) was a distinguished American diplomat.
Joseph Grimond, Baron Grimond, (29 July 1913 – 24 October 1993), known as Jo Grimond, was a British politician, leader of the Liberal Party for eleven years from 1956 to 1967 and again briefly on an interim basis in 1976.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb, KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC, KStJ, KPM (16 April 1897 – 17 March 1986), known as Glubb Pasha, was a British soldier, scholar and author, who led and trained Transjordan's Arab Legion between 1939 and 1956 as its commanding general.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
John Lewis Gaddis (born 1941) is the Robert A. Lovett Professor of Military and Naval History at Yale University.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Kadesh or Qadesh (in classical Hebrew קָדֵשׁ, from the root קדש "holy") is a place-name that occurs several times in the Hebrew Bible, describing a site or sites located south of, or at the southern border of, Canaan and the Kingdom of Judah.
Kafr Qasim (كفر قاسم, כַּפְר קָאסִם), also known as Kafr Qassem, Kufur Kassem, Kfar Kassem and Kafar Kassem, is a hill-top Israeli town with an Israeli Arab population.
The Kafr Qasim massacre took place in the Israeli Arab village of Kafr Qasim situated on the Green Line, at that time, the de facto border between Israel and the Jordanian West Bank on October 29, 1956.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Sir Keith Grahame Feiling (7 September 1884 – 16 September 1977) was a British historian, biographer and academic.
Khan Yunis (خان يونس, also spelled Khan Younis or Khan Yunus; translation: Caravansary Jonah) is a city in the southern Gaza Strip.
The Khan Yunis massacre allegedly took place on 3 November 1956 in the Palestinian town of Khan Yunis and the nearby refugee camp of the same name in the Gaza Strip during the Suez Crisis.
The Kirkuk–Baniyas pipeline is a crude oil pipeline from the Kirkuk oil field in Iraq to the Syrian port of Baniyas.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing vessels such as boats, and barges, used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault.
Landing Craft Assault (LCA) was a landing craft used extensively in World War II.
The Landing Vehicle, Tracked (LVT) is an amphibious warfare vehicle and amphibious landing craft, introduced by the United States Navy.
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson (23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier, prime minister, and diplomat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis.
The Lewisham North by-election of 14 February 1957 was held following the death of Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) Sir Austin Hudson, 1st Baronet the previous year.
A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship.
This article deals with acts of Palestinian political violence against Israeli civilians between the establishment of the 1949 Armistice Agreements and the 1967 Six-Day War.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (24 March 1903 – 14 November 1990) was an English journalist and satirist.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Admiral Sir Manley Laurence Power KCB, CBE, DSO & Bar, DL (10 January 1904 – 17 May 1981) was a Royal Navy Admiral who fought in World War II as a Captain and later rose to more senior ranks, including the NATO position Allied Commander-in-Chief, Channel.
Marie-Pierre Kœnig (10 October 1898 – 2 September 1970) was a French army officer and politician.
Maurice Jean Marie Bourgès-Maunoury (19 August 1914, in Luisant, Eure-et-Loir – 10 February 1993, in Paris) was a French Radical politician who served as the Prime Minister in the Fourth Republic during 1957.
Maurice Challe (5 September 1905 – 18 January 1979) was a French general during the Algerian War, one of four generals who took part in the Algiers putsch.
Max Martin Fisher (July 15, 1908 – March 3, 2005) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
Medical evacuation, often shortened to medevac or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to wounded being evacuated from a battlefield, to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of an accident to receiving medical facilities, or to patients at a rural hospital requiring urgent care at a better-equipped facility using medically equipped ground vehicles (ambulances) or aircraft (air ambulances).
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meir Amit (מאיר עמית, 17 March 1921 – 17 July 2009) was an Israeli politician and cabinet minister.
Michael Mackintosh Foot (23 July 1913 – 3 March 2010) was a British Labour Party politician and man of letters.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-15; USAF/DoD designation: Type 14; NATO reporting name: Fagot) is a jet fighter aircraft developed by Mikoyan-Gurevich for the Soviet Union.
Miles Axe Copeland Jr. (July 16, 1916 – January 14, 1991) was an American musician, businessman, and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer best known for his close personal relationship with Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser and his "controversial books on intelligence," including The Game of Nations: The Amorality of Power Politics (1969) and The Game Player: Confessions of the CIA's Original Political Operative (1989).
The missile gap was the Cold War term used in the US for the perceived superiority of the number and power of the USSR's missiles in comparison with its own (a lack of military parity).
The Mitla Pass (ممر متلة, מיתלה) is a 480 meter-high, 32 km-long snaky pass in the Sinai of Egypt, wedged between mountain ranges to the north and south, located about 50 km east of Suez.
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.
Mohamed Naguib (محمد نجيب,; 19 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.
Nasserism (at-Tayyār an-Nāṣṣarī) is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Bulganin (– 24 February 1975) was a Soviet politician who served as Minister of Defense (1953–1955) and Premier of the Soviet Union (1955–1958) under Nikita Khrushchev, following service in the Red Army and as defense minister under Joseph Stalin.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The Nord Noratlas was a dedicated military transport aircraft, developed and manufactured by French aircraft manufacturer Nord Aviation.
Norman Panayea St John-Stevas, Baron St John of Fawsley, (18 May 1929 – 2 March 2012) was a British politician, author, and barrister.
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts.
Nuri Pasha al-Said (December 1888 – 15 July 1958) (نوري السعيد) was an Iraqi politician during the British Mandate of Iraq and the Kingdom of Iraq.
The Oded Brigade (חטיבת עודד, also known as the 9th Brigade in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war) was an Israeli infantry brigade, one of ten brigades fielded by the Haganah (the precursor of the Israeli Defense Forces).
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a senior officer of the United States Army during and after World War II.
Omniscriptum Publishing Group, formerly known as VDM Verlag Dr.
Operation Grapple was the name of four series of British nuclear weapons tests of early atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs carried out in 1957 and 1958 at Malden Island and Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean as part of the British hydrogen bomb programme.
Operation Musketeer (Opération Mousquetaire) was the Anglo-French plan for the invasion of the Suez canal zone to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis in 1956.
Operation Tarnegol (תרנגול, Rooster) was an Israeli Air Force operation carried out on the eve of the 1956 Suez Crisis.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Panayiotis Jerasimof Vatikiotis (5 February 192815 December 1997) was a Greek-American political scientist and historian of the Middle East.
Palestinian fedayeen (from the Arabic fidā'ī, plural fidā'iyūn, فدائيون) are militants or guerrillas of a nationalist orientation from among the Palestinian people.
The 35th Brigade (חֲטִיבַת הַצַּנְחָנִים, Hativat HaTzanhanim), also known as the Paratroopers Brigade, is an infantry brigade unit of paratroopers within the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), and forms a major part of the Infantry Corps.
The Paris Bourse (Bourse de Paris) is the historical Paris stock exchange, known as Euronext Paris from 2000 onwards.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
A personality clash occurs when two (or more) people find themselves in conflict not over a particular issue or incident, but due to a fundamental incompatibility in their personalities, their approaches to things, or their style of life.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Pierre Emile Marie Johannes Barjot (October 13, 1899 – February 1, 1960) was a French admiral.
The United Kingdom's Polaris programme, officially named the British Naval Ballistic Missile System, provided its first submarine-based nuclear weapons system.
Port Fuad or Port Fouad (both spellings are commonly used in English sources) (بور فؤاد or,, the first syllable has its pronunciation from French) is a city in north-eastern Egypt.
Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from Arabic; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
In political science and political history, the term power vacuum, also known as a power void, is an analogy between a physical vacuum, to the political condition "when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them." The situation can occur when a government has no identifiable central power or authority.
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Protocol of Sèvres (French, Protocole de Sèvres) was a secret agreement reached between the governments of Israel, France and the United Kingdom during discussions held between 22 and 24 October 1956 at Sèvres, France.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The QF 4 inch Mk XVI gunMk XVI.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.
Royal Air Force Luqa was a Royal Air Force station located on the island of Malta, now developed into the Malta International Airport.
Rafael "Raful" Eitan (רפאל "רפול" איתן, born 11 January 1929 – 23 November 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member government minister.
Rafah (رفح) is a Palestinian city and refugee camp in the southern Gaza Strip.
The Raid on the Suez Canal, also known as Actions on the Suez Canal, took place between 26 January and 4 February 1915 after a German-led Ottoman Army force advanced from Southern Palestine to attack the British Empire-protected Suez Canal, before the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Substantial Ottoman forces crossed the Sinai peninsula, but their attack failed mainly because of strongly held defences and alert defenders.
Raymond Arthur Hare (April 3, 1901 – February 9, 1994) was a United States diplomat, who was Director General of the United States Foreign Service from 1954 to 1956 and Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs from 1965 to 1966.
Jules Gustave René Coty (20 March 188422 November 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959.
Reprisal operations (פעולות התגמול) were raids carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in the 1950s and 1960s in response to frequent fedayeen attacks during which armed Arab militants infiltrated Israel from Syria, Egypt and Jordan to carry out attacks on Israeli civilians and soldiers.
The Republic F-84F Thunderstreak was an American-built swept-wing turbojet fighter-bomber.
Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 – 5 April 1974), sometimes known as Dick Crossman, was a British Labour Party Member of Parliament, as well as a key figure among the party's Zionists and anti-communists.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Bernerd Anderson (June 4, 1910 August 14, 1989) was an American administrator and businessman.
Robert John Graham Boothby, Baron Boothby, (12 February 1900 – 16 July 1986), often known as Bob Boothby, was a British Conservative politician.
Robert Daniel Murphy (October 28, 1894 – January 9, 1978) was an American diplomat.
Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, (20 December 189415 May 1978), was an Australian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966.
Robert William Speaight (1904 – 1976) was a British actor and writer, and the brother of George Speaight, the puppeteer.
Sir Henry Roy Forbes Harrod (13 February 1900 – 8 March 1978) was an English economist.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (سعود بن عبد العزيز آل سعود; 15 January 1902 – 23 February 1969) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1964.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd, (28 July 1904 – 18 May 1978), known for most of his career as Selwyn Lloyd, was a British politician.
Sharm El Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.
Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס,; born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel (2007–2014), the Prime Minister of Israel (twice), and the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s.
Sir Sidney George Holland (18 October 1893 – 5 August 1961) was a New Zealand politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 13 December 1949 to 20 September 1957.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.
A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
South End Press was a non-profit book publisher run on a model of participatory economics.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
Stanley Norman Evans (1 February 1898 – 25 June 1970) was a British industrialist and Labour Party politician.
The STEN (or Sten gun) was a family of British submachine guns chambered in 9×19mm and used extensively by British and Commonwealth forces throughout World War II and the Korean War.
The sterling area (or sterling bloc, legally scheduled territories) was a group of countries that either pegged their currencies to the pound sterling, or actually used the pound as their own currency.
The Straits of Tiran (مضيق تيران) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea proper.
The SU-100 (Samokhodnaya Ustanovka 100) was a Soviet tank destroyer armed with a 100 mm anti-tank gun in a casemate superstructure.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Participating certificate of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez, issued 1. January 1889 The Universal Maritime Suez Canal Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short) was the corporation that constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869 and operated it until 1956.
In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission".
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power is Daniel Yergin's history of the global petroleum industry from the 1850s through 1990.
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Tripartite Declaration of 1950, also called the Tripartite Agreement of 1950, was a joint statement by the United States, United Kingdom, and France to guarantee the territorial status quo that had been determined by the 1949 Arab–Israeli Armistice Agreements.
Commando Unit 101 (Hebrew: יחידה 101) was a special forces unit of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), founded and commanded by Ariel Sharon on orders from Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion in August 1953.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The 1959 United Kingdom general election was held on 8 October 1959.
British–American relations, also referred to as Anglo-American relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution 377 A, the "Uniting for Peace" resolution, states that in any cases where the Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity amongst its five permanent members, fails to act as required to maintain international peace and security, the General Assembly shall consider the matter immediately and may issue any recommendations it deems necessary in order to restore international peace and security.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 119, was proposed by the United States on 31 October 1956, considering the grave situation created by action undertaken against Egypt and the lack of unanimity of its permanent members at previous meetings, the Council felt it had been prevented from exercising its responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 95, was adopted on September 1, 1951.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States presidential election of 1956 was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Sixth Fleet is the United States Navy's operational fleet and staff of United States Naval Forces Europe.
Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.
The Vickers-Armstrongs Valiant was a British four-jet high-altitude bomber, and was part of the Royal Air Force's V bomber nuclear force in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Helen Violet Bonham Carter, Baroness Asquith of Yarnbury, DBE (15 April 1887 – 19 February 1969), known until her marriage as Violet Asquith, was a British politician and diarist.
Voice of the Arabs or Sawt al-Arab (صوت العرب)‎ (621 kHz on Mediumwave to Egypt, 9800 kHz, and many other frequencies on Shortwave to the Middle East, the rest of Europe and North America) was one of the first and most prominent Egyptian transnational Arabic-language radio services.
The Vought F4U Corsair is an American fighter aircraft that saw service primarily in World War II and the Korean War.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The 1957 Warwick and Leamington by-election was fought on 7 March 1957 when the incumbent Conservative MP, the ex-Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden, retired from Parliament.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Westland Wyvern was a British single-seat carrier-based multi-role strike aircraft built by Westland Aircraft that served in the 1950s, seeing active service in the 1956 Suez Crisis.
William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was an American politician, newspaper publisher, and Republican Party leader.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and invariably since 1905, has been held by the Prime Minister.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of armistice agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949 Lebanon, UN Doc S/1296 23 March 1949 Jordan, UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 3 April 1949 and Syria UN Doc S/1353 20 July 1949 to formally end the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line. The United Nations established supervising and reporting agencies to monitor the established armistice lines.
The 1958 US–UK Mutual Defense Agreement, or UK–US Mutual Defence Agreement, is a bilateral treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom on nuclear weapons cooperation.
The 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er REP) was part of the Foreign French Airborne.
The 2nd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (2e RPIMa) is an airborne regiment of the French Army created in 1947.
The 3rd Battalion, Parachute Regiment (3 PARA), is a battalion sized formation of the British Army's Parachute Regiment and is a subordinate unit within 16 Air Assault Brigade.
40 Commando RM is a battalion-sized formation of the British Royal Marines and subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.
42 Commando (read and said as Four-Two Commando) is a subordinate unit within the Royal Marines 3 Commando Brigade, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Fleet Commander.
45 Commando Royal Marines (pronounced "four-five commando") is a battalion sized unit of the British Royal Marines and subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.
The 6th Royal Tank Regiment (6 RTR) was a regiment of the Royal Tank Regiment, of the British Army, until 1959.
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