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Aïn Madhi is a town and commune in Laghouat Province, Algeria, and the seat of Aïn Madhi District.
Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (d. 161 AH; 776 CE), also known as Abu Hashim was a member of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.
Muḥyī-al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad b. Abū Sāleh ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī (عبدالقادر گیلانی, عبدالقادر الجيلاني, Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Evdilqadirê Geylanî, عهبدوالقادری گهیلانی),B.
Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon (אברהם בן רמב"ם; also known as Rabbeinu Avraham ben ha-Rambam, and Avraham Maimuni) (1186 – December 7, 1237) was the son of Maimonides who succeeded his father as Nagid of the Egyptian Jewish community.
Abū al-Najīb Abd al-Qādir Suhrawardī (ابوالنجیب عبدالقادر سهروردی) (1097–1168) was a Sunni Persian Sufi who was born in Sohrevard, near Zanjan, and founded the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abū Dharr al-Ghifari al-Kinani (أبو ذر الغفاري الكناني.), also Jundab ibn Junādah (جُنْدَب ابْنِ جُنَادَة), was the fourth or fifth person converting to Islam, and a Muhajirun.
Abu Ishaq Shami (died 940) was a Muslim scholar who is often regarded as the founder of the Sufi Chishti Order (چشتی - Čištī) (ششتى - Shishti).
Abū Naṣr ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Alī al-Sarrāj (in Arabic: أبو نصرعبدالله ابن علي السرَّاج, in Persian: ابونصر عبدالله بن علی بن محمد بن یحیی سرّاج) (died 988) was a Sufi sheikh and ascetic born in Tūs, Iran.
Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi (ابوسعیدمبارک مخزومی), known also as Mubarak bin Ali Makhzoomi and Abu Saeed and Abu Sa'd al-Mubarak (rarely known as Qazi Abu Sa'd al-Mubarak al-Mukharrimi) was a Sufi saint as well as a Muslim mystic and traditionalist.
Abu al-Hasan ash-Shadhili (أبو الحسن الشاذلي) (full name: Abu al-Hasan ʿAli ibn ʿAbd Allaah ibn ʿAbd al-Jabbaar al-Hasanī wal-Husaynī ash-Shadhili) also known as Sheikh al-Shadhili is an influential Moroccan Islamic scholar and Sufi, founder of the Shadhili Sufi order.
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686.
Afaq Khoja (1626 – 1694), born Hidayat Allah (هدایتالله), a.k.a. Apaq Xoja, or more properly Āfāq Khwāja (Persian: آفاق خواجه) was a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day southern Xinjiang, China).
Abu al-ʿAbbâs Ahmad ibn Muhammad at-Tijânî or Ahmed Tijani (1735–1815), in Arabic سيدي أحمد التجاني (Sidi Ahmed Tijani), is the founder of the Tijaniyya Sufi order.
Khawaja Ahmad Yasawi or Ahmed Yesevi (Qoja Axmet Yasawï, قوجا احمەت ياساۋٸ; ’Ahmad Yasawī; 1093–1166) was a Turkic poet and Sufi, an early mystic who exerted a powerful influence on the development of Sufi orders throughout the Turkic-speaking world.
Ahmed Muhammad Ahmed el-Tayeb (أحمد محمد أحمد الطيب) (born January 6, 1946) is the current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
The Throne Verse (ʾĀyat al-Kursī) is the 255th verse of the 2nd surah of the Qur'an, Al-Baqara.
Qasīdat al-Burda (قصيدة البردة, "Poem of the Mantle"), or al-Burda for short, is an ode of praise for the Islamic prophet Muhammad composed by the eminent Sufi mystic Imam al-Busiri of Egypt.
al-Būsīrī (Abū 'Abdallāh Muhammad ibn Sa'īd ul-Būsīrī Ash Shadhili) (1211–1294) was a Sanhaji BerberSufi poet belonging to the Shadhiliyya order being direct disciple of Sheikh Abul Abbas al-Mursi ash Shadhili.
The Fassi family is the name of the household of the Sheikhs of Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya from Mecca descending from Imam Fassi.
Al-Fuḍayl ibn ‘Iyāḍ (died 803 / AH 187, الفضيل بن عياض, full name, was also known as Abu Ali and as al-Talaqani) was a thief who renounced his crimes and became a Muslim ascetic.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
In Islamic theology, al-Insān al-Kāmil (الإنسان الكامل) also rendered as Insān-i Kāmil (Persian/Urdu: انسان کامل) and İnsan-ı Kâmil (Turkish), is a term used as an honorific title to describe the prophet Muhammad.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
'Abd al-Karīm ibn Hūzān Abū al-Qāsim al-Qushayrī al-Naysābūrī, (عبدالکریم قُشَیری, عبد الكريم بن هوازن بن عبد الملك بن طلحة أبو القاسم القشيري) (also Kushayri) was born in 986 CE (376 AH) in Nishapur which is in Khorasan Province in Iran.
Al-Rifa`i (1118–1181/2, full name Ahmad ibn `Ali ar-Rifa`i أحمد بن علي الرفاعي) was the founder of the Rifa`i Sufi order.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAlī al-Ghaznawī al-Jullābī al-Hujwīrī (c. 1009-1072/77), known as ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, or Hajvery) for short, or reverentially as Shaykh Syed ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or as Dātā Ganj Bakhsh by Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was an 11th-century Ghaznian-Persian Sunni Muslim mystic, theologian, and preacher from what is now Afghanistan who became famous for composing the Kashf al-maḥjūb (Unveiling of the Hidden), which is considered the "earliest formal treatise" on Sufism in Persian.
Ali Kianfar is a Sufi master, author, teacher, philosopher and international speaker.
The Alian Kızılbaşī community (in Turkish Alyanlar or Tajiklar), are a Shi`a order, similar to the Sufi Mevlevi, who live in several regions of Bulgaria.
The All India Ulama & Mashaikh Board (AIUMB) is a body of Indian Sunni Muslims.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba (Aamadu Bamba Mbàkke, أحمد بن محمد بن حبيب الله Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥabīb Allāh, 1850–1927) also known as Khādimu 'r-Rasūl (خادِم الرسول) or "The Servant of the Messenger" and Sëriñ Tuubaa or "Sheikh of Tuubaa", was a Sufi religious leader in Senegal and the founder of the large Mouride Brotherhood (the Muridiyya).
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
The Amman Message (رسالة عمان) is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
Aqidah (ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed" p. 470.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (c. 1145 – c. 1221; ابو حامد بن ابوبکر ابراهیم), better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فرید الدین) and ʿAṭṭār (عطار, Attar means apothecary), was a 12th-century PersianFarīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopædia Britannica, online edition - accessed December 2012.
The Ba'Alawi tariqa (طريقة آل باعلوي), also known as the Tariqa Alawiyya is a Sufi order centered in Hadhramawt, Yemen, but now spread across the Indian Ocean rim along with the Hadhrami diaspora.
The Badawiyyah, Sufi tarika, was founded in the thirteenth century in Egypt by Ahmad al-Badawi (1199-1276).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (بهاءالدین محمد نقشبند بخاری) (1318–1389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential Sufi Muslim orders, the Naqshbandi.
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Paquda (also: Pakuda, Bakuda, Hebrew:, بهية بن باكودا) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived at Zaragoza, Al-Andalus (now Spain) in the first half of the eleventh century.
Balım Sultan is the greatest personality in the Bektashi Order after Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli (Haji Bektash) and he is regarded as the “Second Pir”.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
Bastam (بسطام, also romanized as Basṭām; also known as Busṭām and Bisṭām) is a city in and capital of the Bastam District of Shahrud County, Semnan Province, Iran.
Muhammad Raheem Bawa Muhaiyaddeen (died December 8, 1986) was a Tamil-speaking teacher and Sufi mystic from the island of Sri Lanka who first came to the United States on October 11, 1971 and established the Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship in Philadelphia.
Abū Yazīd Ṭayfūr b. ʿĪsā b. Surūshān al-Bisṭāmī (al-Basṭāmī) (d. 261/874–5 or 234/848–9), commonly known in the Iranian world as Bāyazīd Bisṭāmī (بایزید بسطامی), was a PersianWalbridge, John.
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
Bidokht (بيدخت, also Romanized as Bīdokht; also known as Bidukh) is a city in the Central District of Gonabad County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Bulent Rauf (Istanbul 1911 – Chisholme House, Roberton, Scottish Borders 1987) was a Turkish-British mystic, spiritual teacher, translator and author.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bullah Ki Jaana (بُلھا کی جاناں (Shahmukhi), ਬੁੱਲ੍ਹਾ ਕੀ ਜਾਣਾਂ (Gurmukhi)) is one of the most-known Kafi poems written by the Punjabi Sufi saint Bulleh Shah.
The Tariqa Burhāniyya (Ṭarīqa al-burhāniyya al-disūqiyya al-šāḏuliyya; also written al-Burhāniyya or Burhāniyyah) is an Sufi order founded by Sayyidi Abul Hasan ash-Shadhuli and Sayyidi Ibrahim al Disuqi in the 13th century.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Carl W. Ernst (born September 8, 1950, Los Angeles, California) is the Kenan Distinguished Professor of Islamic studies at the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chapel of the Ascension (קפלת העלייה Kapelat ha-Aliyya, Εκκλησάκι της Αναλήψεως, Ekklisáki tis Analípseos) is a shrine located on the Mount of Olives, in the At-Tur district of Jerusalem.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chishtī Order (چشتی chishtī) is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam.
Chovot HaLevavot, or Ḥobot HaLebabot (italic; English: Duties of the Heart), is the primary work of the Jewish rabbi and philosopher, Bahya ibn Paquda, full name Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda.
Coleman Barks (born April 23, 1937) is an American poet, and former literature faculty at the University of Georgia.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
Abu Solaiman Dawud ibn Nosair al-Ta’i, usually referred to as Dawud Tai, (died between 777 and 782) was a Islamic scholar and Sufi mystic.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.
Dhikr (also Zikr, Zekr, Zikir, Jikir, and variants; ḏikr; plural أذكار aḏkār, meaning "mentioning") is the name of devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the mind or aloud.
Divine presence, presence of God, Inner God, or simply presence is a concept in religion, spirituality, and theology that deals with the ability of a god or gods to be "present" with human beings.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
al-Hajj Umar ibn Sa'id al-Futi Tal (حاج عمر بن سعيد طعل), (c. 1794–1864 CE), Umar Saidou Tall, born in Futa Tooro, Senegambia, was a West African political leader, Islamic scholar, Tijani Sufi and Toucouleur military commander who founded a brief empire encompassing much of what is now Guinea, Senegal, and Mali.
Elif Shafak, in Turkish Elif Şafak (born 25 October 1971), is a Turkish-British novelist, essayist, academic, public speaker and women's rights activist.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Abdelkader ibn Muhieddine (6 September 1808 – 26 May 1883; عبد القادر ابن محيي الدين), known as the Emir Abdelkader or Abdelkader El Djezairi, was an Algerian religious and military leader who led a struggle against the French colonial invasion in the mid-19th century.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Exoteric refers to knowledge that is outside, and independent from, a person's experience and can be ascertained by anyone (related to common sense).
Farqad Sabakhi (died 729) was an Armenian Islamic preacher and an associate of Hasan al-Basri.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
Fitra, or fitrah (ALA-LC), is an Arabic word that has no exact English equivalent although it has been translated as 'primordial human nature', and as "instinct".
The Gülen movement (Gülen hareketi, in Turkish) is a transnational Islamic social movement that professes advocation of universal access to education, civil society, and peace, inspired by the religious teachings of Fethullah Gülen, a Turkish preacher who has lived in the United States since 1999.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (31 March 1866/ 14 January 1872/ 28 November 1877 – 29 October 1949) commonly known as G. I. Gurdjieff, was a mystic, philosopher, spiritual teacher, and composer of Armenian and Greek descent, born in Alexandrapol (now Gyumri), Armenia.
Ghazali (غزالي) is an Arabic surname, it may refer to.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gonabad County (شهرستان گناباد) is a county in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran.
The Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Arabic: الإمام الأكبر), also known as Grand Sheikh of al-Azhar (Arabic: شيخ الأزهر الشريف), currently Ahmed el-Tayeb, is a prestigious Sunni Islam title and a prominent official title in Egypt.
The Great Mosque of Touba (Grande Mosquée de Touba) is a mosque in Touba, Senegal.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith al-Silsilah al-Dhahab (حدیث سلسلة الذهب) (Hadith of the Golden Chain) is a hadith narrated from Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Imam of the Shia.
Haji Bektash Veli or Ḥājī Baktāsh Walī (حاجی بکتاش ولی Ḥājī Baktāš Walī; Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli) was an Alevi Muslim mystic, saint, Sayyid, humanist, and philosopher, who lived from 1209 to 1271.
Hamza al Qâdiri al Boutchichi (1922 – January 18, 2017) was a murshid and the spiritual guide of the Qadirriyya Boutchichiyya Sufi order.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Haqiqa (Arabic rtl ḥaqīqa "truth") is one of "the four stages" in Sufism, shari’a (exoteric path), tariqa (esoteric path), haqiqa (mystical truth) and marifa (final mystical knowledge, unio mystica).
Harawi is an ancient traditional genre of Andean Music and also indigenous lyric poetry.
Al-Muhasibi (781–857) was the founder of the Baghdad School of Islamic philosophy, and a teacher of the Sufi masters Junayd al-Baghdadi and Sirri Saqti.
Abū Saʿīd b. Abi ’l-Ḥasan Yasār al-Baṣrī, often referred to as Ḥasan of Basra (Arabic: حسن البصري, Ḥasan al-Baṣrī; 642 - 15 October 728) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ḥasan al-Baṣrī in Sunni Islam, was an early Muslim preacher, ascetic, theologian, exegete, scholar, judge, and mystic.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Hermes Trismegistus (Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος, "thrice-greatest Hermes"; Mercurius ter Maximus; חרם תלת מחזות) is the purported author of the ''Hermetic Corpus'', a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
The Holy Spirit (روح القدس, Rūḥ al-Qudus) in the Islamic faith refers to the source of prophetic or divine revelation.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Hurufism (حروفية hurufiyya, adjective form hurufi literal meaning "letters") was a Sufi doctrine, which was born in Astrabad and spread in areas of western Persia and Anatolia in later 14th – early 15th century.
Ibn al-Farid or Ibn Farid; Arabic, عمر بن علي بن الفارض (`Umar ibn `Alī ibn al-Fārid) (22 March 11811234) was an Arab poet.
Ibn ʿArabi (full name Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن عربي الحاتمي الطائي ‎ 26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240), was an Arab Andalusian Sufi scholar of Islam, mystic, poet, and philosopher.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī (احمد ابن محمد ابن ابراهيم ابوالعباس شمس الدين البرمكي الاربيلي الشافعي) (September 22, 1211 – October 30, 1282) was a Shafi'i Islamic scholar of the 13th Century and is famous as the compiler of a great biographical dictionary of Arab scholars, Wafayāt al-Aʿyān wa-Anbāʾ Abnāʾ az-Zamān (Deaths of Eminent Men and History of the Sons of the Epoch).
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
Ibrahim ibn Adham also called Ibrahim Balkhi (إبراهيم بن أدهم); c. 718 – c. 782 / AH c. 100 – c. 165 is one of the most prominent of the early ascetic Sufi saints.
Sheikh Ibrahima Fall (1855–1930) was a disciple of Sheikh Aamadu Bàmba Mbàkke, founder of the Mouride Brotherhood movement in West Africa.
Idries Shah (ادريس شاه, ادریس شاه; 16 June 1924 – 23 November 1996), also known as Idris Shah, né Sayed Idries el-Hashimi (Arabic: سيد إدريس هاشمي) and by the pen name Arkon Daraul, was an author and teacher in the Sufi tradition who wrote over three dozen books on topics ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies.
Idris, GBE (إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983), was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969.
Ihsan (إحسان ʾiḥsān, also Romanized ehsan), is an Arabic term meaning "perfection" or "excellence" (Ara. husn).
Imam Birgivi (27 March 1522–15 March 1573) was a Muslim scholar and moralist who lived during the height of the Ottoman Empire and whose texts are used to this day as manuals of spiritual practice throughout the Muslim world.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, lit. faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam.
Inayat Khan Rehmat Khan Pathan (عنایت خان; 5 July 1882 – 5 February 1927) was the founder of the Sufi Order in the West in 1914 (London) and teacher of Universal Sufism.
The Inayati Order is a Western Sufi order, originally founded by Inayat Khan.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
A list of topics related to the topic of Sufism.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Institut de France (Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.
An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a Big Band setting.
International Association of Sufism (IAS) is a California nonprofit organization headquartered in Marin County.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Irina Tweedie (20 April 1907, Russia – 23 August 1999) was a Russian-British Sufi and teacher of the Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddidiya order.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Mainstream Islamic law stipulates detailed regulations for the use of violence, including the use of violence within the family or household, the use of corporal and capital punishment, as well as how, when and against whom to wage war.
Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and Islamism.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
Velayat-e faqih (ولایت فقیه, velāyat-e faqīh), also known as Islamic Government (حکومت اسلامی, Hokumat-i Eslami), is a book by the Iranian Muslim cleric, faqīh, and revolutionary Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of theocratic rule.
Islamopedia Online is a website dedicated to providing a comprehensive database of information regarding Islam, its most influential leaders, and translations of current topics and religious opinions.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Ivan Aguéli (born John Gustaf Agelii) (May 24, 1869 - October 1, 1917) also named Sheikh 'Abd al-Hādī 'Aqīlī (شيخ عبد الهادی عقیلی) upon his conversion to Islam, was a Swedish wandering Sufi, painter and author.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
James Harry Manson Moore (born 16th December 1929 in Saltash, Cornwall, died 11th May 2017 London, United Kingdom) was a Cornish author.
Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī (نورالدین عبدالرحمن جامی), also known as Mawlanā Nūr al-Dīn 'Abd al-Rahmān or Abd-Al-Rahmān Nur-Al-Din Muhammad Dashti, or simply as Jami or Djāmī and in Turkey as Molla Cami (7 November 1414 – 9 November 1492), was a Persian poet who is known for his achievements as a prolific scholar and writer of mystical Sufi literature.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The Jerrahi (Cerrahiyye, Cerrahilik) are a Sufi tariqah (order) derived from the Halveti order.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon (1120 – after 1190) was a translator and physician.
The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.
Junayd of Baghdad (835-910) was a Persian mystic and one of the most famous of the early Saints of Islam.
Karima is a town in Northern State in Sudan some 400 km from Khartoum on a loop of the Nile.
Revelation of the Veiled (کشفُ المحجوب.); Kashf-ul-Mahjoob also Kashf-ul-Mahjub; is one of the most ancient and revered Persian treatise on Sufism which contains a complete system of Sufism with its doctrines and practices.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kaygusuz Abdal (1341-1444) was a Turkish folk poet of the 14th century.
The Khalwati order (also known as Khalwatiyya, Khalwatiya, or Halveti, as it is known in Turkey) is an Islamic Sufi brotherhood (tariqa).
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
Khawaja or khwaja (خواجه) is an honorific title used across the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia, particularly towards Sufi teachers.
Khwaja Ghulam Farid (Urdu) or Khwaja Farid (1845–1901) was a 19th-century Saraiki sufi poet of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kubrawiya order (سلسلة کبرویة) or Kubrawi order, also known as Firdausia Silsila, is a Sufi order that traces its spiritual lineage (Silsilah) to prophet Muhammad through Ali, Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the First Imam.
Kulob (translit), also Kulyab (translit), is a city in Kulob District, Khatlon Province, Tajikistan.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Syed Usman MarvandiSarah Ansari (1992) Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sindh, 1843–1947.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
Lataif-e-sitta (لطائف سته) or al-Laṭtaʾif as-Sitta (اللطائف الستة), meaning "The Six Subtleties", are psychospiritual "organs" or, sometimes, faculties of sensory and suprasensory perception in Sufi psychology, and are explained here according to the usage amongst certain Sufi groups (key terms in this article are taken from the Urdu, rather than the original Arabic).
Laurence Paul Elwell-Sutton (1912–1984) was a scholar of Persian culture and Islamic studies.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This article is a List of modern Sufi scholars.
The following is a list of Sufi orders or schools (ṭarīqah).
Sufi saints or Wali (ولي, plural ʾawliyāʾ أولياء) played an instrumental role in spreading Islam throughout the world.
Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee (born 1953, London) is a Sufi mystic and lineage successor in the Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddidiyya Sufi Order.
Ma Yuanzhang (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻳُﻮًا ﺟْﺎ) was a Chinese Sufi master, of the Jahriyya menhuan (Naqshbandi Sufi order).
The Madariyya are members of a Sufi order (tariqa) popular in North India, especially in Uttar Pradesh, the Mewat region, Bihar, Gujarat and Bengal, as well as in Nepal and Bangladesh.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
(or Mejlis; مجلس, pl. مجالس) is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Mansur al-Hallaj (ابو المغيث الحسين بن منصور الحلاج; منصور حلاج) (26 March 922) (Hijri 309 AH) was a Persian mystic, poet and teacher of Sufism.
For the convenience of people who wish to read the Qur'an in a week the text may be divided into 7 portions, each portion is known as Manzil.
Maqaam (also known as maqām) or maqaamat (plural), translating to "stations" in Arabic, is the various stages a Sufi's soul must attain in its search for God.
A marabout (lit) is a Muslim religious leader and teacher in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb.
Maruf Karkhi (معروف کرخی), known also by his full name Abu Mahfuz Maruf Ibn Firuz al-Karkhi, was a Sufi Saint who is a pivotal figure in Sufism.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Meher Baba (born Merwan Sheriar Irani; 25 February 1894 – 31 January 1969) was an Indian spiritual master who said he was the Avatar.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
The Mevlâna Museum, located in Konya, Turkey, is the mausoleum of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, a Persian Sufi mystic also known as Mevlâna or Rumi.
The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order (Mevlevilik or Mevleviyye طریقت مولویه) is a Sufi order in Konya (modern day Turkey) (capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate) founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic theologian and Sufi mystic.
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani (میر سید علی ہمدانی‎; 1314–1384) was a Persian Sūfī of the Kubrawiya order, a poet and a prominent Shafi'i Muslim scholar.
Mithankot (مِٹھّن کوٹ), is a city in southern Punjab, Pakistan (Rajanpur District).
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Chishtī Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan Sijzī (1142–1236 CE), known more commonly as Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī or Moinuddin Chishti,Blain Auer, “Chishtī Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Moojan Momen is a retired physician and historian specializing in Bahá'í studies who has published numerous books and articles about the Bahá'í Faith including for Encyclopædia Iranica He is an editor of Baha'i Studies Review and serves as a faculty member at the Wilmette Institute.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mouride brotherhood (yoonu murit, الطريقة المريدية aṭ-Ṭarīqat al-Murīdiyyah or simply المريدية, al-Murīdiyyah) is a large tariqa (Sufi order) most prominent in Senegal and the Gambia with headquarters in the city of Touba, Senegal, which is a holy city for the order.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Emin Er (c. 1914 – 27 June 2013) was an Islamic scholar trained in the Ottoman tradition and former student of Bediüzzaman Said Nursi.
Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787–1859) was the founder of the Senussi order in 1837.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Murid (مُرِيد) is a Sufi term meaning "committed one" from the root meaning "willpower" or "self-esteem".
Murshid (مرشد) is Arabic for "guide" or "teacher", derived from the root r-sh-d, with the basic meaning of having integrity, being sensible, mature.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Sheikh Muzaffer Ozak Ashki al-Jerrahi (aka: Sheikh Muzaffer Özak Âșkî al-Jerrahi) (1916 - February 12, 1985) Sheikh Muzaffer Ozak was the 19th Grand Sheikh of the Halveti-Jerrahi Order of Dervishes, a traditional Muslim Sufi order (tarika) from Istanbul (Turkey).
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Nafs (نَفْس) is an Arabic word occurring in the Qur'an and means "self", "psyche",Nurdeen Deuraseh and Mansor Abu Talib (2005), "Mental health in Islamic medical tradition", The International Medical Journal 4 (2), p. 76-79 "ego" or "soul".
Nahid Angha is a Sufi scholar, author, lecturer and human-rights activist.
Najmuddīn-e Kubrā (نجمالدین کبری) was a 13th-century Khwarezmian Sufi from Khwarezm and the founder of the Kubrawiya, influential in the Ilkhanate and Timurid dynasty.
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the (Beautiful Names of God).
The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
Mehmet Nazım Adil (April 21, 1922 CE – May 7, 2014; Sha'ban 23, 1340 AH – Rajab 8, 1435 AH), commonly known as Sheikh Nazim (Turkish: Şeyh Nazım), was a Turkish Cypriot Sufi Muslim sheikh and spiritual leader of the Naqshbandi tariqa.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
New Westminster is a historically important city in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada, and a member municipality of Metro Vancouver.
The Ni'matullāhī or Ne'matollāhī (نعمتاللهی) (also spelled as "Nimatollahi", "Nematollahi" or "Ni'matallahi) is a Sufi order (or tariqa) originating in Iran.
Muhammad Nizamuddin Auliya (محمد نظام الدّین اولیاء.‎; sometimes spelled Awliya; 1238 – 3 April 1325), also known as Hazrat Nizamuddin, was a Sufi saint of the Chishti Order and arguably one of the most famous Sufis on the Indian Subcontinent.
Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee is a Muslim scholar, thinker, author, translator and the khalifah (successor) for North America of the Shadhdhuli School for Tranquility of Being and the Illumination of Hearts, Green Mountain Branch.
Nuh Ha Mim Keller (born 1954) is an Islamic scholar, teacher and author who lives in Amman.
Omer Tarin (real name: Omer Salim Khan), FRAS, FPAL, etc.; born 10 March 1967, is a Pakistani poet, research scholar, social activist and mystic.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
Paradise is the term for a place of timeless harmony.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Philip Jenkins (born April 3, 1952) is a Professor of History at Baylor University in the United States, and Co-Director for Baylor's Program on Historical Studies of Religion in the Institute for Studies of Religion.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
The Qadiriyya (القادريه, قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri,"Quadri" or Qadri) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order).
The Qalandariyyah (قلندرية, क़लन्दरिय्या, ক়লন্দরিয়্য়া), Qalandaris or Kalandars are wandering Sufi dervishes.
In Islamic philosophy, the qalb (قلب), or heart, is the origin of intentional activities, the cause behind all of humans intuitive deeds.
Qanun is an Arabic word (قانون, qānūn; قانون, kānūn, derived from κανών kanōn, which is also the root for the modern English word "canon").
Qawwali (Nastaʿlīq:; Punjabi: ਕਵਾਲੀ (Gurmukhi); Hindi: क़व्वाली; Bangla: কাওয়ালি) is a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia: in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan; in Hyderabad, Delhi and other parts of India, especially North India; as well as Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet divisions of Bangladesh.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Qutb, Qutub, Kutb, Kutub, or Kotb (قطب), means 'axis', 'pivot' or 'pole'.
Rabbi Shergill (born Gurpreet Singh Shergill, 1973) is an Indian musician well known for his debut album Rabbi and the chart-topper song of 2005, Bullah Ki Jaana ("I know not who I am!").
Rābiʿa al-ʿAdawiyya al-Qaysiyya (رابعة العدوية القيسية) (714/717/718 — 801 CE) was a Muslim saint and Sufi mystic.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
In Islam and Sufism, rūḥ (روح; plural arwah) is a person's immortal, essential self—the spirit or soul.
There was a certain amount of cultural contact between Europe in the Renaissance to Early Modern period and the Islamic world (at the time primarily represented by the Ottoman Empire and, geographically more remote, Safavid Persia), however decreasing in intensity after medieval cultural contact in the era of the crusades and the Reconquista.
A recitation in a general sense is the act of reciting from memory, or a formal reading of verse or other writing before an audience.
Religious ecstasy is a reported type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional (and sometimes physical) euphoria.
René-Jean-Marie-Joseph Guénon (15 November 1886 – 7 January 1951), also known as ʿAbd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyá, was a French author and intellectual who remains an influential figure in the domain of metaphysics, having written on topics ranging from sacred science and traditional studies, to symbolism and initiation.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Rifa`i (also Rufa`i, Rifa`iyya, Rifa`iya, Arabic, الرفاعية) is an eminent Sufi order (tariqa) founded by Ahmed ar-Rifa'i and developed in the Lower Iraq marshlands between Wasit and Basra.
The Risale-i Nur Collection (Risale-i Nur Külliyatı., رسالة نور كلىاتي.) is a tafsir (Islamic exegesis) on the Qur'an written by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, a Kurdish from Bitlis region of Turkey between the 1910s and 1950s.
Robert Frager is an American social psychologist.
A role model is a person whose behavior, example, or success is or can be emulated by others, especially by younger people.
The Royal Library of Belgium (Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België in Dutch, Bibliothèque royale de Belgique in French, abbreviated KBR and sometimes nicknamed Albertina in Dutch and Albertine in French) is one of the most important cultural institutions in Belgium.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Abu Muhammad Ruwaym bin Ahmad was an early Muslim jurist, aescetic, saint and reciter of the Qur'an.
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī (ابومحمد مصلحالدین بن عبدالله شیرازی), better known by his pen-name Saadi (سعدی Saʿdī()), also known as Saadi of Shiraz (سعدی شیرازی Saadi Shirazi), was a major Persian poet and literary of the medieval period.
The Safaviyya Səfəviyyə(صفویه)was a tariqa (Sufi order) founded by the | Encyclopædia IranicaV.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Sa‘id Ibn Al-Musayyib (642-715 CE سعید بن المسیب) of Medina was among the foremost authorities in jurisprudence (fiqh) among the Taba'een (generation succeeding the Sahaba).
Aziz Üstad Bediüzzaman Said Nursi (سعيد نورسی / سەعید نوورسی‎; 1877 – 23 March 1960), also spelled Said-i Nursî, officially Said Okur and commonly known with the honorific Bediüzzaman (بديع الزّمان, Badī' al-Zamān), meaning "wonder of the age"; or simply Üstad, "master") was a Kurdish Sunni Muslim theologian. He wrote the Risale-i Nur Collection, a body of Qur'anic commentary exceeding six thousand pages.Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone, Mahan Mirza, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, p. 482. Ian S. Markham; Suendam Birinci; Suendam Birinci Pirim (2011). An Introduction to Said Nursi: Life, Thought and Writings. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, p 194.. Believing that modern science and logic was the way of the future, he advocated teaching religious sciences in secular schools and modern sciences in religious schools. Nursi inspired a religious movement that has played a vital role in the revival of Islam in Turkey and now numbers several millions of followers worldwide. His followers, often known as ''the "Nurcu movement"'' or ''the "Nur cemaati"'', often call him by the venerating mononymic Üstad ("the Teacher"). Nursi displayed an unusual ability to learn from an early age, completing the normal course of Madrasa (religious school) education at the early age of fourteen, when he obtained his diploma. He became famous for both his prodigious memory and his unbeaten record in debating with other religious scholars. Another characteristic Nursi displayed from an early age was a dissatisfaction with the existing education system, which when older he formulated into comprehensive proposals for its reform. He was able to recite many books from memory. For instance "... So then he decided to test his memory and handed him a copy of the work by Al-Hariri of Basra (1054–1122) — also famous for his intelligence and power of memory — called Maqamat al-Hariri. Said read one page once, memorized it, then repeated it by heart. Molla Fethullah expressed his amazement.".
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
A sālik is a follower of Sufism, from the verb salaka which means to travel or follow, related to sulūk "pathway".
Sama (Sema, Persian, Urdu and سَمَاع - samā‘un) is a Sufi ceremony performed as dhikr.
The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is an Ottoman imperial mosque located on the Third Hill of Istanbul, Turkey.
One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
The Shadhili Tariqa (الطريقة الشاذلية) is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili of Morocco.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shāh Jalāl ad-Dīn al-Mujarrad al-Naqshbandi (شاه جلال الدين المجرد النقشبندي), popularly known as Hazrat Shah Jalal (شاه جلال, শাহ জালাল, ꠡꠣꠢ ꠎꠣꠟꠣꠟ) (1271 CE – 15 March 1346 CE), is a celebrated Sufi Muslim figure in Bengal.
Shāh Nimatullāh or Shāh Ni'matullāh Wali, (شاه نعمتالله ولی Shāh Ni'matullāh-i Valī), also spelled as Ne'matollah, Ni'matallah and Ni'mat Allāh, was a Persian Sufi Master and poet from the 14th and 15th centuries.
Shaykh Shahab al-Din Abu Hafs Umar Suhrawardi (c.1145-1234) was a Persian Sufi and nephew of Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi.
Imam Shamil (also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel; Шейх Шамил; Şeyh Şamil; Имам Шамиль; الشيخ شامل) (pronounced "Shaamil") (26 June 1797 – 4 February 1871) was the political, military, and spiritual leader of Caucasian resistance to Imperial Russia in the 1800s, as well as the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1840–1859).
Shams-i-Tabrīzī (شمس تبریزی) or Shams al-Din Mohammad (1185–1248) was a Persian Muslim, who is credited as the spiritual instructor of Mewlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhi, also known as Rumi and is referenced with great reverence in Rumi’s poetic collection, in particular Diwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzī (The Works of Shams of Tabriz).
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Al-Imam al-Mansur al-Mutawakil 'ala Allah, also known as Sheikh al-Mansur ("The-Victorious"), born Ushurma (1760–1794) was a Chechen Islamic religious and military leader who led the resistance against Catherine the Great's imperialist expansion into the Caucasus during the late 18th century.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Abu al-Hasan Sari (al Sirri) b. al-Maghallis al-Saqati (867CE) (Arabic:سری سقطی) was one of the early Muslim Sufis saint of Baghdad.
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
A spiritual gift or charism (plural: charisms or charismata; in Greek singular: χάρισμα charism, plural: χαρίσματα charismata) is an endowment or extraordinary power given by the Holy Spirit "Spiritual gifts".
Srinagar is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufi cosmology (الكوزمولوجية الصوفية) is a Sufi approach to cosmology which discusses the creation of man and the universe, which according to mystics are the fundamental grounds upon which Islamic religious universe is based.
Major ideas in Sufi metaphysics have surrounded the concept of weḥdah (وحدة) meaning "unity", or in Arabic توحيد tawhid.
There are three central ideas in Sufi Islamic psychology, which are the Nafs (self, ego or psyche), the Qalb (heart) and the Ruh (spirit).
Sufi whirling (or Sufi turning) (Semazen) is a form of Sama or physically active meditation which originated among Sufis, and which is still practiced by the Sufi Dervishes of the Mevlevi order and other orders such as the Rifa'i-Marufi.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sufism Reoriented is an American school of spiritual training, headquartered in Walnut Creek, California, established by Meher Baba in 1952.
Suhrawardy redirects here.
Sultan Bahu (سُلطان باہُو), (also spelled Bahoo; ca 1630–1691) was a Sufi mystic, poet, and scholar active mostly in the present-day Punjab province of Pakistan.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Syed Waheed Ashraf is an Indian Sufi scholar and poet in Persian and Urdu.
Sylhet (সিলেট, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ), also known as Jalalabad, the spiritual capital; is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Tābi‘un (التابعون, also Tābi‘een التابعين, singular tābi التابع), "followers" or "successors", are the generation of Muslims who followed the Sahaba ("companions" of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), and thus received Muhammad's teachings second hand.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth".
Tawassul is an Arabic word originated from wa-sa-la- wasilat (وسيلة-وسل).
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
Tazkiah (تزكية) is an Arabic-Islamic term alluding to "tazkiyah al-nafs" meaning "purification of the self".
Thaumaturgy (from Greek θαῦμα thaûma, meaning "miracle" or "marvel" and ἔργον érgon, meaning "work" is the capability of a magician or a saint to work magic or miracles. Isaac Bonewits defined thaumaturgy as "the use of magic for nonreligious purposes; the art and science of 'wonder working;' using magic to actually change things in the physical world". It is sometimes translated into English as wonderworking. A practitioner of thaumaturgy is a thaumaturgus, thaumaturge, thaumaturgist or miracle worker.
Kimiya-yi Sa'ādat (کیمیای سعادت italics) was a book written by Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī, a Persian theologian, philosopher, and prolific Sunni Muslim author regarded as one of the greatest systematic thinkers of Islam.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Other Press is the independent student newspaper of Douglas College, a multi-campus public college in British Columbia, Canada.
The Telegraph is an Indian English daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Kolkata since 7 July 1982.
The Tijāniyyah (The Tijānī Path) is a sufi tariqa (order, path) within Sunni Islam, originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, Niger, Chad, Ghana, Northern and South-western Nigeria and some part of Sudan.
Timothy John Winter (born 1960), also known as Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad, is an English Sunni Muslim scholar, researcher, writer and academic.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Touba (Hassaniya: Ṭūbā "Felicity") is a city in central Senegal, part of Diourbel Region and Mbacké district.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uwais ibn ʻAmir ibn Harb al-Qarni (أويس ابن أنيس القرني), was a Muslim from Yemen who lived during the lifetime of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Uwaisī is a form of spiritual transmission in the vocabulary of Islamic mysticism that was named after Awais Malik ''(Owais al-Qarni)''.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
William C. Chittick (born 1943) is a philosoper, writer, translator and interpreter of classical Islamic philosophical and mystical texts.
William McGuckin (also Mac Guckin and MacGuckin), known as Baron de Slane (Belfast, Ireland, 12 August 1801 - Paris, France, 4 August 1878) was an Irish orientalist.
The Zaouia of Moulay Idriss II is a zaouia (a shrine and religious complex; also spelled zawiya) in Fez, Morocco.
A zaouia or zawiya (زاوية zāwiyah; "assembly" "group" or "circle", also spelled zawiyah, zawiyya, zaouiya, zaouïa and zwaya) is an Islamic religious school or monastery.
Zaytuna College (formerly known as Zaytuna Institute) is a Muslim liberal arts college located in Berkeley, California.
Zikar-e-Qalbi which is also known as Zikar-e-khafi or silent zikr, is being practiced by Naqshbandi Sufi followers.
In Islam, ziyara(h) (زيارة ziyārah, "visit") or ziyarat (زیارت, ziyārat, "pilgrimage") is a form of pilgrimage to sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants (including the Shī‘ī Imāms), his companions and other venerated figures in Islam such as the prophets, Sufi Saints and Islamic scholars.
Zulfiqar (ذو الفقار Ḏū-l-Faqār or Ḏū-l-Fiqār) is the name of the sword of Ali ibn Abi Talib which is said to have been given to him by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, according to Shi'ite tradition.
At 1:50 PM EET on 24 November 2017, the al-Rawda mosque was attacked by roughly 40 gunmen during Friday prayers.
The 7 July 2005 London bombings, often referred to as 7/7, were a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks in London, United Kingdom, which targeted commuters travelling on the city's public transport system during the morning rush hour.
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