206 relations: Aerial refueling, Aerial warfare, Aileron, Air International, Air show, Air superiority fighter, Air supremacy, Air-to-air missile, Air-to-ground weaponry, Air-to-surface missile, Aircraft carrier, Aircraft catapult, Aircraft ordnance, Airframe, Airspace, Algeria, Aluminium–lithium alloy, Angle of attack, Angolan Civil War, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Australia, Autocannon, Avionics, Barents Sea, Beijing, Beijing Nanyuan Airport, Belarusian Air Force, Bird strike, Black Sea, Boeing RC-135, Cam Ranh, Canard (aeronautics), Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Central Armed Forces Museum, China, Cluster munition, Cockpit, Combat air patrol, Darwin, Northern Territory, Delta wing, Dissimilar air combat training, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Electro-Optical Targeting System, Electronic countermeasure, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Air Force, Euromaidan, Exercise Pitch Black, ..., Farnborough Airshow, Federal Aviation Administration, Fighter aircraft, Flap (aeronautics), Flight envelope, Flight International, Fly-by-wire, Folding wing, Foreign object damage, Fourth-generation jet fighter, Friendly fire, Fuselage, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-301, Hardpoint, High-lift device, Hoax, Hokkaido, Igor Tkachenko, Ilyushin Il-76, Ilyushin Il-78, Indonesia, Indonesian Air Force, Infra-red search and track, Infrared homing, Irkutsk, Islamism, Japan Air Self-Defense Force, KAB-500KR, Kaliningrad, Karelia, Kh-29, Kh-31, Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Plant, Kuril Islands, Kuril Islands dispute, Landing gear, Leading-edge extension, Leading-edge slat, Licensed production, Lift (force), List of fighter aircraft, Lithuania, Lockheed P-3 Orion, Look-down/shoot-down, Mach number, MAKS (air show), Malaysia, Maximum takeoff weight, McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, Mech radar, Mikoyan MiG-29, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Ministry of Defence (Russia), Ministry of Defense (Japan), Mitsubishi F-2, Mongolian Air Force, Multirole combat aircraft, Nacelle, National Air Force of Angola, NATO reporting name, No. 77 Squadron RAAF, OKB, People's Liberation Army Air Force, Phazotron, Primorsky Krai, Prototype, Pugachev's Cobra, Pulse-Doppler radar, R-27 (air-to-air missile), R-73 (missile), R-77, Radar, Radar cross-section, Radom Air Show, Reconnaissance aircraft, RIA Novosti, Rimantas Stankevičius, Rishiri Island, Rockwell B-1 Lancer, Royal Australian Air Force, Russia, Russian Air Force, Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, Russian Knights, Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, Russian Naval Aviation, Russo-Georgian War, S-13 rocket, S-25 (rocket), S-75 Dvina, S-8 (rocket), Saint Petersburg, Saky, Salgareda, Saturn AL-31, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Shandong, Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, Shenyang J-11, Sknyliv air show disaster, Soviet Air Defence Forces, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Union, Stabilator, Strategic Air Command, Strike fighter, Sukhoi, Sukhoi Su-24, Sukhoi Su-27, Sukhoi Su-30, Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Sukhoi Su-30MKK, Sukhoi Su-30MKM, Sukhoi Su-33, Sukhoi Su-34, Sukhoi Su-35, Sukhoi Su-37, Sukhoi Su-57, Sukhoi T-4, Supermaneuverability, Swept wing, Syrian Civil War, Tailhook, Tailplane, Takeoff, Thrust vectoring, Thrust-to-weight ratio, Track while scan, Trainer aircraft, TsAGI, Tskhinvali, Tupolev Tu-160, Tupolev Tu-22M, Tupolev Tu-95, Turbofan, Twin tail, Twinjet, Ukraine, Ukrainian Air Force, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, UNITA, United States Air Force, United States dollar, Vietnam, Vietnam People's Air Force, Viktor Pugachev, Vladivostok, War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), War in Donbass, Wing loading, Zhukovsky International Airport, 30 mm caliber, 9K34 Strela-3. Expand index (156 more) » « Shrink index
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.
AIR International is a British aviation magazine covering current defence aerospace and civil aviation topics.
An air show, (or airshow, air fair, air tattoo) is a public event where aircraft are exhibited.
An air superiority fighter, also spelled air-superiority fighter, is a type of fighter aircraft designed for entering and seizing control of enemy airspace as a means of establishing complete dominance over the enemy's air force (air supremacy).
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Python family of AAM for comparisons, Python-5 (displayed lower-front) and Shafrir-1 (upper-back) An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft.
Air-to-ground weaponry is aircraft ordnance used by combat aircraft to attack ground targets.
An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft at targets on land or sea.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
An aircraft catapult is a device used to launch aircraft from ships, most commonly used on aircraft carriers, as a form of assisted take off.
Aircraft ordnance or ordnance (in the context of military aviation) is weapons (e.g. bombs, missiles, rockets and gun ammunition) used by aircraft.
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure.
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Aluminium–lithium alloys (Al–Li) are a series of alloys of aluminium and lithium, often also including copper and zirconium.
In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстанның Қарулы күштері, Qazaqstannyń qarýly kúshteri), is the name of the unified armed forces of Kazakhstan.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi Qurolli Kuchlari), is the name of the unified armed forces of Uzbekistan, consisting of a Ground force, Air and Air Defense forces, National guard a Frontier service.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An autocannon or automatic cannon is a large, fully automatic, rapid-fire projectile weapon that fires armour-piercing or explosive shells, as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun.
Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Beijing Nanyuan Airport is a military airbase that also serves as the secondary airport of Beijing.
The Military Air Force and Air Defence Forces of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian: Ваенна-паветраныя сілы і войскі супрацьпаветранай абароны Рэспублікі Беларусь) is the air force of the Armed Forces of Belarus, formed in 1992 from the 26th Air Army of the Soviet Air Forces which had been serving in the Byelorussian SSR.
A bird strike—sometimes called birdstrike, bird ingestion (for an engine), bird hit, or bird aircraft strike hazard (BASH)—is a collision between an airborne animal (usually a bird or bat) and a manmade vehicle, especially an aircraft.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Boeing RC-135 is a family of large reconnaissance aircraft built by Boeing and modified by a number of companies, including General Dynamics, Lockheed, LTV, E-Systems, and L3 Technologies, and used by the United States Air Force and Royal Air Force to support theater and national level intelligence consumers with near real-time on-scene collection, analysis and dissemination capabilities.
Cam Ranh is a city in southern Khánh Hòa Province, in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
A canard is an aeronautical arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
The Central Armed Forces Museum (Центральный Музей Вооруженных сил) also known as the Museum of the Soviet Army, is located in northern Moscow, Russia, near the Red Army Theater.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.
Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of flying mission for fighter aircraft.
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
Dissimilar air combat training (DACT) was introduced as a formal part of US air combat training after disappointing aerial combat exchange rates in the Vietnam War.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
An Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS), is a system employed to track and locate targets in aerial warfare.
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF) (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ አየር ሃይል, Ye Ithopya Ayer Hayl) is the air arm of the Ethiopian National Defense Forces and is tasked with protecting the national air space, providing support to ground forces, as well as assisting civil operations during national emergencies.
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev.
Exercise Pitch Black is a biennial warfare exercise hosted by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).
The Farnborough International Airshow is a week-long, biennial event that combines a major trade exhibition for the aerospace and defence industries with a public airshow.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Flaps are a type of high-lift device used to increase the lift of an aircraft wing at a given airspeed.
In aerodynamics, the flight envelope, service envelope, or performance envelope of an aircraft or interplanetary spacecraft refers to the capabilities of a design in terms of airspeed and load factor or atmospheric density, often simplified to altitude for Earth-borne aircraft.
Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom.
Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.
A folding wing is a wing configuration design feature of aircraft to save space, and is typical of carrier-based aircraft that operate from the limited deck space of aircraft carriers.
In aviation, foreign object debris (FOD) is any article or substance, alien to an aircraft or system, which could potentially cause damage.
Fourth-generation jet fighter is a general classification of jet fighters in service from approximately 1980 to the present and represent design concepts of the 1970s.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 (the actual Russian designation is GSh-301; also known by the GRAU index designation 9A-4071K) is a 30 mm autocannon designed for use on Soviet and later Russian military aircraft, entering service in the early 1980s.
A hardpoint (more formally known as a station or weapon station) is a location on an airframe designed to carry an external or internal load.
In aircraft design and aerospace engineering, a high-lift device is a component or mechanism on an aircraft's wing that increases the amount of lift produced by the wing.
A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
Igor Valentinovitch Tkachenko (И́горь Валенти́нович Ткаче́нко, July 26, 1964 — August 16, 2009) was a Russian military pilot with the rank of Colonel, Russian Knights group leader, Chief of the 237th Guards Aviation Showing Center of the Russian Air Force at Kubinka air base.
The Ilyushin Il-76 (Илью́шин Ил-76; NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union's Ilyushin design bureau.
The Ilyushin Il-78 (Илью́шин Ил-78; NATO reporting name Midas) is a Soviet four-engined aerial refueling tanker based on the Il-76.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indonesian Air Force (Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara, TNI AU) is the air force branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.
An infrared search and track (IRST) system (sometimes known as infrared sighting and tracking) is a method for detecting and tracking objects which give off infrared radiation (see Infrared signature) such as jet aircraft and helicopters.
Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it.
Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
The (JASDF), sometimes referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations.
The KAB-500Kr is an electro-optical TV-guided fire and forget bomb developed by the Soviet Air Force in the 1980s.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
The Kh-29 (Х-29; NATO: AS-14 'Kedge; GRAU: 9M721) is a Soviet air-to-surface missile with a range of 10–30 km.
The Kh-31 (Х-31; AS-17 'Krypton') is a Russian air-to-surface missile carried by aircraft such as the MiG-29 or Su-27. It is capable of Mach 3.5 and was the first supersonic anti-ship missile that could be launched by tactical aircraft. There are several variants, it is best known as an anti-radiation missile (ARM) but there are also anti-shipping and target drone versions. There has been talk of adapting it to make an "AWACS killer", a long-range air-to-air missile.
Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Plant (KnAAZ; Комсомольский-на-Амуре авиационный завод); based in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in the Russian Far East, is the largest aircraft-manufacturing company in Russia.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The Kuril Islands dispute, also known as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the South Kuril Islands.
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.
A leading-edge extension is a small extension to an aircraft wing surface, forward of the leading edge.
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack.
Licensed production refers to the local production under license of technology developed elsewhere.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
This is a list of military aircraft that are primarily designed for air-to-air combat and thus does not include aircraft intended for other roles where they have some secondary air-to-air capability, such as with many ground attack aircraft.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a four-engine turboprop anti-submarine and maritime surveillance aircraft developed for the United States Navy and introduced in the 1960s.
A radar system has look-down/shoot-down capability if it can detect, track and guide a weapon to an air target moving below the horizon as seen by the radar.
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.
MAKS (МАКС, Международный авиационно-космический салон, transliterated as Mezhdunarodnyj aviatsionno-kosmicheskij salon, "International Aviation and Space Show") is an international airshow held at Zhukovsky International Airport, the home of the Gromov Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky, southeast of Moscow, Russia.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) or maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) or maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits.
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) to gain and maintain air supremacy in all aspects of aerial combat.
The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation).
N001 Mech (Меч, literally Sword) is a Russian (former USSR) all-weather multimode airborne radar developed by the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP) for the Su-27 multi-role combat aircraft.
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Министерство обороны Российской Федерации, Минобороны России, informally abbreviated as МО, МО РФ or Minoboron) exercises administrative and operational leadership of the Russian Armed Forces.
The is a cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Japan.
The Mitsubishi F-2 is a multirole fighter derived from the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, and manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Lockheed Martin for the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, with a 60/40 split in manufacturing between Japan and the United States.
The Mongolian Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the Mongolian Armed Forces.
A multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is a combat aircraft intended to perform different roles in combat.
A nacelle is a housing, separate from the fuselage, that holds engines, fuel, or equipment on an aircraft.
The National Air Force of Angola or FANA (Portuguese: Força Aérea Nacional de Angola) is the air branch of the Armed Forces of Angola.
NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment of Russia, China, and, historically, the former Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pact).
OKB is a transliteration of the Russian initials of "Опытное конструкторское бюро" – Opytnoye Konstruktorskoye Buro, meaning Experimental Design Bureau.
The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
JSC Phazotron (Phazotron-NIIR, ОАО «Корпорация «Фазотрон-НИИР»), is Russia's largest developer of military radars and avionics.
Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.
In aerobatics, Pugachev's Cobra (or Pugachev Cobra) is a dramatic and demanding maneuver in which an airplane flying at a moderate speed suddenly raises the nose momentarily to the vertical position and slightly beyond, before dropping it back to normal flight.
A pulse-Doppler radar is a radar system that determines the range to a target using pulse-timing techniques, and uses the Doppler effect of the returned signal to determine the target object's velocity.
The Vympel R-27 missile (NATO reporting name AA-10 Alamo) is a medium-to-long-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union.
The Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name AA-11 Archer) is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by Vympel NPO that entered service in 1984.
The Vympel NPO R-77 missile (NATO reporting name: AA-12 Adder) is a Russian medium range, active radar homing air-to-air missile system.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radar cross-section (RCS) is a measure of how detectable an object is by radar.
The Radom Air Show (Międzynarodowe Pokazy Lotnicze „Air Show Radom“, International air shows - Radom Air Show) is a biannual celebration in the city of Radom, Poland, which began in 2000 (to continue in 2001, 2002, 2003 and then 2005).
A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Rimantas Antanas Stankevičius (26 July 1944 in Marijampolė, Lithuania – 9 September 1990 in Salgareda, Italy) was a Lithuanian cosmonaut who test flew Soviet space shuttle Buran and its test vehicles.
is an island in the Sea of Japan off the coast of Hokkaido, Japan.
The Rockwell B-1 LancerThe name "Lancer" is only applied to the B-1B version, after the program was revived.
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Air Force (r, literally "military air forces of Russia") is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merger of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.
Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Адмира́л фло́та Сове́тского Сою́за Кузнецо́в "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov") is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft-carrying missile cruiser, or TAVKR, in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy.
The Russian Knights (Русские Витязи, Russkiye Vityazi) is an aerobatic demonstration team of the Russian Air Force.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.
The Russian Naval Aviation (r) is the air arm of the Russian Navy, having superseded Soviet Naval Aviation.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
The S-13 is a 122 mm calibre unguided rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force for use by military aircraft.
The S-25 is a Russian air-to-ground rocket launched from aircraft.
The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
The S-8 is a rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force and Serbian Air Force for use by military aircraft.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saky (Саки) or Saki (Саки; Saq) is a town of regional significance in the Crimean peninsula, currently subject to a territorial dispute between the Russian Federation and Ukraine.
Salgareda is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Treviso in the Italian region Veneto, located about northeast of Venice and about east of Treviso.
The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines.
The Sea of Japan (see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.
The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation or Shenyang Aerospace Corporation is a Chinese civilian and military aircraft manufacturer located in Shenyang, a subsidiary of AVIC.
The Shenyang J-11 (Chinese: 歼-11), with NATO reporting name Flanker B+, is a twin-engine jet fighter, whose airframe is based on the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter.
The Sknyliv air show disaster occurred on 27 July 2002, when a Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 piloted by Volodymyr Toponar and co-piloted by Yuriy Yegorov crashed during an aerobatics presentation at Sknyliv airfield near Lviv, Ukraine.
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A stabilator, more frequently all-moving tail or all-flying tail, is a fully movable aircraft stabilizer.
Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).
In current military parlance, a strike fighter is a multirole combat aircraft designed to operate primarily as an attack aircraft, while also incorporating certain performance characteristics of a fighter.
The JSC Sukhoi Company (ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, and designs both civilian and military aircraft.
The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name: Fencer) is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union.
The Sukhoi Su-27 (Сухой Су-27; NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi.
The Sukhoi Su-30 (Сухой Су-30; NATO reporting name: Flanker-C) is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation.
The Sukhoi Su-30MKI (NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is a twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF).
The Sukhoi Su-30MKK (NATO reporting name: Flanker-G)MKK stands for Russian Mnogofunktzionniy Kommercheskiy Kitayski (Cyrillic: Многофунктзионний Коммерческий Китайски), "Multifunctional Commercial for China".
The Sukhoi Su-30MKM (Russian: Модернизированный Коммерческий Малайзийский/Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Malayziyskiy – Modernized Export Malaysia; NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is a supermaneuverable fighter of the Royal Malaysian Air Force.
The Sukhoi Su-33 (Сухой Су-33; NATO reporting name: Flanker-D) is an all-weather carrier-based twin-engine air superiority fighter designed by Sukhoi and manufactured by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association, derived from the Su-27 and initially known as the Su-27K.
The Sukhoi Su-34 (Сухой Су-34.; NATO reporting name: Fullback) is a Russian twin-engine, twin-seat, all-weather supersonic medium-range fighter-bomber/strike aircraft.
The Sukhoi Su-35 (Сухой Су-35; NATO reporting name: Flanker-E)|group.
The Sukhoi Su-37 (Сухой Су-37; NATO reporting name: Flanker-F) is a single-seat twin-engine aircraft designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau that served as a technology demonstrator.
The Sukhoi Su-57 (Сухой Су-57) is the designation for a stealth, single-seat, twin-engine multirole fifth-generation jet fighter being developed for air superiority and attack operations.
The Sukhoi T-4, or "Aircraft 100", or "Project 100", or "Sotka" was a Soviet high-speed reconnaissance, anti-ship and strategic bomber aircraft that did not proceed beyond the prototype stage.
Supermaneuverability is the ability of aircraft to maintain pilot control and perform maneuvers in situations and ways exceeding those that are possible using purely aerodynamic mechanisms.
A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
A tailhook, arresting hook, or arrester hook is a device attached to the empennage (rear) of some military fixed-wing aircraft.
A tailplane, also known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes.
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle or an animal goes from the ground to flying in the air.
Thrust vectoring, also thrust vector control or TVC, is the ability of an aircraft, rocket, or other vehicle to manipulate the direction of the thrust from its engine(s) or motor(s) in order to control the attitude or angular velocity of the vehicle.
Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine that indicates the performance of the engine or vehicle.
The track while scan (TWS) is a mode of radar operation in which the radar allocates part of its power to tracking the target or targets while part of its power is allocated to scanning, unlike the straight tracking mode, when the radar directs all its power to tracking the acquired targets.
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate flight training of pilots and aircrews.
The Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (Tsentralniy Aerogidrodinamicheskiy Institut, TsAGI) was founded in Moscow by the pioneer of Russian aviation, Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky on December 1, 1918.
Tskhinvali (Tskhinval,; r; ცხინვალი) is a city in the cultural region of South Ossetia, Transcaucasia and the capital of the de facto independent Republic of South Ossetia (which has been recognised by the Russian Federation and three other UN member states) and the former Soviet Georgian South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
The Tupolev Tu-160 (White Swan; NATO reporting name: Blackjack) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Tupolev Tu-22M (Russian: Туполев Ту-22М; NATO reporting name: Backfire) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau.
The Tupolev Tu-95 (Туполев Ту-95; NATO reporting name: "Bear") is a large, four-engine turboprop-powered strategic bomber and missile platform.
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
A twin tail is a specific type of vertical stabilizer arrangement found on the empennage of some aircraft.
A twinjet or twin-engine jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Air Force (Повітряні Сили України, Povitryani Syly Ukrayiny) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (Portuguese: União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam People's Air Force (Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam) is the air force of Vietnam.
Viktor Georgiyevich Pugachev (Ви́ктор Гео́ргиевич Пугачёв) (born 8 August 1948 in Taganrog, RSFSR) is a former Soviet test pilot who was the first to demonstrate the so-called Pugachev's Cobra manoeuvre to the general public in 1989, flying an Su-27.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
The War in Abkhazia from 1992 to 1993 was fought between Georgian government forces for the most part, and Abkhaz separatist forces, Russian armed forces and North Caucasian militants.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing.
Zhukovsky International Airport, formerly known as Ramenskoye Airport or Zhukovsky Airfield (Аэропорт Раменское, Аэропорт Жуковский), is Moscow's fourth international airport.
The 30 mm caliber is a specific size of autocannon ammunition.
The 9K34 Strela-3 (9К34 «Стрела-3»; arrow) is a man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) developed in the Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela 2 (SA-7 Grail) system.
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