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# Super-resolution imaging

Super-resolution imaging (SR) is a class of techniques that enhance the resolution of an imaging system. [1]

## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

## Aliasing

In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.

## Analytic function

In mathematics, an analytic function is a function that is locally given by a convergent power series.

## Aperture synthesis

Aperture synthesis or synthesis imaging is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection of telescopes to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.

## Applied Optics

Applied Optics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by The Optical Society three times a month.

## Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

## Bayesian inference

Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.

## Centroid

In mathematics and physics, the centroid or geometric center of a plane figure is the arithmetic mean position of all the points in the shape.

## Compressed sensing

Compressed sensing (also known as compressive sensing, compressive sampling, or sparse sampling) is a signal processing technique for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal, by finding solutions to underdetermined linear systems.

## Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition is an annual conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, by several measures regarded as the top conference in computer vision.

## Convolutional neural network

In machine learning, a convolutional neural network (CNN, or ConvNet) is a class of deep, feed-forward artificial neural networks, most commonly applied to analyzing visual imagery.

## Dark-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy (dark-ground microscopy) describes microscopy methods, in both light and electron microscopy, which exclude the unscattered beam from the image.

## Deblurring

Deblurring is the process of removing blurring artifacts from images, such as blur caused by defocus aberration or motion blur.

## Defocus aberration

In optics, defocus is the aberration in which an image is simply out of focus.

## Diffraction

--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

## Diffraction-limited system

The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.

## Digital image processing

In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.

## Digital imaging

Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.

## EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering theoretical and practical aspects of signal processing in new and emerging technologies.

## Evanescent field

In electromagnetics, an evanescent field, or evanescent wave, is an oscillating electric and/or magnetic field that does not propagate as an electromagnetic wave but whose energy is spatially concentrated in the vicinity of the source (oscillating charges and currents).

## Extrapolation

In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.

## Fourier optics

Fourier optics is the study of classical optics using Fourier transforms (FTs), in which the wave is regarded as a superposition of plane waves that are not related to any identifiable sources; instead they are the natural modes of the propagation medium itself.

## Frequency domain

In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.

## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

## Hyperacuity (scientific term)

The sharpness of our senses is defined by the finest detail we can discriminate.

## IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the IEEE Computer Society.

## Image resolution

Image resolution is the detail an image holds.

## Image sensor

An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.

## Information

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

## International Conference on Computer Vision

ICCV, the International Conference on Computer Vision, is a research conference sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) held every other year.

## Interval (mathematics)

In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.

## Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (abbreviated J. Acoust. Soc. Am. or JASA) is a scientific journal in the field of acoustics, published by the Acoustical Society of America.

## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

## Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

## Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

## Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

## Moiré pattern

In mathematics, physics, and art, a moiré pattern or moiré fringes are large-scale interference patterns that can be produced when an opaque ruled pattern with transparent gaps is overlaid on another similar pattern.

## Nanoscopic scale

The nanoscopic scale (or nanoscale) usually refers to structures with a length scale applicable to nanotechnology, usually cited as 1–100 nanometers.

## Noise

Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing.

## Optical aberration

Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.

## Optical resolution

Optical resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.

## Optics Letters

Optics Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Optical Society of America.

## Oversampling

In signal processing, oversampling is the process of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than the Nyquist rate.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

## Spatial frequency

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, spatial frequency is a characteristic of any structure that is periodic across position in space.

## Super-resolution microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy, in light microscopy, is a term that gathers several techniques, which allow images to be taken with a higher resolution than the one imposed by the diffraction limit.

## Superlens

A superlens, or super lens, is a lens which uses metamaterials to go beyond the diffraction limit.

## Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

## References

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