374 relations: Abacus, Abzu, Adab (city), Adhesive, Afghanistan, Afroasiatic languages, Afterlife, Agglutinative language, Agriculture, Aide-mémoire, Akitu, Akkad (city), Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Akshak, Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Alabaster, Alcove (architecture), Alulim, Amorites, Anal sex, Analytic language, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement, Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Anu, Arch, Archaeological record, Archery, Archibald Sayce, Arithmetic, Armour, Arrow, Asphalt, Assyria, Astrology, Aurochs, Axe, Babil Governorate, Babylonia, Babylonian numerals, Bad-tibira, Badakhshan, Baghdad, Bahrain, Barley, Basket, ..., Basra Governorate, Beer, Birth control, Bit (horse), Boot, Borsippa, Bow drill, Brace (tool), Bronze, Bronze Age, Buttress, Calcite, Canal, Carnelian, Cavalry, Cedar oil, Cedrus libani, Cement, Cereal, Chalcolithic, Channel (geography), Chariot, Chickpea, Chisel, Choga Mami, Chronology of the ancient Near East, City-state, Civilization, Clay nail, Clay tablet, Code of Ur-Nammu, Column, Copper, Corvée, Cosmogony, Cradle of civilization, Cuneiform script, Cylinder seal, Dagger, Date palm, Death, Defensive wall, Deity, Der (Sumer), Dhi Qar Governorate, Dilbat, Dilmun, Divine retribution, Division (mathematics), Division of labour, Diyala Governorate, Dome, Domestication, Donkey, Dumuzid, Dynasty of Isin, Eannatum, Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia), Eastern Arabia, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elam, Emmer, EN (cuneiform), Enûma Eliš, Enki, Enkidu, Enlil, Enmebaragesi, Enmerkar, Ensi (Sumerian), Entemena, Epic of Gilgamesh, Equidae, Equinox, Ereshkigal, Eridu, Eshnunna, Etana, Euphrates, Existence, Fire, Fowl, Garlic, Gazelle, Geography of Iraq, Geometry, Ghosts in Mesopotamian religions, Gilgamesh, Girsu, Goat, Gold, Granary, Gudea, Gutian dynasty of Sumer, Hadji Muhammed, Hamazi, Hammer, Hammurabi, Hand axe, Harpoon, Harrow (tool), Hegemony, Helmet, Hieroglyph, Hieros gamos, History of Iraq, History of writing, Hoe (tool), Holocene climatic optimum, Horse harness, Human sacrifice, Hymen, Ibbi-Sin, Imports to Ur, Inanna, Indus River, Indus script, Indus Valley Civilisation, Infantry, Iran, Iraq, Iron, Irrigation, Isin, Ivory, Jemdet Nasr, Jemdet Nasr period, Jewellery, Jiahu symbols, Juris Zarins, Ki (goddess), Kish (Sumer), Kisurra, Knife, Kuara (Sumer), Kutha, Lagash, Lahm, Lance, Language family, Language isolate, Lapis lazuli, Larsa, Last glacial period, Latin, Leather, Lebanon, Leek, Lentil, Leonard Woolley, Lettuce, Levee, Lexical lists, Linguistics, Literary language, Loanword, Lugal, Lugal-zage-si, Lugalbanda, Lunisolar calendar, Lyre, Lyres of Ur, Magan (civilization), Marad, Mari, Syria, Marsh Arabs, Masonry, Masturbation, Mattock, Maykop culture, Me (mythology), Mediterranean Sea, Meluhha, Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian myths, Metrology, Middle Ages, Middle East, Miller, Mina (unit), Mixed radix, Monocropping, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Mortar (masonry), Mouflon, Mozambique, Mudbrick, Multilingualism, Multiplication table, Music of Mesopotamia, Mustard plant, Muthanna Governorate, Nail (fastener), Nave, Near East, Neolithic, Ninhursag, Ninlil, Nippur, Non-penetrative sex, Numeral system, Obsidian, Old Assyrian Empire, Oman, Onager, Onion, Ox, Oxford University Press, Paint, Pantheon (religion), Persian Gulf, Phalanx, Phonology, Pickaxe, Pictogram, Pig, Pin, Piora Oscillation, Plant stem, Plough, Podium, Polyandry, Porter (carrier), Potter's wheel, Pottery, Prehistory, Premarital sex, Professional, Proto-city, Proto-Euphratean language, Proto-writing, Puabi, Quiver, Radiocarbon dating, Rake (tool), Reaper, Reaper-binder, Religion, Reservoir, Ring (jewellery), Robert McCormick Adams Jr., Sacred language, Sacred prostitution, Sacrifice, Samarra, Samarra culture, Sandal, Sargon of Akkad, Saw, Scabbard, Seal (emblem), Semitic languages, Sexagesimal, Sexual ethics, Sexual intercourse, Shadoof, Sheep, Shekel, Shield, Shinar, Short chronology, Shulgi, Shuruppak, Siege, Silt, Silver, Sin (mythology), Sippar, Slavery, Slavery in antiquity, Social stratification, Soil salinity, Spear, Sprachbund, Spring (season), St. Lawrence University, Stele of the Vultures, Stratum (linguistics), Subartu, Sumerian Farmer's Almanac, Sumerian King List, Sumerian language, Sword, Syntax, Syria, Taurus Mountains, Tărtăria tablets, Tell (archaeology), Tell Brak, Theocracy, Third Dynasty of Ur, Thorkild Jacobsen, Tiamat, Tigris, Time Life, Tukulti-Ninurta I, Turkey, Ubaid period, Umma, Universe, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Ur, Ur-Nammu, Uruk, Uruk period, Urukagina, Utu, Vehicle, Virginity, Warehouse, Wasit Governorate, Waterskin, Weaving, Weir, Western Asia, Wheat, Wheel, Winnowing, Woman, World population, Zabala (Sumer), Ziggurat, Zodiac. Expand index (324 more) » « Shrink index
The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.
The Abzu or Apsu (Cuneiform:, ZU.AB; Sumerian: abzu; Akkadian: apsû), also called engur (Cuneiform:, LAGAB×HAL; Sumerian: engur; Akkadian: engurru - lit., ab.
Adab or Udab (Sumerian: Adabki, spelled UD.NUNKI) was an ancient Sumerian city between Telloh and Nippur.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
In international relations, an aide-mémoire (memory aid) is a proposed agreement or negotiating text circulated informally among delegations for discussion without committing the originating delegation's country to the contents.
Akitu or Akitum (Sumerian:, akiti-šekinku,, "the barley-cutting", akiti-šununum, "barley-sowing"; Akkadian: akitu or rêš-šattim, "head of the year") was a spring festival in ancient Mesopotamia.The Babylonian Akitu festival has played a pivotal role in the development of theories of religion, myth and ritual, yet the purpose of the festival remains a point of contention among both historians of religion and Assyriologists.
Akkad (also Accad, Akkade, Agade; cuneiform URIKI) was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia during a period of about 150 years in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Akshak(Sumerian:, akšak) was a city of ancient Sumer, situated on the northern boundary of Akkad, sometimes identified with Babylonian Upi (Greek Opis).
Al-Qadisiyah Governorate (translit) is one of the governorates of Iraq.
Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder.
In architecture, an alcove is a recessed area open from a larger room but enclosed by walls, pillars, or other architectural elements.
Alulim was both the first king of Eridu and the first king of Sumer, according to the mythological antediluvian section of the Sumerian King List.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
The ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, known in Sumerian as Kur and in Akkadian as Irkalla, was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth".
Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement originated in the loosely organized city-states of Early Dynastic Sumer.
Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, Arabian peninsula, and Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity.
Anu (𒀭𒀭, Anu‹m› or Ilu) or An (𒀭, from 𒀭 an "Sky, Heaven") is the divine personification of the sky, supreme God, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion.
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.
Babil Governorate or Babylon Province (محافظة بابل Muḥāfaẓa Bābil) is a governorate in central Iraq.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record.
Bad-tibira(Sumerian:, bad3-tibiraki), "Wall of the Copper Worker(s)", or "Fortress of the Smiths", identified as modern Tell al-Madineh, between Ash Shatrah and Tell as-Senkereh (ancient Larsa) in southern Iraq, was an ancient Sumerian city, which appears among antediluvian cities in the Sumerian King List.
Badakhshan (Pashto/بدخشان, Badaxšân; Бадахшон, Badaxşon;;, Dungan: Бадахәшон, Xiao'erjing: بَا دَا کْ شًا, Ming dynasty era Chinese name- 巴丹沙) is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers, which can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane.
Basra Governorate (محافظة البصرة) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A bit is a type of horse tack used in equestrian activities, usually made of metal, or a synthetic material.
A boot is a type of footwear and a specific type of shoe.
Borsippa (Sumerian: BAD.SI.(A).AB.BAKI; Akkadian: Barsip and Til-Barsip): Vol.
The bow drill is a prehistoric form of drilling tool.
A brace is a hand tool used with a bit (drill bit or auger) to drill holes, usually in wood.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Cedar oil, also known as cedarwood oil, is an essential oil derived from various types of conifers, most in the pine or cypress botanical families.
Cedrus libani, commonly known as the Cedar of Lebanon or Lebanon cedar, is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical power.
Choga Mami is a Samarran settlement site in Diyala province in Southern Iraq in the Mandali region.
The chronology of the ancient Near East provides a framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Used by Sumerians and other Mesopotamian cultures beginning in the third millennium BC, clay nails, also referred to as dedication or foundation pegs, cones, or nails, were cone-shaped nails made of clay, inscribed with cuneiform, baked, and stuck into the mud-brick walls to serve as evidence that the temple or building was the divine property of the god to whom it was dedicated.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today.
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Der (Sumerian: ALUDi-e-ir, 𒌷𒂦𒀭𒆠 uruBAD3.ANki) was a Sumerian city-state at the site of modern Tell Aqar near al-Badra in Iraq's Wasit Governorate.
Dhi Qar Governorate (translit) is a governorate in southern Iraq.
Dilbat (modern Tell ed-Duleim or Tell al-Deylam, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian minor tell (hill city) located southeast from Babylon on the eastern bank of the Western Euphrates in modern-day Al-Qādisiyyah, Iraq.
Dilmun, or Telmun, (Arabic: دلمون, Sumerian: 𒆠, ni.tukki.
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action.
Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Diyala Governorate (محافظة ديالى) or Diyala Province is a governorate in eastern Iraq.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).
The Dynasty of Isin refers to the final ruling dynasty listed on the Sumerian King List (SKL).
Eannatum (𒂍𒀭𒈾𒁺) was a Sumerian king of Lagash; he established one of the first verifiable empires in history.
The Early Dynastic period (abbreviated ED period or ED) is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods.
Eastern Arabia was historically known as Bahrain (البحرين) until the 18th century.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.
EN (Borger 2003 nr. 164; U+12097 𒂗, see also ENSI) is the Sumerian cuneiform for "lord" or "priest".
The (Akkadian Cuneiform:, also spelled "Enuma Elish"), is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words).
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Enkidu (EN.KI.DU3, "Enki's creation"), formerly misread as Eabani, is a central figure in the Ancient Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh.
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
Enmebaragesi (cuneiform: EN.ME.BARAG.GE.SI, fl. c. 2500 BC) was a king of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list.
Enmerkar (𒂗𒈨𒅕𒃸) is a legendary king listed as the builder of the Sumerian city of Uruk.
Ensi (cuneiform:, "lord of the plowland"; Emesal dialect: umunsik; italic) was a Sumerian title designating the ruler or prince of a city-state.
Entemena (flourished 2400 BC) was a son of En-anna-tum I, and he reestablished Lagash as a power in Sumer.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal (lit. "Queen of the Great Earth") was the goddess of Kur, the land of the dead or underworld in Sumerian mythology.
Eridu (Sumerian:, NUN.KI/eridugki; Akkadian: irîtu; modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain) is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia (modern Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq).
Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia.
Etana was an ancient Sumerian king of the city of Kish.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes).
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
The geography of Iraq is diverse and falls into five main regions: 1.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
There are many references to ghosts in Mesopotamian religions – the religions of Sumer, Babylon, Assyria and other early states in Mesopotamia.
Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.
Girsu (Sumerian Ĝirsu; cuneiform 𒄈𒋢𒆠) was a city of ancient Sumer, situated some northwest of Lagash, at the site of modern Tell Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
Gudea (Sumerian Gu3-de2-a) was a ruler (ensi) of the state of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled c. 2144–2124 BC.
The Gutian dynasty (Sumerian:, gu-ti-umKI) was a dynasty that came to power in Mesopotamia c. 2154—2112 BC after displacing the "Sargonic" dynasty.
Hadji Muhammed was a small village in Southern Iraq which gives its name to a style of painted pottery and the early phase of what is the Ubaid culture.
Hamazi or Khamazi (Sumerian: Ḫa-ma-zi2ki) was an ancient kingdom or city-state of some importance that reached its peak c. 2500–2400 BC.
A hammer is a tool or device that delivers a blow (a sudden impact) to an object.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
A hand axe (or handaxe) is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces that is the longest-used tool in human history.
A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.
In agriculture, a harrow (often called a set of harrows in a plurale tantum sense) is an implement for breaking up and smoothing out the surface of the soil.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries.
A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") was a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system.
Hieros gamos or Hierogamy (Greek ἱερὸς γάμος, ἱερογαμία "holy marriage") is a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities.
The territory of the modern state of Iraq was defined in 1920 as Mandatory Iraq.
The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments.
A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural and horticultural hand tool used to shape soil, remove weeds, clear soil, and harvest root crops.
The Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP.
A horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equine to be driven and to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon or sleigh.
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
The hymen is a membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.
Ibbi-Sin, son of Shu-Sin, was king of Sumer and Akkad and last king of the Ur III dynasty, and reigned c. 1963 BC-1940 BC (Short chronology).
Imports to Ur reflect the cultural and trade connections of the Sumerian city of Ur.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilisation during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isin (Sumerian: I3-si-inki, modern Arabic: Ishan al-Bahriyat) is an archaeological site in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Jemdet Nasr (جمدة نصر) is a tell or settlement mound in Babil Governorate (Iraq) that is best known as the eponymous type site for the Jemdet Nasr period (3100–2900 BC).
The Jemdet Nasr Period is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Jiahu symbols refer to the 16 distinct markings on prehistoric artifacts found in Jiahu, a neolithic Peiligang culture site found in Henan, China, and excavated in 1999.
Juris Zarins (Zariņš) (born 1945, in Germany) is an American-Latvian archaeologist and professor at Missouri State University, who specializes in the Middle East.
Ki was the earth goddess in Sumerian mythology, chief consort of the sky god An.
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
Kisurra (modern Tell Abu Hatab, Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian tell (hill city) situated on the west bank of the Euphrates, north of Shuruppak.
A knife (plural knives) is a tool with a cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with most having a handle.
Kuara (also known as Kisiga, Ku'ara, modern Tell al-Lahm site, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq) is an archaeological site in Dhi Qar Province (Iraq).
Kutha, Cuthah, or Cutha (Sumerian: Gudua, modern Tell Ibrahim) is an archaeological site in Babil Governorate, Iraq.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Lahm is a surname.
The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier (lancer).
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880 – 20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist best known for his excavations at Ur in Mesopotamia.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae.
The cuneiform lexical lists are a series of ancient Mesopotamian glossaries which preserve the semantics of Sumerograms, their phonetic value and their Akkadian or other language equivalents.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lugal is the Sumerian term for "king, ruler".
Lugalbanda (𒈗𒌉𒁕, young/fierce king) is a character found in Sumerian mythology and literature.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
The Lyres of Ur or Harps of Ur are considered to be the world's oldest surviving stringed instruments.
Magan (also Makkan) was an ancient region which was referred to in Sumerian cuneiform texts of around 2300 BC and existed to 550 BC as a source of copper and diorite for Mesopotamia.
Marad (Sumerian: Marda, modern Tell Wannat es-Sadum or Tell as-Sadoum, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian tell (hill city).
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
The Marsh Arabs (عرب الأهوار ʻArab al-Ahwār "Arabs of the Marshlands"), also referred to as the Maʻdān (معدان "dweller in the plains") or shroog (شروگ, "those from the east")—the latter two often considered derogatory in the present day—are inhabitants of the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands in the south and east of Iraq and along the Iranian border.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
Masturbation is the sexual stimulation of one's own genitals for sexual arousal or other sexual pleasure, usually to the point of orgasm.
A mattock is a versatile hand tool, used for digging and chopping, similar to the pickaxe.
The Maykop culture (scientific transliteration: Majkop), c. 3700 BC–3000 BC, was a major Bronze Age archaeological culture in the western Caucasus region of southern Russia.
In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian: me; paršu) is one of the decrees of the gods that is foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians understood it, possible.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meluḫḫa or Melukhkha is the Sumerian name of a prominent trading partner of Sumer during the Middle Bronze Age.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mesopotamian mythology refers to the myths, religious texts, and other literature that comes from the region of ancient Mesopotamia in modern-day West Asia.
Metrology is the science of measurement.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A miller is a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour.
The mina (also mĕnē, Aramaic) is an ancient Near Eastern unit of weight, which was divided into 50 shekels.
Mixed radix numeral systems are non-standard positional numeral systems in which the numerical base varies from position to position.
Monocropping is the agricultural practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land, in the absence of rotation through other crops or growing multiple crops on the same land (polyculture).
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis).
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
In mathematics, a multiplication table (sometimes, less formally, a times table) is a mathematical table used to define a multiplication operation for an algebraic system.
This article treats the music of Ancient Mesopotamia.
Mustard plants are any of several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae.
Muthanna Governorate (المثنى Al Muthannā) or Al Muthanna Province, is a province in Iraq, named after the 7th-century Arab general al-Muthanna ibn Haritha.
In woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped object of metal (or wood, called a tree nail or "trunnel") which is used as a fastener, as a peg to hang something, or sometimes as a decoration.
The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Ninḫursaĝ, also known as Damgalnuna or Ninmah, was the ancient Sumerian mother goddess of the mountains, and one of the seven great deities of Sumer.
In Sumerian religion, Ninlil (𒀭𒊩𒌆𒆤 DNIN.LÍL"lady of the open field" or "Lady of the Wind"), also called Sud, in Assyrian called Mulliltu, is the consort goddess of Enlil.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
Non-penetrative sex or outercourse is sexual activity that usually does not include sexual penetration.
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The onager (Equus hemionus), also known as hemione or Asiatic wild ass, is a species of the family Equidae (horse family) native to Asia.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The phalanx (φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pickaxe, pick-axe, or pick is a hand tool with a hard head attached perpendicular to the handle.
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together.
The Piora Oscillation was an abrupt cold and wet period in the climate history of the Holocene Epoch; it is generally dated to the period of c. 3200 to 2900 BCE.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
A podium (plural podiums or podia) is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings.
Polyandry (from πολυ- poly-, "many" and ἀνήρ anēr, "man") is a form of polygamy in which a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.
A porter, also called a bearer, is a person who carries objects or cargoes for others.
In pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping (known as throwing) of round ceramic ware.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Premarital sex is sexual activity practiced by people before they are married.
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.
A proto-city is a large village or town of the Neolithic such as Jericho and Çatalhöyük, "On the Konya plain in central Anatolia lies the extraordinary settlement of Catal Huyuk, which was nothing less than a proto-city (perhaps, indeed, the proto-city), founded in the mid-seventh millennium BC." and also any prehistoric settlement which has both rural and urban features.
Proto-Euphratean is a hypothetical unclassified language or languages which was considered by some Assyriologists (for example Samuel Noah Kramer), to be the substratum language of the people that introduced farming into Southern Iraq in the Early Ubaid period (5300-4700 BC).
Proto-writing consists of visible marks communicating limited information.
Puabi (Akkadian: "Word of my father"), also called Shubad due to a misinterpretation by Sir Charles Leonard Woolley, was an important person in the Sumerian city of Ur, during the First Dynasty of Ur (c. 2600 BC).
A quiver is a container for holding arrows, bolts, or darts.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
A rake (Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from the root meaning "to scrape together," "heap up") is a broom for outside use; a horticultural implement consisting of a toothed bar fixed transversely to a handle, and used to collect leaves, hay, grass, etc., and, in gardening, for loosening the soil, light weeding and levelling, removing dead grass from lawns, and generally for purposes performed in agriculture by the harrow.
A reaper is a farm implement or person that reaps (cuts and often also gathers) crops at harvest when they are ripe.
The reaper-binder, or binder, is a farm implement that improved upon the simple reaper.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
A ring is a round band, usually of metal, worn as an ornamental piece of jewellery around the finger, or sometimes the toe; it is the most common current meaning of the word "ring".
Robert McCormick Adams Jr. (July 23, 1926 – January 27, 2018) was a U.S. anthropologist and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1984-94).
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Sacred prostitution, temple prostitution, cult prostitution, and religious prostitution are general terms for a sexual rite consisting of sexual intercourse or other sexual activity performed in the context of religious worship, perhaps as a form of fertility rite or divine marriage (hieros gamos).
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.
The Samarra culture is a Chalcolithic archaeological culture in northern Mesopotamia that is roughly dated to 5500–4800 BCE.
Sandals are an open type of footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps going over the instep and, sometimes, around the ankle.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
A saw is a tool consisting of a tough blade, wire, or chain with a hard toothed edge.
A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword, knife, or other large blade.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.
Sexual ethics or sex ethics (also called sexual morality) is the study of human sexuality and the expression of human sexual behavior.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
A shadoof or shaduf (an Arabic word, شادوف, šādūf) is an irrigation tool.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shekel (Akkadian: šiqlu or siqlu; שקל,. shekels or sheqalim) is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency.
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm.
Shinar (Hebrew שִׁנְעָר Šinʻar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is the term used in the Hebrew Bible for the general region of Mesopotamia.
The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.
Shulgi (dŠulgi, formerly read as Dungi) of Ur was the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance in the Third Dynasty of Ur.
Shuruppak (𒋢𒆳𒊒𒆠, "the healing place"), modern Tell Fara, was an ancient Sumerian city situated about 55 kilometres (35 mi) south of Nippur on the banks of the Euphrates in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Sippar (Sumerian:,Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern Sumerian and later Babylonian tell (hill city) on the east bank of the Euphrates river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon and 30 km southwest of Baghdad.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in the ancient world, from the earliest known recorded evidence in Sumer to the pre-medieval Antiquity Mediterranean cultures, comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer.
The Stele of the Vultures is a monument from the Early Dynastic III period (2600–2350 BC) in Mesopotamia celebrating a victory of the city-state of Lagash over its neighbour Umma.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
The land of Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) or Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) is mentioned in Bronze Age literature.
Sumerian Farmer's Almanac is the first farmer's almanac on record.
The Sumerian King List is an ancient stone tablet originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of the kingship.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The Tărtăria tablets /tərtəria/ are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria (about from Alba Iulia), in Romania.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
Tell Brak (Nagar, Nawar) was an ancient city in Syria; its remains constitute a tell located in the Upper Khabur region, near the modern village of Tell Brak, 50 kilometers north-east of Al-Hasaka city, Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
Thorkild Jacobsen (7 June 1904 – 2 May 1993) was a renowned historian specializing in Assyriology and Sumerian literature.
In the religion of ancient Babylon, Tiamat (𒀭𒋾𒊩𒆳 or, Greek: Θαλάττη Thaláttē) is a primordial goddess of the salt sea, mating with Abzû, the god of fresh water, to produce younger gods.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Direct Holdings Global LLC, through its subsidiaries StarVista Live, Lifestyle Products Group and Time Life, is a creator and direct marketer that is known for selling books, music, video/DVD, and multimedia products.
Tukulti-Ninurta I (meaning: "my trust is in Ninurta"; reigned 1243–1207 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366 - 1050 BC).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
Umma (𒄑𒆵𒆠; modern Umm al-Aqarib, Dhi Qar Province in Iraq) was an ancient city in Sumer.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum that is part of the University of Pennsylvania.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, Sumerian:, ca. 2047-2030 BC short chronology) founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina (𒌷𒅗𒄀𒈾; 24th century BC, short chronology) was a ruler (''ensi'') of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods.
Wasit Governorate (translit) is a governorate in eastern Iraq, south-east of Baghdad and bordering Iran.
A waterskin is a receptacle used to hold water.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
A weir or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff.
A woman is an adult female human being.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
Zabala (also Zabalam, modern Tell Ibzeikh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq) was a city of ancient Sumer in what is now the Dhi Qar governorate in Iraq.
A ziggurat (Akkadian: ziqqurat, D-stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") is a type of massive stone structure built in ancient Mesopotamia.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
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