241 relations: Abjad numerals, Abu Hanifa, Abyssinian–Adal war, Aceh, Adal Sultanate, Aden, Admiral, Age of Empires III, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Ahmed I, Ajuran Sultanate, Akbar, Albanians, Alexander the Great, Algeria, Andrea Doria, Assassin's Creed: Revelations, Austria, Azerbaijan, İskender Çelebi, Şehzade Abdullah, Şehzade Bayezid, Şehzade Cihangir, Şehzade Mahmud (son of Suleiman I), Şehzade Mehmed, Şehzade Mustafa, Baghdad, Balkans, Barbary Coast, Barbary pirates, Baron Kinross, Bartolomeo Contarini (nobleman), Battle of Lepanto, Battle of Mohács, Battle of Preveza, Bâkî, Belgrade, Beylerbey, Bitlis, Black Sea, Blood libel, Bosniaks, Bosporus, Buda, Bulgarians, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Cape of Good Hope, Capture of Muscat (1552), Caucasus, ..., Celali rebellions, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chronogram, Cilicia, Civilization IV, Civilization V, Constantinople, Crimean Khanate, Crimean Tatars, Croatia, Culture of the Ottoman Empire, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Damascus, Danube, Dome of the Rock, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ebussuud Efendi, Edirne, Epirus, Ereğli, Konya, Erzurum, Eunuch, Euphrates, Europe, Falconry, Favourite, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Firman, Francis I of France, Franco-Ottoman alliance, Fuzûlî, Georgia (country), Golden Age, Grand Mufti, Grand vizier, Great man theory, Great Siege of Malta, Habsburg Monarchy, Hadım Suleiman Pasha, Hafsa Sultan (wife of Selim I), Hanafi, Harem, Haseki sultan, Hayreddin Barbarossa, History, Horn of Africa, House of Habsburg, Hungary, Hurrem Sultan, India, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Iran, Islam, Islamic calendar, Istanbul, Janjira State, Jean de Thévenot, John Hunyadi, John Zápolya, Kaaba, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Kingdom of Portugal, Knights Hospitaller, Konya, Koroni, Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis, List of Caliphs, List of Ottoman Ministers of Finance, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Literature, Louis II of Hungary, Madrasa, Mahidevran, Manisa, Marmaris Castle, Matteo Pérez, Mecca, Mediterranean Sea, Mehmed the Conqueror, Mesopotamia, Middle East, Mihrimah Sultan, Military tactics, Mimar Sinan, Morea, Morocco, Moses Hamon, Mughal Empire, Muhteşem Yüzyıl, Muslim, Naples, Nasîhat, Nişancı, North Africa, Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Old City (Jerusalem), Osprey Publishing, Ottoman decline thesis, Ottoman dynasty, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman expedition to Aceh, Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean, Ottoman Navy, Ottoman-Portuguese confrontations, Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503), Oxford University Press, Padishah, Parga, Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, Peloponnese, Persian Gulf, Piri Reis, Poland, Portugal, Qanun (law), Rayah, Raziye Sultan, Rüstem Pasha, Red Sea, Republic of Venice, Rhodes, Rumelia, Ruthenian Voivodeship, Ruthenians, Safavid dynasty, Sana'a, Süleymaniye Mosque, Science, Scorched earth, Selim I, Selim II, Selimiye Mosque, Serasker, Serbs, Serfdom, Seydi Ali Reis, Shah, Sharia, Shaykh al-Islām, Shia Islam, Sicily, Siege of Belgrade (1521), Siege of Diu, Siege of Güns, Siege of Nice, Siege of Rhodes (1522), Siege of Szigetvár, Siege of Vienna, Simon & Schuster, Sipahi, Slavery in the Ottoman Empire, Somalia, Somalis, South Asia, Spain, Sufism, Sultan, Sumatra, Sunni Islam, Surat, Sword of Osman, Szigetvár, Tabriz, Tahmasp I, Takhallus, Thatta, The Merchant of Venice, Theology, Tigris, Titian, Topkapı Palace, Toulon, Trabzon, Transformation of the Ottoman Empire, Transylvania, Trebizond Eyalet, Tripolitania, Tughra, Tunis, Tunisia, Turbék, Urmia, Van Province, Walls of Jerusalem, Western world, William Shakespeare, Yörüks, Yemen, 1548 capture of Aden. Expand index (191 more) » « Shrink index
The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.
Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Age of Empires III is a real-time strategy video game developed by Microsoft Corporation's Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; 18 April 1590 – 22 November 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Andrea Doria (30 November 146625 November 1560) was an Italian condottiero and admiral of the Republic of Genoa.
Assassin's Creed: Revelations is a 2011 action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
İskender Çelebi (died March 1535) was a long-serving defterdar (finance secretary) of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Şehzade Abdullah (1522–1525) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade), as the son of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
Şehzade Bayezid (1525 – 25 September 1561) was an Ottoman prince as the son of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his legal wife Hürrem Sultan.
Şehzade Cihangir (9 December 1531– 27 November 1553) was the sixth and youngest child of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his wife Hürrem Sultan.
Şehzade Mahmud (1512 – 1522) was the first son of Suleiman the Magnificent, when Suleiman was a Şehzade (Ottoman prince).
Şehzade Mehmed (1521–1543) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade), son of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan.
Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi (1515 – 6 October 1553) was the eldest son of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his consort Mahidevran Sultan.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
Baron Kinross, of Glasclune in the County of Haddington, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Bartolomeo Contarini was a Venetian businessman who married the widowed duchess of Athens Chiara Zorzi in 1453 and governed the duchy in the name of her infant son, Francesco I. Bartolomeo was the son of Priam, the castellan of Nauplia.
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which the Ottoman fleet defeated the allies.
Bâḳî (باقى) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: مخلص mahlas) of the Ottoman Turkish poet Mahmud Abdülbâkî (محمود عبدالباقى) (1526 – 1600).
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (بكلربكی; "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
Bitlis (Բաղեշ; Bidlîs; ܒܝܬ ܕܠܝܣ; بتليس; Βαλαλης Balales) is a city in eastern Turkey and the capital of Bitlis Province.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blood libel (also blood accusation) is an accusationTurvey, Brent E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis, Academic Press, 2008, p. 3.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The Capture of Muscat occurred in 1552, when an Ottoman fleet under Piri Reis attacked Old Muscat, in modern Oman, and plundered the town from the Portuguese.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Celali rebellions (Celalî ayaklanmaları), were a series of rebellions in Anatolia of irregular troops led by bandit chiefs and provincial officials known as celalî, against the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the late 16th and early to mid-17th centuries.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as numerals, stand for a particular date when rearranged.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Civilization IV (also known as Sid Meier's Civilization IV) is a turn-based strategy computer game and the fourth installment of the ''Civilization'' series.
Sid Meier's Civilization V is a 4X video game in the ''Civilization'' series developed by Firaxis Games.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples.
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (abbreviation CTHM) (خَـادِم الْـحَـرَمَـيْـن الـشَّـرِيْـفَـيْـن,; İki Kutsal Cami'nin Hizmetkârı), sometimes translated as Servant of the Two Noble Sanctuaries or Protector of the Two Holy Cities, is a royal style that has been used by many Islamic rulers, including the Ayyubids, the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt, the Ottoman Sultans, and in the modern age, Saudi Arabian kings.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ebussuud Efendi (Turkish: Mehmed Ebussuûd Efendi, b. 30 December 1490 – d. 23 August 1574İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971, p. 114.) was a Hanafi Ottoman jurist and Qur'an exegete.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
Ereğli is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.
A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
A firman (فرمان farmân), or ferman (Turkish), at the constitutional level, was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in an Islamic state, namely the Ottoman Empire.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent.
Fużūlī (Füzuli فضولی, c. 1494 – 1556) was the pen name of the Azerbaijani of the Bayat tribes of Oghuz poet, writer and thinker Muhammad bin Suleyman (Məhəmməd Ben Süleyman محمد بن سليمان).
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
The Grand Mufti (مفتي عام, "general expounder" or كبير المفتين, "the great of expounders") is the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
The great man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of great men, or heroes; highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill used their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact.
The Great Siege of Malta (L-Assedju l-Kbir) took place in 1565 when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hadım Suleiman Pasha (خادم سلیمان پاشا; Hadım Süleyman Paşa; 1467 – September 1547) was an Ottoman statesman and military commander.
Hafsa Sultan (حفصه سلطان‎; died 19 March 1534) was the wife of Selim I and the first valide sultan of the Ottoman Empire as the mother of Suleiman the Magnificent.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Haseki Sultan (خاصکى سلطان, Ḫāṣekī Sulṭān) was the imperial title used for the chief consort of an Ottoman Sultan.
Hayreddin Barbarossa (Arabic: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus خير الدين بربروس), (Ariadenus Barbarussa), or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Barbaros Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (Turkish: Hızır; c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hurrem Sultan (خرم سلطان, Ḫurrem Sulṭān, Hürrem Sultan; 1502 – 15 April 1558), often called Roxelana, was the favourite and later the chief consort and legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Janjira State was a princely state in India during the British Raj.
Jean de Thévenot (16 June 1633 – 28 November 1667) was a French traveller in the East, who wrote extensively about his journeys.
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
John Zápolya, or John Szapolyai (Ivan Zapolja, Szapolyai János or Zápolya János, Ioan Zápolya, Ján Zápoľský, Jovan Zapolja/Јован Запоља; 1490 or 1491 – 22 July 1540), was King of Hungary (as John I) from 1526 to 1540.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
Koroni or Corone (Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis was an Ottoman admiral who is best known for commanding the Ottoman naval expedition to Sumatra in Indonesia (1568–1569).
This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad.
This is a list of the top officials in charge of the finances of the Ottoman Empire, called Defterdar (Turkish for bookkeepers; from the Persian دفتردار daftardâr, دفتر daftar + دار dâr) between the 14th and 19th centuries and Maliye Naziri (Minister of Finance) between 19th and 20th centuries.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Louis II (Ludvík, Ludovik, Lajos, 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Mahidevran (ماه دوران, 1500 – 3 February 1581; also known as Gülbahar) was a chief consort Mahidevran is described in academic history books (incl. Harem II by, p. 45, e.g., Mustafa'nin annesi Mahidevran baş kadinin mũeadelesi gelir by and in Tarih Dergisi, Issue 36 by İbrahim Horoz Basımevi, eg; Mustafa'nin annesi ve Kanuni'nin baş kadin olan Mahidevran Hatun... vya Gũlbahar Sultan) as Suleiman's main consort.
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.
Marmaris Castle is located in Muğla province, Turkey.
Matteo Pérez de Alesio (1547–1628) was an Italian painter of devotional, historical and maritime subjects during the Mannerist period.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mihrimah Sultan (مهر ماه سلطان) (1522 – 25 January 1578) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his legal wife, Hürrem Sultan.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ (معمار سينان, "Sinan Agha the Grand Architect"; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan,, "Sinan the Architect") (1488/1490 – July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect (mimar) and civil engineer for Sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.
The Morea (Μορέας or Μοριάς, Moreja, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Moses Hamon (Granada, c. 1490 – 1567) (Amon) was the son of Joseph Hamon, born in Spain.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhteşem Yüzyıl (The Magnificent Century) is a Turkish historical fiction television series.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Nasîhatnâme (نصيحت نامه, Naṣīḥat-nāme) were a type of guidance letter for Ottoman sultans, similar to mirrors for princes.
Nişancı was a high post in Ottoman bureaucracy.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1522 in Comines – 28 October 1592; Latin: Augerius Gislenius Busbequius; sometimes Augier Ghislain de Busbecq) was a 16th-century Flemish writer, herbalist and diplomat in the employ of three generations of Austrian monarchs.
The Old City (הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָה, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, البلدة القديمة, al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Ottoman decline thesis or Ottoman decline paradigm (Osmanlı Gerileme Tezi) refers to a now-obsolete.
The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman expedition to Aceh started from around 1565 when the Ottoman Empire endeavoured to support the Aceh Sultanate in its fight against the Portuguese Empire in Malacca.
The Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean (Hint seferleri or Hint Deniz seferleri, "Indian Ocean campaigns") were a series of Ottoman amphibious operations in the Indian Ocean in the 16th century.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
The Ottoman–Portuguese or Turco-Portuguese confrontations refers to a series of different military encounters between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire, or between other European powers and the Ottoman Empire in which relevant Portuguese military forces participated.
The Second Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice for control of the lands that were contested between the two parties in the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
Parga (Πάργα) is a town and municipality located in the northwestern part of the regional unit of Preveza in Epirus, northwestern Greece.
Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha ("Ibrahim Pasha of Parga"; c. 1495 – 15 March 1536), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha ("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Favorite"), which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Executed") after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Ahmed Muhiddin Piri (1465/70–1553), better known as Piri Reis (Reis or Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey), was an Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Qanun is an Arabic word (قانون, qānūn; قانون, kānūn, derived from κανών kanōn, which is also the root for the modern English word "canon").
A rayah or reaya (from ra`aya, a plural of رعيّة ra`iya "flock, subject", also spelled raya, raja, raiah, re'aya; Ottoman Turkish رعايا; Modern Turkish râya or reaya) was a member of the tax-paying lower class of Ottoman society, in contrast to the askeri (upper class) and kul (slaves).
Raziye Sultan (راضیہ سلطان, also known as Tasasız Raziye Sultan (Tasasız meaning "Carefree") was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. She is buried in the Yahya Efendi Tekkesi in Beshiktash, Istanbul.
Rüstem Pasha Opuković (رستم پاشا; Rustem-Paša Opuković 1500 – 10 July 1561) was a Croatian-born Ottoman statesman.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
The Ruthenian Voivodeship (Palatinatus russiae, województwo ruskie, Руське воєводство) was a voivodeship of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1434 until the 1772 First Partition of Poland.
Ruthenians and Ruthenes are Latin exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic religious background and Orthodox believers which lived outside the Rus'.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is an Ottoman imperial mosque located on the Third Hill of Istanbul, Turkey.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish: II.Selim; 28 May 1524 – 12/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" or ("Selim the Drunkard") and Sarı Selim ("Selim the Blond"), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574.
The Selimiye Mosque (Selimiye Camii) is an Ottoman imperial mosque, which is located in the city of Edirne, Turkey.
Serasker, or seraskier (سرعسكر), is a title formerly used in the Ottoman Empire for a vizier who commanded an army.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Seydi Ali Reis (1498–1563), formerly also written Sidi Ali Reis and Sidi Ali Ben Hossein, was an Ottoman admiral and navigator.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shaykh al-Islām (شيخ الإسلام, Šayḫ al-Islām; Şeyḫülislām) was used in the classical era as an honorific title for outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Belgrade occurred from 25 July - 29 August 1521.
The Siege of Diu occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat under Khadjar Safar, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538, then held by the Portuguese.
The Siege of Güns or Siege of Kőszeg (Güns Kuşatması) was a siege of Kőszeg (Güns)During Ottoman–Habsburg wars, the small border fort was called Güns since it was under Habsburg jurisdiction, today as a part of Hungary it is known as Kőszeg.
The Siege of Nice occurred in 1543 and was part of the Italian War of 1542–46 in which Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent collaborated in a Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and Henry VIII of England.
The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Siege of Szigetvár or Battle of Szigeth (pronunciation: Szigetvár ostroma, Bitka kod Sigeta; Sigetska bitka, Zigetvar Kuşatması) was a siege of the fortress of Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary, that blocked Suleiman's line of advance towards Vienna in 1566 AD.
The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Sipahi (translit) were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and society.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Sword of Osman (Taklid-i Seyf; Osman'ın Kılıcı) was an important sword of state used during the enthronement ceremony (Kılıç alayı) of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
Szigetvár (Siget; Zigetvar; Inselburg) is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tahmasp I (شاه تهماسب یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.
Takhallus (تخلّص), is a pen-name adopted widely by Urdu poets.
Thatta (ٺٽو) is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
The Ottoman Empire in 1683, at the height of its territorial expansion in Europe. The Transformation of the Ottoman Empire, also known as the Era of Transformation, constitutes a period in the history of the Ottoman Empire from to, spanning roughly from the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent to the Treaty of Karlowitz at the conclusion of the War of the Holy League.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Trebizond Eyalet (ایالت طربزون; Eyālet-i Ṭrabzōn) or Trabzon Beylerbeyliği was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
A tughra (طغرا tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turbék was an Ottoman established settlement in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.
Van Province (Armenian:Վան Van ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. and has a sizeable Azerbaijani minority (Küresünni).
The Walls of Jerusalem (أسوار القدس; חומות ירושלים) surround the Old City of Jerusalem (approx. 1 km²).
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
The Yörüks, also Yuruks or Yorouks (Yörükler;, Youroúkoi; юруци; Јуруци, Juruci), are a Turkish ethnic subgroup, some of whom are nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia, and partly in the Balkan peninsula.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Capture of Aden of 1548 was accomplished when Ottomans under Piri Reis managed to take the harbour of Aden in Yemen from the Portuguese on 26 February 1548.
Gülfidan Hatice Sultan, I. Süleyman, Kanun sultan suleyman, Kanuni, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman, Muhteşem Süleyman, Ottoman Civil War (1559), Sleyman I the Magnificent, Sleyman the Magnificent, Soliman the Magnificent, Solyman I, Sueleiman The Magnificent, Sueleyman I, Sueleyman I the Magnificent, Sueleyman the Magnificent, Sulayman I, Sulayman I Qanuni, Sulayman the Magnificent, Suleiman I (the Magnificent), Suleiman I the Magnificent, Suleiman Kunani, Suleiman The Magnificent, Suleiman the Great, Suleiman the Lawgiver, Suleiman the Magnificient, Suleiman the magnificent, Suleman the Great, Suleyman I, Suleyman I the Magnificent, Suleyman The Magnificent, Suleyman magnificul, Suleyman the Lawgiver, Suleyman the Magnificent, Suleyman the Magnificient, Suleyman the magnificent, Suliman the Magnificent, Sultan Sueleyman, Sultan Sulaiman I, Sultan Sulayman I, Sultan Suleiman, Sultan Suleyman, Sultan Süleyman, Süleyman I, Süleyman I the Magnificent, Süleyman Kanuni, Süleyman Muhtesem, Süleyman the Lawgiver, Süleyman the Magnificent, Süleyman the Magnificient, Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent, سلطان سليمان اول.