267 relations: Acetic acid, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid mine drainage, Acid neutralizing capacity, Acid rain, Acid strength, Aerosol, Albertus Magnus, Alchemy, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alkali, Aluminium, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium sulfate, Ammonia, Ammonium sulfate, Analytical chemistry, Anhydrous, Anode, Antifreeze, Aqua regia, Arrhenius equation, Atmosphere of Earth, Autoprotolysis, Avicenna, Axon, Base (chemistry), Bauxite, Boiling point, Bond-dissociation energy, Bunsen reaction, Burns, Calcium sulfate, Caprolactam, Car, Caramel, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carboxylate, Catalysis, Cathode, Cellophane, Cellulose, Charles University, Chemical burn, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, ..., Chemical industry, Chemical polarity, Chemical reaction, Chemical synthesis, Chromic acid, Classical antiquity, Cleaning agent, Coal, Coke (fuel), Combustion, Concentration, Contact process, Convection, Copper, Copper(II) oxide, Copper(II) sulfate, Cornea, Corrosive substance, Cotton, Cyclohexanone oxime, Dehydration reaction, Demyelinating disease, Density, Desmarestiales, Diethyl ether, Disulfite, Disulfuric acid, Drain cleaner, Dry distillation, Dye, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolyte, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Electroplating, Enamel paint, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Endothermic process, Equilibrium constant, Ester, Europa (moon), Exothermic reaction, Explosion, Eye, Fertilizer, Fischer–Speier esterification, Flesh, Fluorapatite, Fluoroantimonic acid, Fouling, Freezing-point depression, Fungicide, Galen, Galileo (spacecraft), Gas, Gasoline, Gliosis, Grotthuss mechanism, Hair, Heat, Hydration reaction, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen economy, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrolysis, Hydronium, Hydrous ferric oxides, Hydroxide, Hydroxyl radical, Hygroscopy, Icarus (journal), International Narcotics Control Board, Iodine, Iron, Iron(II) sulfate, Iron(III) oxide, Iron(III) sulfate, Isobutane, Isobutylene, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Johann Rudolf Glauber, John Roebuck, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Joshua Ward, Jupiter, Laboratory, Lagan Valley, Lead, Lead chamber process, Lead–acid battery, Leyden papyrus X, Linus Pauling, Lipid, Magnesium, Major appliance, Manganese, Mannheim process, Medication, Melting point, Metal, Mineral acid, Mineral processing, Molar conductivity, Molecular autoionization, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Nanometre, NASA, Nickel, Nitration, Nitric acid, Nitronium ion, Nitrosylsulfuric acid, Nylon, Octane rating, Oil refinery, Oleum, Organ (anatomy), Organic chemistry, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Pedanius Dioscorides, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Peroxymonosulfuric acid, Personal protective equipment, Petroleum, PH, Phosphate, Phosphoric acid, Photochemistry, Photodissociation, Photon, Pigment, Piranha solution, Pliny the Elder, Poise (unit), Potassium bisulfate, Potassium nitrate, Prestonpans, Properties of water, Protein, Proton, Protonation, Pseudo-Geber, Pulmonary edema, Pulp (paper), Pyrite, Reactivity series, Redox, Relative permittivity, Respiratory tract, Retort, Rust, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Selenic acid, Self-ionization of water, Shropshire, Skin, Sodium acetate, Sodium bisulfate, Sodium chloride, Starch, Steam reforming, Steel, Stratosphere, Stratospheric sulfur aerosols, Sucrose, Sugar, Sulfate, Sulfonic acid, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur oxoacid, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfur–iodine cycle, Sulfuric acid poisoning, Sulfurous acid, Sumer, Sun, Superacid, Supersaturation, Thermodynamics, Tin, Tissue (biology), Tissue paper, Titration, Tonne, Total dissolved solids, Tungsten, Ultraviolet, United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United States Pharmacopeia, University of Calgary, Vanadium(V) oxide, Venus, Vienna, Vincent of Beauvais, Vinegar, Visual impairment, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitriol, Volumetric heat capacity, Wastewater, Water, Water filter, Water treatment, Water vapor, Wet sulfuric acid process, Zinc, Zosimos of Panopolis, 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane. Expand index (217 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.
Acid-neutralizing capacity or ANC in short is a measure for the overall buffering capacity against acidification for a solution, e.g. surface water or soil water.
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
The Arrhenius equation is a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
In autoprotolysis a proton is transferred between two identical molecules, one of which acts as a Brønsted acid, releasing a proton which is accepted by the other molecule acting as a Brønsted base.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bond-dissociation energy (BDE or D0) is one measure of the strength of a chemical bond.
The Bunsen reaction is a chemical reaction that describes water, sulfur dioxide, and iodine reacting to form sulfuric acid and hydrogen iodide: This reaction is the first step in the sulfur-iodine cycle to produce hydrogen.
Burns may refer to.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Caprolactam (CPL) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)5C(O)NH.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Caramel is a medium- to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).
A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuO.
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cyclohexanone oxime is an organic compound containing the functional group oxime.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Desmarestiales is an order in the brown algae (Phaeophyceae).
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
A disulfite, commonly known as metabisulfite or pyrosulfite, is a chemical compound containing the disulfite ion (metabisulfite ion).
Disulfuric acid (alternative spelling disulphuric acid) or pyrosulfuric acid (alternative spelling pyrosulphuric acid), also named oleum, is an oxyacid of sulfur.
A drain cleaner is a chemical-based consumer product that unblocks sewer pipes or helps to prevent the occurrence of clogged drains.
Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce gaseous products (which may condense into liquids or solids).
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Enamel paint is paint that air dries to a hard, usually glossy, finish, used for coating surfaces that are outdoors or otherwise subject to hard wear or variations in temperature; it should not be confused with decorated objects in "painted enamel", where vitreous enamel is applied with brushes and fired in a kiln.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fischer esterification or Fischer–Speier esterification is a special type of esterification by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst.
Flesh is the soft substance of the body of a living thing.
Fluorapatite, often with the alternate spelling of fluoroapatite, is a phosphate mineral with the formula Ca5(PO4)3F (calcium fluorophosphate).
Fluoroantimonic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written, 2HF·SbF5, or simply HF-SbF5).
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
Freezing-point depression is the decrease of the freezing point of a solvent on addition of a non-volatile solute.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS).
The Grotthuss mechanism (also known as proton jumping) is the process by which an 'excess' proton or proton defect diffuses through the hydrogen bond network of water molecules or other hydrogen-bonded liquids through the formation and concomitant cleavage of covalent bonds involving neighboring molecules.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
Hydrous ferric oxides, also called hydrous iron oxides and iron(III) oxide-hydroxides, are a class of minerals that form from the weathering of minerals that contain iron (Fe) and hydroxides (OH−), and weakly bound water.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Iron(III) sulfate (or ferric sulfate), is the chemical compound with the formula Fe2(SO4)3.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.
Isobutylene (or 2-methylpropene) is a hydrocarbon of industrial significance.
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
John Roebuck of Kinneil FRS FRSE (1718 – 17 July 1794) was an English inventor and industrialist who played an important role in the Industrial Revolution and who is known for developing the industrial-scale manufacture of sulphuric acid.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
Joshua Ward (1685–1761) was an English doctor, most remembered for the invention of Friar's Balsam.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
The Lagan Valley (Ulster Scots: Glen Lagan) is an area of Northern Ireland between Belfast and Lisburn.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The lead chamber process was an industrial method used to produce sulfuric acid in large quantities.
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
The Leyden papyrus X (P. Leyden X) is a papyrus codex written in Greek at about the end of the 3rd century A.D.E.R.Caley, The Leyden Paprus X: An English Translation with Brief Notes,: "These two papyri have, however, upon the basis of unquestioned philological and paleographic evidence, been ascertained to have been written at about the end of the third century A.D. so that they are by far the earliest original historical evidence that we have in our possession concerning the nature and the extent of ancient chemical knowledge." or perhaps around 250 A.D. and buried with its owner, and today preserved at Leiden University in the Netherlands.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is a large machine in home appliance used for routine housekeeping tasks such as cooking, washing laundry, or food preservation.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Mannheim process is an industrial process for the production of hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.
In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores.
Molar conductivity is defined as the conductivity of an electrolyte solution divided by the molar concentration of the electrolyte, and so measures the efficiency with which a given electrolyte conducts electricity in solution.
Molecular autoionization (or self-ionization) is a reaction between molecules of the same substance to produce ions.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
The nitronium ion,, is a cation.
Nitrosylsulfuric acid is the chemical compound with the formula NOHSO4.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oleum (Latin oleum, meaning oil), or fuming sulfuric acid, is a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid).
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Peroxymonosulfuric acid, (H2SO5), also known as persulfuric acid, peroxysulfuric acid, or Caro's acid, is a liquid at room temperature.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Piranha solution, also known as piranha etch, is a mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), used to clean organic residues off substrates.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.
Potassium bisulfate, or in most varieties of English other than US English, Potassium bisulphate, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KHSO4 and is the potassium acid salt of sulfuric acid.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Prestonpans is a small fishing town situated to the east of Edinburgh, Scotland, in the unitary council area of East Lothian.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Pseudo-Geber (or "Latin Pseudo-Geber") refers to a corpus of Latin alchemist writing dated to the late 13th and early 14th centuries, attributed to Geber (Jābir ibn Hayyān), an early alchemist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
In chemistry, a reactivity series (or activity series) is an empirical, calculated, and structurally analytical progression of a series of metals, arranged by their "reactivity" from highest to lowest.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Selenic acid is the inorganic compound with the formula.
The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or in an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H2O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH−.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, is the sodium salt of acetic acid.
Sodium bisulfate, also known as sodium hydrogen sulfate, is the sodium salt of the bisulfate anion, with the molecular formula NaHSO4.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
Stratospheric sulfur aerosols are sulfur-rich particles which exist in the stratosphere region of the Earth's atmosphere.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
A sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R−S(.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The sulfur oxoacids are chemical compounds that contain sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
The sulfur–iodine cycle (S–I cycle) is a three-step thermochemical cycle used to produce hydrogen.
Sulfuric acid poisoning refers to ingestion of sulfuric acid, found in lead-acid batteries and some metal cleaners, pool cleaners, drain cleaners and anti-rust products.
Sulfurous acid (also sulphurous acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SO3.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% pure sulfuric acid, which has a Hammett acidity function (H0) of −12.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or, light crêpe paper.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
The University of Calgary (U of C or UCalgary) is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius Bellovacensis or Vincentius Burgundus; 1184/1194 – c. 1264) was a Dominican friar at the Cistercian monastery of Royaumont Abbey, France.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
In chemistry, vitriol is an archaic name for a sulfate, and vitriol names have the obvious meaning: for example, vitriol of lead is lead sulfate, and so on.
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
The wet sulfuric acid process (WSA process) is one of the key gas desulfurization processes on the market today.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zosimos of Panopolis (Ζώσιμος ὁ Πανοπολίτης; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Alchemista, i.e. "Zosimus the Alchemist") was an Egyptian alchemist and Gnostic mystic who lived at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century AD.
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as isooctane or iso-octane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2.
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