204 relations: Abuse, Affect (psychology), Affective neuroscience, Affective science, Ahimsa, Aid, Alternative medicine, Amor fati, Anger, Angst, Anguish, Animal euthanasia, Animal Liberation (book), Animal welfare, Anxiety, Apathy, Arthur Kleinman, Arthur Schopenhauer, Asceticism, Ataraxia, Atonement in Christianity, Aversives, Bahá'í Faith, BDSM, Blood sport, Body art, Body piercing, Book of Job, Borderline personality disorder, Broken heart, Buddhism, Cancer, Chronic pain, Cicely Saunders, Cingulate cortex, Clinical psychology, Compassion, Compassion fatigue, Coping (psychology), Criminal law, Cruelty, Cruelty to animals, Damnation, David Pearce (philosopher), Depression (mood), Disgust, Dukkha, Dystopia, Elaine Scarry, Embarrassment, ..., Emergency management, Emotion, Empathy, Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential, Environmental security, Envy, Epicurus, Escapism, Eternal return, Euthanasia, Evil, Fear, Feeling, Felicific calculus, Fight-or-flight response, Four Noble Truths, Friedrich Nietzsche, Frustration, Genetic engineering, Genuine progress indicator, Grief, Gross National Happiness, Guilt (emotion), Happiness, Happiness economics, Harm, Hazing, Health care, Health professional, Hedonic treadmill, Hedonism, Hell, Human branding, Human rights, Human security, Humane society, Humanitarian aid, Humanitarian principles, Humanitarianism, Humiliation, Hunger, Hygiene, Insurance, Intentional infliction of emotional distress, Irritation, Islam, Itch, Jealousy, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Joseph A. Amato, Karl Popper, Karma in Hinduism, Karuṇā, Loneliness, Malingering, Man's Search for Meaning, Medicine, Mercy, Moksha, Mortification of the flesh, Musée des Beaux Arts (poem), Nausea, Negative affectivity, Negative utilitarianism, Negligent infliction of emotional distress, Nirvana, No pain, no gain, Noble Eightfold Path, Oncology, Pain, Pain (philosophy), Pain and pleasure, Pain and suffering, Pain in animals, Pain in invertebrates, Pain management, Palliative care, Panic, Paris Talks, Penance, Penology, Perception, Performance art, Pessimism, Peter Singer, Phenomenon, Philanthropy, Physical abuse, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Pity, Pleasure, Primary and secondary gain, Problem of evil, Problem of Hell, Psychiatry, Psychogenic pain, Psychological abuse, Psychological pain, Psychomotor agitation, Psychotherapy, Public health, Punishment, Punishment (psychology), Quality of life, Ragging, Ralph Siu, Redemptive suffering, Regret, Reinforcement, Richard D. Ryder, Rite of passage, Ronald Anderson, Sadistic personality disorder, Sadness, Sadomasochism, Safety, Salvation, Scarification, Schadenfreude, Security, Self-harm, Sentience, Shame, Shortness of breath, Sleep deprivation, Social security, Social services, Sports injury, Stoicism, Suicide, Sympathy, Taṇhā, Tattoo, Terrorism, The Open Society and Its Enemies, Theodicy, Thirst, Torture, Union of International Associations, Utilitarianism, Valence (psychology), Vestibular system, Victimology, Video game controversies, Violence in sports, War, Warning system, Welfare economics, Weltschmerz, Wild animal suffering, Will to live, Will to power, `Abdu'l-Bahá. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.
Affective science is the scientific study of emotion or affect.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Amor fati ("love of fate") is a Latin phrase that may be translated as "love of fate" or "love of one's fate".
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
Angst means fear or anxiety (anguish is its Latinate equivalent, and anxious, anxiety are of similar origin).
Anguish is a term used in philosophy, often as a translation from the Latin for angst.
Animal euthanasia (euthanasia from εὐθανασία; "good death") is the act of putting an animal to death or allowing it to die by withholding extreme medical measures.
Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a 1975 book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer.
Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.
Arthur Kleinman (born March 11, 1941) is an American psychiatrist and a professor of medical anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry at Harvard University.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "not perturbed", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek philosophy term used to describe a lucid state of robust equanimity that was characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.
In western Christian theology, atonement describes how human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death.
In psychology, aversives are unpleasant stimuli that induce changes in behavior through punishment; by applying an aversive immediately following a behavior, the likelihood of the behavior occurring in the future is reduced.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
BDSM is a variety of often erotic practices or roleplaying involving bondage, discipline, dominance and submission, sadomasochism, and other related interpersonal dynamics.
A blood sport is a category of sport or entertainment that involves bloodshed.
Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body.
Body piercing, a form of body modification, is the practice of puncturing or cutting a part of the human body, creating an opening in which jewelry may be worn.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Broken heart (also known as a heartbreak or heartache) is a metaphor for the intense emotional—and sometimes physical—stress or pain one feels at experiencing great longing.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Dame Cicely Mary Saunders OM DBE FRCS FRCP FRCN (22 June 1918 – 14 July 2005) was an English Anglican nurse, social worker, physician and writer, involved with many international universities.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.
Compassion fatigue, also known as secondary traumatic stress (STS), is a condition characterized by a gradual lessening of compassion over time.
Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Cruelty is indifference to suffering or pleasure in inflicting suffering.
Cruelty to animals, also called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission (animal neglect) or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human animal.
Damnation (from Latin damnatio) is the concept of divine punishment and torment in an afterlife for actions that were committed on Earth.
David Pearce is co-founder of the World Transhumanist Association, currently rebranded and incorporated as Humanity+, Inc., and a prominent figure within the transhumanism movement.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 19th century works kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.
Elaine Scarry (born June 30, 1946) is an American essayist and professor of English and American Literature and Language.
Embarrassment is an emotional state that is associated with moderate to high levels of discomfort, and which is usually experienced when someone has a socially unacceptable or frowned-upon act or condition that was witnessed by or revealed to others.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is published by the Union of International Associations (UIA).
Environmental security examines threats posed by environmental events and trends to individuals, communities or nations.
Envy (from Latin invidia) is an emotion which "occurs when a person lacks another's superior quality, achievement, or possession and either desires it or wishes that the other lacked it".
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Escapism is the avoidance of unpleasant, boring, arduous, scary, or banal aspects of daily life.
Eternal return (also known as eternal recurrence) is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
The felicific calculus is an algorithm formulated by utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) for calculating the degree or amount of pleasure that a specific action is likely to cause.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
In psychology, frustration is a common emotional response to opposition, related to anger, annoyance and disappointment, frustration arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of an individual's will or goal and is likely to increase when a will or goal is denied or blocked.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genuine progress indicator (GPI) is a metric that has been suggested to replace, or supplement, gross domestic product (GDP).
Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.
Gross National Happiness (also known by the acronym: GNH) is a philosophy that guides the government of Bhutan.
Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own standards of conduct or has violated a universal moral standard and bears significant responsibility for that violation.
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
The economics of happiness or happiness economics is the quantitative and theoretical study of happiness, positive and negative affect, well-being, quality of life, life satisfaction and related concepts, typically combining economics with other fields such as psychology, health and sociology.
Harm is a moral and legal concept.
Hazing (US English), initiation ceremonies (British English), bastardisation (Australian English), ragging (South Asia), or deposition, refers to the practice of rituals, challenges, and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, sorority, team, or club.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
The hedonic treadmill, also known as hedonic adaptation, is the observed tendency of humans to quickly return to a relatively stable level of happiness despite major positive or negative events or life changes.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
Human branding or stigmatizing is the process which a mark, usually a symbol or ornamental pattern, is burned into the skin of a living person, with the intention that the resulting scar makes it permanent.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state.
A humane society is a group that aims to stop human or animal suffering due to cruelty or other reasons.
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.
There are a number of meanings for the term humanitarian.
Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans, in order to better humanity for moral, altruistic and logical reasons.
Humiliation is the abasement of pride, which creates mortification or leads to a state of being humbled or reduced to lowliness or submission.
In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
Intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED; sometimes called the tort of outrage) is a common law tort that allows individuals to recover for severe emotional distress caused by another individual who intentionally or recklessly inflicted emotional distress by behaving in an "extreme and outrageous" way.
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Jealousy is an emotion; the term generally refers to the thoughts or feelings of insecurity, fear, concern, and envy over relative lack of possessions, status or something of great personal value, particularly in reference to a comparator.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Joseph A. Amato (August 31, 1938, Detroit, Michigan) is a noted teacher, thinker, and author.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Karma is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul's (Atman's) reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth.
Karuā (in both Sanskrit and Pali) is generally translated as compassion.
Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation.
Malingering is the fabricating of symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of reasons such as financial compensation (often tied to fraud); avoiding school, work or military service; obtaining drugs; or as a mitigating factor for sentencing in criminal cases.
Man's Search for Meaning is a 1946 book by Viktor Frankl chronicling his experiences as an Auschwitz concentration camp inmate during World War II, and describing his psychotherapeutic method, which involved identifying a purpose in life to feel positively about, and then immersively imagining that outcome.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mercy (Middle English, from Anglo-French merci, from Medieval Latin merced-, merces, from Latin, "price paid, wages", from merc-, merxi "merchandise") is a broad term that refers to benevolence, forgiveness, and kindness in a variety of ethical, religious, social, and legal contexts.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Mortification of the flesh is an act by which an individual or group seeks to mortify, or put to death, their sinful nature, as a part of the process of sanctification.
"Musée des Beaux Arts" (French for "Museum of Fine Arts") is a poem written by W. H. Auden in December 1938 while he was staying in Brussels, Belgium with Christopher Isherwood.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Negative affectivity (NA), or negative affect, is a personality variable that involves the experience of negative emotions and poor self-concept.
Negative utilitarianism is a version of the ethical theory utilitarianism that gives greater priority to reducing suffering (negative utility or 'disutility') than to increasing happiness (positive utility).
The tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) is a controversial cause of action, which is available in nearly all U.S. states but is severely constrained and limited in the majority of them.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
No pain, no gain (or "No gain without pain") is an exercise motto that promises greater value rewards for the price of hard and even painful work.
The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Philosophy of pain may be about suffering in general or more specifically about physical pain.
Some philosophers, such as Jeremy Bentham, Baruch Spinoza, and Descartes, have hypothesized that the feelings of pain (or suffering) and pleasure are part of a continuum.
Pain and suffering is the legal term for the physical and emotional stress caused from an injury (see also pain and suffering).
In humans, pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain in invertebrates is a contentious issue.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.
Paris Talks is a book transcribed from talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in Paris in the first stages of his journeys to the West.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Penology (from "penal", Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
Pessimism is a mental attitude.
Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philanthropy means the love of humanity.
Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person or animal by way of bodily contact.
Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525-1530 – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting); he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.
Pity is a sympathetic sorrow evoked by the suffering of others and is used in a comparable sense to compassion, condolence or empathy.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Primary morbid gain or secondary morbid gain are used in medicine to describe the significant subconscious psychological motivators patients may have when presenting with symptoms.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
The problem of Hell is an ethical problem in religion in which the existence of Hell for the punishment of souls is regarded as inconsistent with the notion of a just, moral, and omnibenevolent God.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychogenic pain, also called psychalgia, is physical pain that is caused, increased, or prolonged by mental, emotional, or behavioral factors.
Psychological abuse (also referred to as psychological violence, emotional abuse, or mental abuse) is a form of abuse, characterized by a person subjecting, or exposing, another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Psychological pain, mental pain, or emotional pain is an unpleasant feeling (a suffering) of a psychological, non-physical origin.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
In operant conditioning, punishment is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Ragging is the term used for the so-called "initiation ritual" practiced in higher education institutions in South Asian countries, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
Ralph Gun Hoy Siu (1917 – December 29, 1998) was a distinguished American scholar, military and civil servant, and author.
Redemptive suffering is the Christian belief that human suffering, when accepted and offered up in union with the Passion of Jesus, can remit the just punishment for one's sins or for the sins of another, or for the other physical or spiritual needs of oneself or another.
Regret is a negative conscious and emotional reaction to one's personal decision-making, a choice resulting in action or inaction.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Richard Hood Jack Dudley Ryder (born 1940) is a British writer, psychologist, and animal rights advocate.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
Ronald Eugene Anderson (born June 14, 1941), also known as Ron Anderson, is Professor Emeritus, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities where he taught sociology from 1968 to 2005.
Sadistic personality disorder is a personality disorder involving sadism which appeared in an appendix of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R).
Sadness is an emotional pain associated with, or characterized by, feelings of disadvantage, loss, despair, grief, helplessness, disappointment and sorrow.
Sadomasochism is the giving or receiving pleasure from acts involving the receipt or infliction of pain or humiliation.
Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
Scarifying (also scarification modification) involves scratching, etching, burning / branding, or superficially cutting designs, pictures, or words into the skin as a permanent body modification.
Schadenfreude ('harm-joy') is the experience of pleasure, joy, or self-satisfaction that comes from learning of or witnessing the troubles, failures, or humiliation of another.
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
Shame is a painful, social emotion that can be seen as resulting "...from comparison of the self's action with the self's standards...". but which may equally stem from comparison of the self's state of being with the ideal social context's standard.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Social services are a range of public services provided by the government, private, and non-profit organizations.
Sports injuries are injuries that occur in athletic activities or exercising.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sympathy (from the Greek words syn "together" and pathos "feeling" which means "fellow-feeling") is the perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another life form.
is a Pāli word, related to the Vedic Sanskrit word and, which means "thirst, desire, wish".
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Open Society and Its Enemies is a work on political philosophy by the philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author presents a "defence of the open society against its enemies", and offers a critique of theories of teleological historicism, according to which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws.
Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
The Union of International Associations (UIA) is a non-profit non-governmental research institute and documentation center based in Brussels, Belgium, and operating under United Nations mandate.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.
The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.
Victimology is the study of victimization, including the psychological effects on victims, relationships between victims and offenders, the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system—that is, the police and courts, and corrections officials—and the connections between victims and other social groups and institutions, such as the media, businesses, and social movements.
Video game controversies are societal and scientific arguments about whether the content of video games changes the behavior and attitudes of a player, and whether this is reflected in video game culture overall.
Violence in sports usually refers to violent and often unnecessarily harmful intentional physical acts committed during, or motivated by, a sports game, often in relation to contact sports such as American football, ice hockey, rugby football, lacrosse, association football, boxing, mixed martial arts, wrestling, and water polo and, when referring to the players themselves, often involving excessively violent or potentially illegal physical contact beyond the normal levels of contact expected while playing the sport.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Warning system is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individual or group to inform of a future danger.
Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate well-being (welfare) at the aggregate (economy-wide) level.
Weltschmerz (from the German, literally world-pain, also world weariness) is a term coined in the 1830s by the German author Jean Paul and denotes the kind of feeling experienced by someone who believes that physical reality can never satisfy the demands of the mind.
Wild animal suffering is the suffering experienced by nonhuman animals in nature through causes such as disease, injury, starvation, natural disasters, and killings by other animals.
The will to life or Wille zum Leben is a psychological force to fight for self-preservation seen as an important and active process of conscious and unconscious reasoning.
The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
`Abdu’l-Bahá' (Persian: عبد البهاء‎, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born `Abbás (عباس), was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh and served as head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1892 until 1921.