131 relations: Agricultural productivity, Ancestor veneration in China, Ancient Chinese coinage, Anji Bridge, Annam (province), Ashoka, Beijing, Book of Sui, Buddhism, Burton Watson, Byzantine Empire, Cash (Chinese coin), Chakravarti (Sanskrit term), Champa, Chang'an, Chen dynasty, China proper, Chinese culture, Chinese era name, Chinese folk religion, Chinese sovereign, Confucianism, Conscription, Daxing District, Dugu Qieluo, Dugu Xin, Dynasties in Chinese history, East China Sea, Eastern Turkic Khaganate, Economic inequality, Emperor Gaozu of Tang, Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou, Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Wen of Sui, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Emperor Yang of Sui, Equal-field system, Ethnic groups in Chinese history, Extreme weather events of 535–536, Five Barbarians, Four Seas, Geography of China, Goguryeo, Goguryeo–Sui War, Grain, Grand Canal (China), Grand chancellor (China), Great Wall of China, Guanzhong, Han Chinese, ..., Han dynasty, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Henry Yule, Historical capitals of China, History of China, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Imperial examination, India, Jin (Chinese state), Kushan Empire, Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Li (unit), List of ancient Chinese, List of tributaries of China, Lotus Sutra, Luoyang, Malaria, Maurice (emperor), Maurya Empire, Middle Chinese, Military logistics, Mohe Zhiguan, Names of China, Nanjing, New Book of Tang, Nine-rank system, Nomad, Northern and Southern dynasties, Northern Qi, Northern Wei, Northern Zhou, Old Turkic language, Population growth, Posthumous name, Qin dynasty, Roman Empire, Sanskrit, Serica, Shanhaiguan District, Sichuan, Sinicization, Sino-Roman relations, Sixteen Kingdoms, Slavery in China, Son of Heaven, Sutra, Taishang Huang, Tang dynasty, Taoism, Theophylact Simocatta, Three Departments and Six Ministries, Three Kingdoms of Korea, Tiantai, Transition from Sui to Tang, Troopship, Tropical disease, Tuoba, Turkic Khaganate, Vietnam, Wang Shichong, War elephant, Western Turkic Khaganate, Xianbei, Yang Gao, Yang Hao (Sui dynasty), Yang Jian (Sui prince), Yang Jun (prince), Yang Liang, Yang Tong, Yang Xiu (Sui dynasty), Yang Yong (Sui dynasty), Yang You, Yang Zhao, Yangtze, Yellow River, Yuwen Huaji, Zhiyi, Zhou dynasty, Zizhi Tongjian, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.
The Anji Bridge is the world's oldest open-spandrel segmental arch bridge of stone construction.
Annam was the southernmost province of China after the Tang dynasty.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Burton Dewitt Watson (June 13, 1925April 1, 2017) was an American scholar best known for his numerous translations of Chinese and Japanese literature into English.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD.
Chakravarti (Sanskrit cakravartin, Pali cakkavattin), is a Sanskrit term used to refer to an ideal universal ruler who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
The Chen dynasty (557-589), also known as the Southern Chen dynasty, was the fourth and last of the Southern Dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui dynasty.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Daxing District is a district of Beijing, covering the southern suburbs of the city.
Dugu Qieluo or Dugu Jialuo (544 – September 10, 602), formally Empress Wenxian (文獻皇后), was an empress of the Chinese Sui dynasty.
Dugu Xin (503 – 24 April 557), known as Dugu Ruyuan before 540, was a Xianbei military general and official during the chaotic Northern and Southern Dynasties period.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.
The Eastern Turkic Khaganate (Chinese: 東突厥; pinyin: Dōng tūjué) was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) had splintered into two polities – Eastern and Western. Finally, the Eastern Turkic power was absorbed by the Chinese Tang Empire.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Emperor Gaozu of Tang (8 April 566 – 25 June 635), born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626.
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou ((北)周靜帝) (573–581), personally name né Yuwen Yan (宇文衍), later Yuwen Chan (宇文闡), was the last emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
Emperor Wen of Sui (隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana, was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD).
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.
Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.
The equal-field system or land-equalization system was a historical system of land ownership and distribution in China used from the Six Dynasties to mid-Tang dynasty.
Ethnic groups in Chinese history refer to various or presumed ethnicities of significance to the history of China, gathered through the study of Classical Chinese literature, Chinese and non-Chinese literary sources and inscriptions, historical linguistics, and archaeological research.
The extreme weather events of 535–536 were the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2000 years.
The Five Barbarians or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Han Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and then overthrew the Western Jin Dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries.
The Four Seas were four bodies of water that metaphorically made up the boundaries of ancient China.
China has great physical diversity.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.
The Goguryeo–Sui War were a series of invasions launched by the Sui dynasty of China against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, between AD 598 and AD 614.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Jin (Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.
List of ancient Chinese is a list of noteworthy people of ancient China.
This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.
The Lotus Sūtra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma") is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
The Móhē zhǐguān (摩訶止観, Mo-ho chih-kuan, Jap.: Makashikan, Skt.:Great śamatha-vipaśyanā) is a major Buddhist doctrinal treatise based on lectures given by the Chinese Tiantai patriarch Zhiyi (538–597 CE) in 594.
The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its official language.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
The nine rank system, also known as the nine grade controller system, was used to categorize and classify government officials in Imperial China.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
The Northern Qi was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
The Northern Zhou followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581 AD.
Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Serica was one of the easternmost countries of Asia known to the Ancient Greek and Roman geographers.
Shanhaiguan District, formerly Shan-hai-kwan or Shan-hai-kuan, is a district of the city of Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China, named after the pass of the Great Wall within the district, Shanhai Pass.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 CE to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians" who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century.
Slavery in China has taken various forms throughout history.
Son of Heaven, or Tian Zi, was the sacred imperial title of the Chinese emperor.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
In Chinese history, a Taishang Huang or Taishang Huangdi, is a retired emperor who had, at least in name, abdicated in favour of someone else.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Theophylact Simocatta (Byzantine Greek: Θεοφύλακτος Σιμοκάτ(τ)ης Theophylaktos Simokat(t)es; Theophylactus Simocattus) was an early seventh-century Byzantine historiographer, arguably ranking as the last historian of Late Antiquity, writing in the time of Heraclius (c. 630) about the late Emperor Maurice (582–602).
The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).
The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (백제), Silla (신라) and Goguryeo (고구려).
Tiantai is a school of Buddhism in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam that reveres the Lotus Sutra as the highest teaching in Buddhism.
The transition from Sui to Tang refers to the transition period between the end of the Sui Dynasty and the start of the Tang Dynasty, when the former dynasty's territories were carved into a handful of short-lived states by its officials, generals, and agrarian rebel leaders, and the process of elimination and annexation that followed which ultimately culminated in the consolidation of the Tang dynasty by the former Sui general Li Yuan.
A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Wang Shichong (王世充) (died 621), courtesy name Xingman (行滿), was a general of the Chinese Sui Dynasty who deposed Sui's last emperor Yang Tong and briefly ruled as the emperor of a succeeding state of Zheng.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
The Western Turkic Khaganate or Onoq Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the split of the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) into the Western khaganate and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. At its height, the Western Turkic Khaganate included what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and parts of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Russia. The ruling elite or perhaps the whole confederation was called Onoq or "ten arrows", possibly from oğuz (literally "arrow"), a subdivision of the Turkic tribes. A connection to the earlier Onogurs, which also means 'ten tribes', is questionable. The khaganate's capitals were Navekat (the summer capital) and Suyab (the principal capital), both situated in the Chui River valley of Kyrgyzstan, to the east from Bishkek. Tong Yabgu's summer capital was near Tashkent and his winter capital Suyab. Turkic rule in Mongolia was restored as Second Turkic Khaganate in 682.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
Yang Gao (楊杲; 607–618), nickname Jizi (季子), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty.
Yang Hao (November 22, 586?-618), often known by the title of Prince of Qin (秦王), was one of the claimants of the throne of the Chinese Sui Dynasty at the dynasty's end.
Yang Jian (585–618), courtesy name Shiku (世胐), nickname Ahai (阿孩), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Sui Dynasty.
Yang Jun (楊俊) (571–600), nickname Azhi (阿祇), formally Prince Xiao of Qin (秦孝王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty.
Yang Liang (楊諒) -- courtesy name Dezhang (德章), alternative name Jie (傑), nickname Yiqian (益錢) -- was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty.
Yang Tong (604–619), known in traditional histories by his princely title of Prince of Yue (越王) or by his era name as Lord Huangtai (皇泰主), posthumous name (as bestowed by Wang Shichong) Emperor Gong (恭皇帝), courtesy name Renjin (仁謹), was an emperor of the Chinese Sui Dynasty.
Yang Xiu (楊秀) (died 618) was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty.
Yang Yong (died 604), nickname Xiandifa (睍地伐), also known by his posthumous title of Prince of Fangling (房陵王), was a crown prince of the Chinese Sui dynasty.
Emperor Gong of Sui (隋恭帝) (605 – 14 September 619), personal name Yang You (楊侑), was an emperor of the Chinese Sui Dynasty.
Yang Zhao (楊昭) (584–606), formally Crown Prince Yuande (元德太子, literally "the discerning and nurturing crown prince"), posthumously honored as Emperor Xiaocheng (孝成皇帝, literally "the filial and successful emperor") with the temple name Shizong (世宗) during the brief reign of his son Yang Tong, was a crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yuwen Huaji (died 619) was a general of the Chinese Sui Dynasty who, in 618, led a coup against Emperor Yang of Sui, killing him.
Zhiyi (Chigi) (538–597 CE) is traditionally listed as the fourth patriarch, but is generally considered the founder of the Tiantai tradition of Buddhism in China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.