225 relations: Ablative case, Absolutive case, Active voice, Adam Falkenstein, Adjective, Advanced and retracted tongue root, Adverbial, Affirmation and negation, Affix, Affricate consonant, Agent (grammar), Agglutinative language, Agreement (linguistics), Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Allan R. Bomhard, Allative case, Alveolar consonant, Andative and venitive, Animacy, Archaeology, Areal feature, Arno Poebel, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Assyria, Assyriology, Babylonia, Basque language, Behistun Inscription, Bilabial consonant, Bilabial nasal, Cant (language), Causative, Center embedding, Charles Fossey, Charles Virolleaud, Chukchi people, Classical language, Clitic, Comitative case, Compound verb, Conjunction (grammar), Copula (linguistics), Creole language, Cryptography, Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative, Cuneiform script, Dative case, Decipherment, ..., Dené–Caucasian languages, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Dependent clause, Determinative, Dravidian languages, Eannatum, Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia), East Semitic languages, Edward Hincks, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elamite language, Elamo-Dravidian languages, Elision, Enlil, Entemena, Equative case, Ergative case, Ergative–absolutive language, Ernest de Sarzec, Exonym and endonym, Finite verb, Flap consonant, Flood myth, Focus (linguistics), François Lenormant, François Thureau-Dangin, Fricative consonant, Friedrich Delitzsch, Future tense, Genitive case, Georg Friedrich Grotefend, Girsu, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical modifier, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Hiatus (linguistics), Hortative, Ištaran, Idiom, Igor M. Diakonoff, Imperative mood, Indo-European languages, Intensive word form, Internet Archive, Iraq, Irrealis mood, Island Caribs, Iteration, Jemdet Nasr, Jemdet Nasr period, Joan Oates, John Bengtson, Joseph Halévy, Julius Oppert, Kartvelian languages, Kish (Sumer), Kish tablet, Labial–velar consonant, Labialization, Lagash, Language isolate, Larsa, Lateral consonant, Lexical lists, Liaison (French), Linguistic typology, Liquid consonant, List of extinct languages of Asia, List of languages by first written accounts, Loanword, Locative case, Logogram, Mesilim, Mesopotamia, Munda languages, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, Nicholas Marr, Ninurta, Nippur, Nominalization, Nominative–accusative language, Nonfinite verb, Nostratic languages, Noun, Noun phrase, Object (grammar), Old Persian, Open access, Oriental studies, Oxford University Press, Paleolithic, Paris, Participle, Passive voice, Paul Haupt, PDF, Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary, Personal pronoun, Phoneme, Place of articulation, Plural, Postalveolar consonant, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Pronoun, Prospective aspect, Prothesis (linguistics), Proto-Euphratean language, Realis mood, Reduplication, Relative clause, Rhotic consonant, Rosetta Stone, Sacred language, Samuel Noah Kramer, Sargon of Akkad, Semelfactive, Semitic languages, Semitic root, Semivowel, Shara (god), Sibilant, Simo Parpola, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet, Split ergativity, Sprachbund, Stative verb, Stephen Herbert Langdon, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Suffix, Sumer, Sumerian literature, Suppletion, Syllabary, Terminative case, Third Dynasty of Ur, Tibeto-Burman languages, Topic and comment, Umma, Unclassified language, University of Pennsylvania, Ural–Altaic languages, Uralic languages, Uruk, Uruk period, Valency (linguistics), Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Voice (grammar), Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced dental and alveolar stops, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Volitive modality, Vowel, Vowel harmony. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The absolutive case (abbreviated) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages.
Adam Falkenstein (September 17, 1906 – October 15, 1966) was a German Assyriologist.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian.
In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Allan R. Bomhard (born 1943) is an American linguist.
Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In linguistics, andative and venitive (abbreviated and) are a type of verbal deixis, verb forms which indicate 'going' or 'coming' motion in reference to a particular location or person, respectively.
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
Arno Poebel (1881–1958) was a German Assyriologist.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of not just Assyria, but the entirety of ancient Mesopotamia (a region encompassing what is today modern Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and north western and south western Iran) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.
A cant (or cryptolect, or secret language) is the jargon or argot of a group, often employed to exclude or mislead people outside the group.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
In linguistics, center embedding is the process of embedding a phrase in the middle of another phrase of the same type.
Charles Fossey (29 July 1869 – 27 November 1946) was a French assyriologist.
Jean Charles Gabriel Virolleaud (1879, Barbezieux, Charente – 1968) was a French archaeologist, one of the excavators of Ugarit.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.
In linguistics, a compound verb or complex predicate is a multi-word compound that functions as a single verb.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) is an international digital library project aimed at putting text and images of an estimated 500,000 recovered cuneiform tablets created from between roughly 3350 BC and the end of the pre-Christian era online.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In philology, decipherment is the discovery of the meaning of texts written in ancient or obscure languages or scripts.
Dené–Caucasian is a proposed broad language family that includes the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Na-Dené, Yeniseian, Vasconic (including Basque), and Burushaski language families.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
A determinative, also known as a taxogram or semagram, is an ideogram used to mark semantic categories of words in logographic scripts which helps to disambiguate interpretation.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Eannatum (𒂍𒀭𒈾𒁺) was a Sumerian king of Lagash; he established one of the first verifiable empires in history.
The Early Dynastic period (abbreviated ED period or ED) is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
The Reverend Edward Hincks (19 August 1792 – 3 December 1866) M.A., D.D., was an Anglo-Irish clergyman, best remembered as an Assyriologist and one of the decipherers of Mesopotamian cuneiform.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran).
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
Entemena (flourished 2400 BC) was a son of En-anna-tum I, and he reestablished Lagash as a power in Sumer.
Equative is a case prototypically expressing the standard of comparison of equal values ("as… as a …").
The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Ernest Choquin de Sarzec (1832–1901) was a French archaeologist, to whom is attributed the discovery of the civilization of ancient Sumer.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
François Lenormant (17 January 1837 – 9 December 1883) was a 19th-century French assyriologist and archaeologist.
François Thureau-Dangin (3 January 1872 in Paris – 24 January 1944 in Paris) was a French archaeologist, assyriologist and epigrapher.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Friedrich Delitzsch (3 September 1850 – 19 December 1922) was a German Assyriologist.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Georg Friedrich Grotefend (9 June 1775 – 15 December 1853) was a German epigraphist and philologist.
Girsu (Sumerian Ĝirsu; cuneiform 𒄈𒋢𒆠) was a city of ancient Sumer, situated some northwest of Lagash, at the site of modern Tell Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
In linguistics, hortative modalities (abbreviated) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action.
Ištaran (also Gusilim) was the local deity of the city of Der, a Sumerian city state positioned east of the Tigris on the border between Sumer and Elam.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff (И́горь Миха́йлович Дья́конов; 12 January 1915 – 2 May 1999) was a Russian historian, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East and its languages.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.
The Island Caribs, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous Caribbean people of the Lesser Antilles.
Iteration is the act of repeating a process, to generate a (possibly unbounded) sequence of outcomes, with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.
Jemdet Nasr (جمدة نصر) is a tell or settlement mound in Babil Governorate (Iraq) that is best known as the eponymous type site for the Jemdet Nasr period (3100–2900 BC).
The Jemdet Nasr Period is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Joan Louise Oates, FBA (née Lines; born 6 May 1928) is an American archaeologist and academic, specialising in the Ancient Near East.
John D. Bengtson (born 1948) is an American historical and anthropological linguist.
Joseph Halévy (15 December 1827, Adrianople – 21 January 1917, Paris) was an Ottoman born Jewish-French Orientalist and traveller.
Julius (Jules) Oppert (July 9, 1825 – August 21, 1905) was a French-German Assyriologist, born in Hamburg of Jewish parents.
The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
The Kish tablet is a limestone tablet found at Tell al-Uhaymir, Babil Governorate, Iraq – the site of the ancient Sumerian city of Kish.
Labial–velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips, such as.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
The cuneiform lexical lists are a series of ancient Mesopotamian glossaries which preserve the semantics of Sumerograms, their phonetic value and their Akkadian or other language equivalents.
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
This is a list of extinct languages of Asia, languages which have undergone language death, have no native speakers, and no spoken descendant.
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Mesilim, also spelled Mesalim (c. 2500 BC), was lugal (king) of the Sumerian city-state of Kish.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
Nicholas Yakovlevich Marr (Никола́й Я́ковлевич Марр, Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr; ნიკოლოზ იაკობის ძე მარი, Nikoloz Iak'obis dze Mari; – 20 December 1934) was a Georgia-born historian and linguist who gained a reputation as a scholar of the Caucasus during the 1910s before embarking on his "Japhetic theory" on the origin of language (from 1924), now considered as pseudo-scientific, and related speculative linguistic hypotheses.
Ninurta, also known as Ningirsu, was a Mesopotamian god of farming, healing, hunting, law, scribes, and war who was first worshipped in early Sumer.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
In linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word which is not a noun (e.g., a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun, or as the head of a noun phrase, with or without morphological transformation.
Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Hermann Hugo Paul Haupt (25 November 1858 in Görlitz – 15 December 1926 in Baltimore, Maryland) was a Semitic scholar, one of the pioneers of Assyriology in the United States.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (PSD) is a project to compile a comprehensive dictionary of the Sumerian language.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
In linguistics, the prospective aspect (abbreviated or) is a grammatical aspect describing an event that occurs subsequent to a given reference time.
In linguistics, prothesis (from post-classical Latin based on πρόθεσις próthesis 'placing before'), or less commonly prosthesis (from Ancient Greek πρόσθεσις prósthesis 'addition') is the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word without changing the word's meaning or the rest of its structure.
Proto-Euphratean is a hypothetical unclassified language or languages which was considered by some Assyriologists (for example Samuel Noah Kramer), to be the substratum language of the people that introduced farming into Southern Iraq in the Early Ubaid period (5300-4700 BC).
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Samuel Noah Kramer (September 28, 1897 – November 26, 1990) was one of the world's leading Assyriologists and a world-renowned expert in Sumerian history and Sumerian language.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
In linguistics, semelfactive is a class of aktionsart or lexical aspect (verb aspects that reflect the temporal flow of the denoted event, lexically incorporated into the verb's root itself rather than grammatically expressed by inflections or auxiliary verbs), analogous in meaning to "iterative" in the realm of grammatical aspect.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
In Sumerian mythology Shara, Šara (Sumerian: 𒀭𒁈, dšara2, dšara) is a minor god of war, mainly identified with the city of Umma, north-east of Unug (Uruk).
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Simo Kaarlo Antero Parpola (born 4 July 1943) is a Finnish Assyriologist specializing in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Professor emeritus of Assyriology at the University of Helsinki (retired fall 2009).
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet, (5 April 1810 – 5 March 1895) was a British East India Company army officer, politician and Orientalist, sometimes described as the Father of Assyriology.
Split ergativity is a term used by comparative linguists to refer to languages where some constructions use ergative syntax and morphology, but other constructions show another pattern, usually nominative-accusative.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
In linguistics, a stative verb is one that describes a state of being, in contrast to a dynamic verb, which describes an action.
Stephen Herbert Langdon (1876May 19, 1937) was an American-born British Assyriologist.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian literature is the literature written in the Sumerian language during the Middle Bronze Age.
In linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
In morphology, the terminative case (abbreviated) is a case specifying a limit in space and time and also to convey the goal or target of an action.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
Umma (𒄑𒆵𒆠; modern Umm al-Aqarib, Dhi Qar Province in Iraq) was an ancient city in Sumer.
An unclassified language is a language whose genetic affiliation has not been established, most often due to a lack of data.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Ural–Altaic, Uralo-Altaic or Uraltaic, also known as Turanian, is an obsolete language-family proposal uniting the Uralic and the widely discredited Altaic languages.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
In linguistics, verb valency or valence is the number of arguments controlled by a verbal predicate.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
Volitive modality (abbreviated) is a linguistic modality that indicates the desires, wishes or fears of the speaker.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.