144 relations: Acceptable daily intake, Acesulfame potassium, Advantame, Alitame, Amino acid, Ancient Rome, Aspartame, Aspartame controversy, Aspartame-acesulfame salt, Aspartic acid, Beta cell, Bladder cancer, Blood sugar level, Brazzein, Brown sugar, Canada, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Cargill, Catalysis, Causality, Chewing gum, Clinical research, Cochrane (organisation), Curculin, Diabetes mellitus, Dietary supplement, Dioscoreophyllum volkensii, Drink, Dulcin, Epidemiology, Equal (sweetener), Erythritol, European Food Safety Authority, European Union, Food additive, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Food and Drug Administration, Food energy, Food Standards Agency, Fructooligosaccharide, G.D. Searle, LLC, Generally recognized as safe, Glucin, Glucose, Glycemic, Glycemic index, Glycerol, Glycyrrhizin, Health Canada, ..., Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, Hydrogenation, Hydroxy group, Insulin resistance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Inulin, Isomalt, Isomaltooligosaccharide, Isomaltulose, Kellogg's, Kilogram, Lactitol, Lactose, Lead, Lead poisoning, Lead(II) acetate, List of unrefined sweeteners, Mabinlin, Maltitol, Maltodextrin, Mannitol, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Merisant, Meta-analysis, Metabolic disorder, Metabolism, Microbiota, Milk substitute, Milo (chocolate bar), Miraculin, Mogroside, Monatin, Monellin, Mouthfeel, Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, Neoplasm, Neotame, Nestlé, Norbu (sweetener), NutraSweet, Nutrinova, Obesity, Oral hygiene, Osladin, Pentadin, PepsiCo, Pfizer, Phenylalanine, Phthalic anhydride, Plant-based diet, Polydextrose, Polyol, Postmarketing surveillance, Psicose, PureVia, Raffinose, Reactive hypoglycemia, Rebaudioside A, Reductive dechlorination, Russia, Saccharin, Salt substitute, Shelf life, Siraitia grosvenorii, Sodium cyclamate, Soft drink, Sorbitol, Splenda, Stevia, Stevia rebaudiana, Steviol glycoside, Sucralose, Sucrose, Sugar, Sugar alcohol, Sugar Association, Sweet tea, Sweet'n Low, Sweetness, Tagatose, Taste, Tate & Lyle, Thaumatin, The Coca-Cola Company, The New Zealand Herald, Tooth decay, Torunn Atteraas Garin, Truvia, United States, Weight loss, World Health Organization, Xylitol, Xylose, 5-Nitro-2-propoxyaniline. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive, later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk.
Acesulfame potassium, also known as acesulfame K (K is the symbol for potassium) or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) often marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One.
Advantame is a non-caloric sweetener from Japan's Ajinomoto Co.
Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of several controversies since its initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974.
Aspartame-acesulfame salt is an artificial sweetener marketed under the name Twinsweet.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Brazzein is a sweet-tasting protein extracted from the West African fruit of the climbing plant Oubli (Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon).
Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cargill, Incorporated is an American privately held global corporation based in Minnetonka, Minnesota, and incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Curculin is a sweet protein that was discovered and isolated in 1990 from the fruit of Curculigo latifolia (Hypoxidaceae), a plant from Malaysia.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dioscoreophyllum volkensii, the serendipity berry, is a tropical dioecious rainforest vine in the family Menispermaceae.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
Dulcin is an artificial sweetener about 250 times sweeter than sugar, discovered in 1883 by the Polish chemist Józef (Joseph) Berlinerblau (27 August 1859 – 1935).
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Equal is a brand of artificial sweetener containing aspartame, acesulfame potassium, dextrose and maltodextrin.
Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that has been approved for use as a food additive in the United States and throughout much of the world.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Food and Chemical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering aspects of food safety, chemical safety, and other aspects of consumer product safety.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) also sometimes called oligofructose or oligofructan, are oligosaccharide fructans, used as an alternative sweetener.
G.D. Searle, LLC is a wholly owned trademark of Pfizer.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
Glucin is the name of an artificial sweetening agent similar to saccharin that was used in the early 20th century.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The glycemic response to a food or meal is the effect that food or meal has on blood sugar (glucose) levels after consumption.
The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycyrrhizin (or glycyrrhizic acid or glycyrrhizinic acid) is the chief sweet-tasting constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) root.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSHs) are mixtures of several sugar alcohols (a type of sugar substitute).
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.
Isomalt is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties.
Isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) is a mixture of short-chain carbohydrates which has a digestion-resistant property.
Isomaltulose is a disaccharide carbohydrate composed of glucose and fructose.
Kellogg's is a DBA for the Kellogg Company, an American multinational food-manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Lactitol is a sugar alcohol used as a replacement bulk sweetener for low calorie foods with approximately 40% of the sweetness of sugar.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lead(II) acetate (Pb(CH3COO)2), also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, or Goulard's powder, is a white crystalline chemical compound with a sweetish taste.
This list of unrefined sweeteners includes all natural, unrefined, or low-processed sweeteners.
Mabinlins are sweet-tasting proteins extracted from the seed of mabinlang (Capparis masaikai Levl.), a Chinese plant growing in Yunnan province.
Maltitol is a sugar alcohol (a polyol) used as a sugar substitute.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
McNeil Consumer Healthcare is an American medicals products company belonging to the Johnson & Johnson healthcare products group.
Merisant Company is a United States manufacturer of artificial sweeteners, including Equal and Canderel.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
A milk substitute is a liquid meant to replace the milk from a mammal.
Nestlé Milo is a brand of brownie, caramel, Milo balls and chocolate-covered candy bars, produced by Nestlé for sale in Australia.
Miraculin is a taste modifier, a glycoprotein extracted from the fruit of Synsepalum dulcificum.
A mogroside is a chemical compound, and constitutes a glycoside of cucurbitane derivatives.
Monatin, commonly known as arruva, is a naturally occurring, high intensity sweetener isolated from the plant Sclerochiton ilicifolius, found in the Transvaal region of South Africa.
Monellin, a sweet protein, was discovered in 1969 in the fruit of the West African shrub known as serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii); it was first reported as a carbohydrate.
Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sometimes abbreviated to neohesperidin DC or simply NHDC, is an artificial sweetener derived from citrus.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neotame is an artificial sweetener made by NutraSweet that is between 7,000 and 13,000 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar).
Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland.
Norbu, is a brand of sweetener, claiming to be 100% natural.
The NutraSweet Company is an American nutrient company that produces and markets NutraSweet, their trademarked brand name for the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame.
Nutrinova is a global manufacturer of food constituents.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing and cleaning between the teeth.
Osladine is a high-intensity sweetener isolated from the rhizome of Polypodium vulgare.
Pentadin, a sweet-tasting protein, was discovered and isolated in 1989, in the fruit of Oubli (Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon), a climbing shrub growing in some tropical countries of Africa.
PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O.
A plant-based diet is a diet based on foods derived from plants, including vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes and fruits, but with few or no animal products.
Polydextrose is a synthetic polymer of glucose.
A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance.
D-Psicose (D-allulose, D-ribo-2-hexulose, C6H12O6) is a low-energy monosaccharide sugar present in small quantities in natural products.
PureVia is a stevia-based low calorie sugar substitute developed jointly by Pepsico and Whole Earth Sweetener Company which is a wholly owned subsidiary of artificial sweetener manufacturing company Merisant.
Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose.
Reactive hypoglycemia, postprandial hypoglycemia, or sugar crash is a term describing recurrent episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia occurring within 4 hours"Hypoglycemia." It can also be referred to as "sugar crash" or "glucose crash." National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, October 2008.
Rebaudioside A (sometimes shortened to "Reb A") is a steviol glycoside that is 200 times sweeter than sugar.
Reductive dechlorination is degradation of chlorinated organic compounds by chemical reduction with release of inorganic chloride ions.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
Salt substitutes are low-sodium table salt alternatives marketed to circumvent the risk of high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease associated with a high intake of sodium chloride while maintaining a similar taste.
Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale.
Siraitia grosvenorii (luo han guo or monk fruit) is a herbaceous perennial vine of the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family, native to southern China and northern Thailand.
Sodium cyclamate (sweetener code 952) is an artificial sweetener.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
Splenda is the commercial name and registered trademark of a sucralose-based artificial sweetener owned by the American company Heartland Food Products Group and manufactured by the British company Tate & Lyle.
Stevia is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana.
Stevia rebaudiana is a plant species in the genus Stevia of the sunflower family (Asteraceae), commonly known as candyleaf, sweetleaf, sweet leaf, or sugarleaf.
Steviol glycosides are the chemical compounds responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the South American plant Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) and the main ingredients (or precursors) of many sweeteners marketed under the generic name stevia and several trade names.
Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and sugar substitute.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, that comprise a class of polyols.
The Sugar Association is a trade association for the sugar industry in the United States.
Sweet tea is a style of iced tea commonly consumed in the United States, especially the Southern United States.
Sweet'n Low (stylized as Sweet'N Low) is a brand of artificial sweetener made primarily from granulated saccharin.
Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.
Tagatose is a sweetener based on its properties as a monosaccharide, specifically a hexose.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
Tate & Lyle plc is a British-based multinational agribusiness.
Thaumatin is a low-calorie sweetener and flavour modifier.
The Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Torunn Atteraas Garin could have been a Norwegian chemical engineer who might have worked on notable food projects.
Truvia (marketed and stylized as truvía) is a stevia-based sugar substitute developed jointly by The Coca-Cola Company and Cargill.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener.
Xylose (cf. ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it.
5-Nitro-2-propoxyaniline, also known as P-4000 and Ultrasüss, is one of the strongest sweet-tasting substances known, about 4,000 times the intensity of sucrose (hence its alternate name, P-4000).
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