153 relations: Alaska, Analemma, Analemmatic sundial, Anno Domini, Antrim, County Antrim, Arboretum, Armillary sphere, Astronomical rings, Australia, Azimuth, Babylonian astronomy, Backstaff, Bede, Bifilar sundial, Birmingham Botanical Gardens, Bologna, British Horological Institute, Bury St Edmunds, Cannon, Cardinal direction, Celestial coordinate system, Celestial equator, Celestial pole, Celestial sphere, China, Circle, Clock, Colatitude, Common Era, Compass, Cone, Conic section, Cube, Cupola, Cylinder, Cylindrical lens, Daylight saving time, Declination, Deutsches Museum, Differential (mechanical device), Diptych, Diurnal motion, Earth's rotation, East, Eccentricity (mathematics), Ecliptic, Edgbaston, Edward Wright (mathematician), Egyptian astronomy, Ellipse, ..., Equation clock, Equation of time, Equator, Equinox, Extended real number line, Fixed stars, Foucault pendulum, Francesco Bianchini, Genk, Geoffrey Chaucer, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Giovanni Padovani, Giuseppe Biancani, Gnomon, Greenwich, Gunpowder, Harmonic mean, Harvard University Press, Henry VI, Part 3, Horizontal coordinate system, Horology, Hour, Hyperbola, Inscribed angle, Invar, Inverse trigonometric functions, Isaac Newton, Jai Singh II, Jaipur, Jantar Mantar, Jaipur, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Johannes Hevelius, Latitude, Lens (optics), Local mean time, Longitude, Magnetic declination, Marble, Mariner's astrolabe, Massachusetts, Memento mori, Meridian (astronomy), Meridian (geography), Moondial, Motto, Newark-on-Trent, Nocturnal (instrument), North, North Pole, Northern Hemisphere, Northern Ireland, Nottinghamshire, Obelisk, Old Testament, Orthogonality, Perth, Perth, Scotland, Philipp Matthäus Hahn, Plane (geometry), Platonic solid, Polaris, Pole star, Polygon, Position of the Sun, Prism (geometry), Roman numerals, Rome, Round shot, Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, Schema for horizontal dials, Schema for vertical declining dials, Science Museum, London, Sciothericum telescopicum, Scottish sundial, Shadow, Shadows (software), Shepherd's dial, Sibt al-Maridini, Sky, Solar time, Solarium Augusti, South, Southern Hemisphere, Spain, Sphere, Standard time, Sun, Sundial cannon, Sunquest sundial, The Canterbury Tales, Tide dial, Time zone, Trigonometric functions, Tropical year, True north, Universal Time, Warminster, Wellesley College, West, William Oughtred, William Shakespeare, Wiltshire, Zodiac. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
In astronomy, an analemma (from Greek ἀνάλημμα analēmma "support") is a diagram showing the variation of the position of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year, as viewed at a fixed time of day and from a fixed location on the Earth.
Analemmatic sundials are a type of horizontal sundial that has a vertical gnomon and hour markers positioned in an elliptical pattern.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Antrim is a town and civil parish in County Antrim in the northeast of Northern Ireland, on the banks of the Six Mile Water, half a mile northeast of Lough Neagh.
An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees.
An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.
Astronomical rings (Latin: annuli astronomici), also known as Gemma's rings, are an early astronomical instrument.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
The backstaff is a navigational instrument that was used to measure the altitude of a celestial body, in particular the sun or moon.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
A bifilar dial is a type of sundial invented by the German mathematician Hugo Michnik in 1922.
The Birmingham Botanical Gardens are a botanical garden situated in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The British Horological Institute (also known as the BHI) is the representative body of the horological industry in the United Kingdom.
Bury St Edmunds is a historic market town and civil parish in the in St Edmundsbury district, in the county of Suffolk, England.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
In astronomy, a celestial coordinate system is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on.
The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth.
The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
In spherical coordinates, colatitude is the complementary angle of the latitude, i.e. the difference between 90° and the latitude, where southern latitudes are denoted with a minus sign.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
In architecture, a cupola is a relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.
A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.
A cylindrical lens is a lens which focuses light into a line instead of a point, as a spherical lens would.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science and technology, with about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology.
A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.
A diptych (from the Greek δίπτυχον, di "two" + ptychē "fold") is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge.
Diurnal motion (lit, from dies, lit. "day") is an astronomical term referring to the apparent daily motion of stars around Earth, or more precisely around the two celestial poles.
Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
East is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Edgbaston is an affluent suburban area of central Birmingham, England, curved around the southwest of the city centre.
Edward Wright (baptised 8 October 1561; died November 1615) was an English mathematician and cartographer noted for his book Certaine Errors in Navigation (1599; 2nd ed., 1610), which for the first time explained the mathematical basis of the Mercator projection, and set out a reference table giving the linear scale multiplication factor as a function of latitude, calculated for each minute of arc up to a latitude of 75°.
Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
An equation clock is a mechanical clock which includes a mechanism that simulates the equation of time, so that the user can read or calculate solar time, as would be shown by a sundial.
The equation of time describes the discrepancy between two kinds of solar time.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system by adding two elements: and (read as positive infinity and negative infinity respectively).
The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.
The Foucault pendulum or Foucault's pendulum is a simple device named after French physicist Léon Foucault and conceived as an experiment to demonstrate the Earth's rotation.
Francesco Bianchini (13 December 16622 March 1729) was an Italian philosopher and scientist.
Genk is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.
Giovanni Padovani (or Paduani) (b. c. 1512) was an Italian mathematician and astronomer.
Giuseppe Biancani (in Latin, Josephus Blancanus) (1566 – 1624) was an Italian Jesuit astronomer, mathematician, and selenographer, after whom the crater Blancanus on the Moon is named.
A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
In mathematics, the harmonic mean (sometimes called the subcontrary mean) is one of several kinds of average, and in particular one of the Pythagorean means.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Henry VI, Part 3 (often written as 3 Henry VI) is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in 1591 and set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England.
The horizontal coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system that uses the observer's local horizon as the fundamental plane.
Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin horologium from Greek ὡρολόγιον, "instrument for telling the hour", from ὥρα hṓra "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix -logy) is the study of the measurement of time.
An hour (symbol: h; also abbreviated hr.) is a unit of time conventionally reckoned as of a day and scientifically reckoned as 3,599–3,601 seconds, depending on conditions.
In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.
In geometry, an inscribed angle is the angle formed in the interior of a circle when two secant lines (or, in a degenerate case, when one secant line and one tangent line of that circle) intersect on the circle.
Invar, also known generically as FeNi36 (64FeNi in the US), is a nickel–iron alloy notable for its uniquely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE or α).
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains).
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (3 November 1688 – 21 September 1743) was the Hindu Rajput ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur).
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India.
The Jantar Mantar monument in Jaipur, Rajasthan is a collection of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments built by the Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh II, and completed in 1734.
The Jodrell Bank Observatory (originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966 to 1999) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester.
Johannes Hevelius Some sources refer to Hevelius as Polish.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Local mean time is a form of solar time that corrects the variations of local apparent time, forming a uniform time scale at a specific longitude.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Magnetic declination or variation is the angle on the horizontal plane between magnetic north (the direction the north end of a compass needle points, corresponding to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field lines) and true north (the direction along a meridian towards the geographic North Pole).
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
The mariner's astrolabe, also called sea astrolabe, was an inclinometer used to determine the latitude of a ship at sea by measuring the sun's noon altitude (declination) or the meridian altitude of a star of known declination.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Memento mori (Latin: "remember that you have to die"), Oxford English Dictionary, Third Edition, June 2001.
In astronomy, the meridian is the great circle passing through the celestial poles, the zenith, and the nadir of an observer's location.
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.
Moondials are time pieces similar to a sundial.
A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.
Newark-on-Trent or Newark is a market town and civil parish in the Newark and Sherwood district of the county of Nottinghamshire, in the East Midlands of England.
A nocturnal is an instrument used to determine the local time based on the relative positions of two or more stars in the night sky.
North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Nottinghamshire (pronounced or; abbreviated Notts) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west.
An obelisk (from ὀβελίσκος obeliskos; diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.
Perth (Peairt) is a city in central Scotland, located on the banks of the River Tay.
Philipp Matthäus Hahn (25 November 1739 in Scharnhausen, today part of Ostfildern – 2 May 1790 in Echterdingen, today part of Leinfelden-Echterdingen) was a German pastor, astronomer and inventor.
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron.
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor.
Pole star or polar star refers to a star, preferably bright, closely aligned to the axis of rotation of an astronomical object.
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.
The position of the Sun in the sky is a function of both the time and the geographic location of observation on Earth's surface.
In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy (rigidly moved without rotation) of the first, and n other faces (necessarily all parallelograms) joining corresponding sides of the two bases.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
The Basilica of St.
A schema for horizontal dials is a set of instructions used to construct horizontal sundials using compass and straightedge construction techniques, which were widely used in Europe from the late fifteen century to the late nineteen century.
Vertical declining dials are sundials that indicate local apparent time.
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London.
Sciothericum telescopicum was a sundial (sciothericum) that incorporated a telescope (telescopicum) for greater accuracy in determining exactly when noon occurred.
Scottish sundials of the renaissance period are not just more numerous than in any other country, they are also stylistically unique.
A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object.
Shadows is a software package for the calculation and drawing of sundials and astrolabes, available as a freeware in its base level.
A shepherd's dial (also known as a pillar dial or cylinder) is a type of sundial that measures the height of the sun via the so-called umbra versa.
Sibt al-Maridini, full name Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ghazal (1423 – 1506 AD), was an Egyptian-born astronomer and mathematician.
The sky (or celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space.
Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.
The Solarium Augusti (also called Horologium Augusti) was an ancient Roman monument in the Campus Martius constructed during the reign of Augustus.
South is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
Standard time is the synchronization of clocks within a geographical area or region to a single time standard, rather than using solar time or a locally chosen meridian (longitude) to establish a local mean time standard.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A sundial cannon, sundial gun, noon cannon or meridian cannon, also noonday gun is a device consisting of a sundial incorporating a cannon with a fuse that is lit by an overhanging lens, concentrating the rays of the sun, and causing the cannon to fire at noon, when properly oriented along a north-south axis.
The Sunquest Sundial is a sundial designed by Richard L. Schmoyer in the 1950s.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
A tide dial, also known as a mass or scratch dial, is a sundial marked with the canonical hours rather than or in addition to the standard hours of daylight.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.
True north (also called geodetic north) is the direction along Earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole.
Universal Time (UT) is a time standard based on Earth's rotation.
Warminster is a town and civil parish in western Wiltshire, England, by-passed by the A36 (between Salisbury and Bath) and the partly concurrent A350 between Westbury and Blandford Forum.
Wellesley College is a private women's liberal arts college located west of Boston in the town of Wellesley, Massachusetts, United States.
West is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
William Oughtred (5 March 1574 – 30 June 1660) was an English mathematician and Anglican clergyman.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
Equatorial sundial, Horizontal dial, Horizontal sundial, Sciothericum, Sea ring, Shadow clock, Shadow-clock, Solar clock, Sun Clocks, Sun clock, Sun clocks, Sun dial, Sun-dial, Sundail, Sundial clock, Sundials, Universal equinoctial ring dial, Wall sundials.