107 relations: Acid rain, Albedo, Algaecide, Alum, Aluminium, American and British English spelling differences, Anaerobic organism, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Ball-and-stick model, Barium chloride, Barium sulfate, Bicarbonate, Biomass, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, British English, Calcium sulfate, CAS Registry Number, Charge (physics), Chelation, Chemical Reviews, Cloud, Cloud condensation nuclei, Cobalt, Conjugate acid, Copper, Copper sulfate, Copper(II) sulfate, Covalent bond, Denticity, Deprotonation, Desulfovibrio, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Dimethyl sulfate, Disulfite, Dithionate, Dithionite, Electronegativity, Empirical formula, Ester, Ethylenediamine, Formal charge, Fossil fuel, Gilbert N. Lewis, Global dimming, Gravimetric analysis, Greenhouse gas, Gypsum, Humidity, Hydronium, ..., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion, Ionic bonding, Iron, Iron(II) sulfate, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of the Chemical Society, Lead(II) sulfate, Lead–acid battery, Linus Pauling, Lone pair, Magnesium sulfate, Molar mass, Mount Pinatubo, Natural bond orbital, Nature (journal), Octet rule, Organosulfate, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Particulates, Pauling's principle of electroneutrality, Peroxomonosulfate, Peroxydisulfate, Philippines, Pi bond, Plaster, Platinum, Polyatomic ion, Potassium, Pyrosulfate, Radiative forcing, Resonance (chemistry), Salt (chemistry), Sodium bisulfate, Sodium sulfate, Solubility, Strontium sulfate, Sulfate, Sulfate crust, Sulfate-reducing microorganisms, Sulfide, Sulfite, Sulfonate, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, Tetrahedron, Tetrathionate, Thiosulfate, Triphenylphosphine, Twomey effect, Valence bond theory, VSEPR theory, Water, Zinc sulfate. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Algaecide or algicide is a biocide used for killing and preventing the growth of algae.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
In chemistry, the ball-and-stick model is a molecular model of a chemical substance which is to display both the three-dimensional position of the atoms and the bonds between them.
Barium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).
In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper sulfate may refer to.
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Denticity refers to the number of donor groups in a single ligand that bind to a central atom in a coordination complex.
Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.
Desulfovibrio is a genus of Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Desulfovibrio vulgaris is a species of Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Desulfovibrionaceae family.
Dimethyl sulfate is a chemical compound with formula (CH3O)2SO2.
A disulfite, commonly known as metabisulfite or pyrosulfite, is a chemical compound containing the disulfite ion (metabisulfite ion).
The dithionate (or metabisulfate) anion,, is a sulfur oxoanion derived from dithionic acid, H2S2O6.
The dithionite anion (2−), is an oxoanion of sulfur.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethylenediamine (abbreviated as en when a ligand) is the organic compound with the formula C2H4(NH2)2.
In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, assuming that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally between atoms, regardless of relative electronegativity.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.
Gravimetric analysis describes a set of methods used in analytical chemistry for the quantitative determination of an analyte (the ion being analyzed) based on its mass.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The Journal of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal established by the Chemical Society in 1849 as the Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society.
Lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) is a white solid, which appears white in microcrystalline form.
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
Mount Pinatubo (Bakil nin Pinatobo; Bunduk/Bulkan ning Pinatubu, Bunduk ning Apu Malyari; Palandey/Bulkan na Pinatubu; Bantay Pinatubo; Bundok/Bulkang Pinatubo) is an active stratovolcano in the Zambales Mountains, located on the tripoint boundary of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac and Pampanga, all in Central Luzon on the northern island of Luzon.
In quantum chemistry, a natural bond orbital or NBO is a calculated bonding orbital with maximum electron density.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
Organosulfates are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group commonly with the structure R-O-SO3−.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Pauling's principle of electroneutrality states that each atom in a stable substance has a charge close to zero.
The peroxomonosulfate ion,, is a sulfur oxoanion.
The peroxydisulfate ion,, is a oxyanion.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In chemistry, disulfate or pyrosulfate is the anion with the molecular formula.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sodium bisulfate, also known as sodium hydrogen sulfate, is the sodium salt of the bisulfate anion, with the molecular formula NaHSO4.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Strontium sulfate (SrSO4) is the sulfate salt of strontium.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfate crust is a zone observed in the axial (central) parts of burning coal dumps and related sites.
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
A sulfonate is a salt or ester of a sulfonic acid.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
The tetrathionate anion,, is a sulfur oxoanion derived from the compound tetrathionic acid, H2S4O6.
Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.
Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.
The Twomey effect describes how additional cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), possibly from anthropogenic pollution, may increase the amount of solar radiation reflected by clouds.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used in chemistry to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound and dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition in those at high risk. Side effects of excess supplementation may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and tiredness. It has the formula ZnSO4 as well as any of three hydrates. It was historically known as "white vitriol". All of the various forms are colourless solids. The heptahydrate form is commonly encountered.
(SO4)2-, Bisulfate, Bisulphate, HSO4, Hydrogen sulfate, SO4(2-), SO42-, Sulfate ion, Sulfate salt, Sulfates, Sulfates as a climate forcing, Sulfates as climate forcing agents, Sulphat, Sulphate, Sulphate ion, Sulphates.