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Index Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer. [1]

228 relations: Acer Inc., ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, Advanced Micro Devices, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, AI takeover, Air conditioning, Amazon (company), Application programming interface, Application-specific integrated circuit, Aquasar, Assaf Schuster, Asus, Atlas (computer), Belle (chess machine), Benchmark (computing), Beowulf cluster, Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, Blue Gene, Blue Waters, CDC 6600, CDC 7600, CDC 8600, CDC Cyber, CDC STAR-100, Central processing unit, Chess, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Cipher, Climatology, Cloud computing, CNK operating system, Computational chemistry, Computational science, Compute Node Linux, Computer, Computer cluster, Computer cooling, Computer data storage, Computer graphics, Computer network, Connection Machine, Control Data Corporation, Convex Computer, CPU power dissipation, Cray, Cray-1, Cray-2, Crossbar switch, Cryptanalysis, CUDA, ..., Cyclops64, Data Encryption Standard, Dawning Information Industry, Deep Blue (chess computer), DEGIMA, Dell, Distributed computing, EFF DES cracker, Embarrassingly parallel, ETA10, European Union, Evans & Sutherland ES-1, Exascale computing, Ferranti, Field-programmable gate array, Floating-point arithmetic, Floating-point unit, FLOPS, Fluorinert, Folding@home, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Fujitsu, Fujitsu VP, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, GLaDOS, Goodyear MPP, Gravity Pipe, Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, Green computing, Grid computing, Groupe Bull, GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Guangzhou, HAL 9000, Heat flux, Hewlett-Packard, History of science and technology in China, HITAC S-810, Hitachi, Hitachi SR2201, Hydra (chess), Hydrocarbon exploration, IAPX, IBM, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM 7090, IBM Roadrunner, IBM Sequoia, ILLIAC IV, InfiniBand, Infrastructure as a service, Input/output, Inspur, Instruction pipelining, Instructions per second, Integro-differential equation, Intel, Intel 8086, Intel i860, Intel iPSC, Intel Paragon, Itautec, Jaguar (supercomputer), Japan, Job scheduler, Jungle computing, K computer, Kobe, Lenovo, Liebert (company), Lightweight Kernel Operating System, LINPACK benchmarks, Linux, Livermore, California, Locale (computer hardware), Loose coupling, Los Alamos National Laboratory, LU decomposition, Macromolecule, MasPar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massively parallel, Mersenne prime, Message Passing Interface, Metric prefix, Microprocessor, MIMD, Monte Carlo method, Multi-core processor, Multivac, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National University of Defense Technology, NCUBE, Nebulae (computer), NEC, NEC SX architecture, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear weapon, Numerical weather prediction, Numerical Wind Tunnel (Japan), Nvidia, Nvidia Tesla Personal Supercomputer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Open-source model, OpenCL, OpenMP, Osaka University, Parallel computing, Parallel Virtual Machine, Performance per watt, Peta-, Petascale computing, PEZY Computing, Physics of the Future, Platform as a service, Power 775, Princeton University Press, Quantum mechanics, Random walk, Reykjavík, RIKEN MDGRAPE-3, RSC Group, Sandia National Laboratories, Scheduling (computing), Science fiction, Seymour Cray, Silicon Graphics, Software as a service, SPARC, Stanford University, Summit (supercomputer), Sun Microsystems, Sunway (processor), Sunway TaihuLight, Super Micro Computer, Inc., Supercomputer, Supercomputer architecture, Supercomputer operating systems, Supercomputing in China, Supercomputing in Europe, Supercomputing in India, Supercomputing in Japan, System X (computing), T-Platforms, Taiwan, Tera-, Testing high-performance computing applications, The Evitable Conflict, The Journal of Supercomputing, The Machine Stops, Thermal design power, Three-dimensional integrated circuit, Tianhe-1, Tianhe-2, Tianjin, Titan (supercomputer), TOP500, Torus interconnect, Transport phenomena, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Tyan, Ultra Network Technologies, United States, Vector processor, Victoria University of Manchester, Virtual tape library, Virtualization, Volunteer computing, Vulcan's Hammer, Waste heat, Watt, Weather forecasting, Wipro, Wuxi, X86, Zilog Z8000, 3D computer graphics. Expand index (178 more) »

Acer Inc.

Acer Inc. (lit. Hongji Corporation Ltd.) is a Taiwanese multinational hardware and electronics corporation, specializing in advanced electronics technology, headquartered in Xizhi, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

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ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference

SC (formerly Supercomputing), the International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis, is the name of the annual conference established in 1988 by the Association for Computing Machinery and the IEEE Computer Society.

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Advanced Micro Devices

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

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Advanced Simulation and Computing Program

The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (or ASC) is a super-computing program run by the National Nuclear Security Administration, in order to simulate, test, and maintain the United States nuclear stockpile.

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AI takeover

An AI takeover is a hypothetical scenario in which artificial intelligence (AI) becomes the dominant form of intelligence on Earth, with computers or robots effectively taking control of the planet away from the human species.

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Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

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Amazon (company)

Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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Application-specific integrated circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

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Aquasar is a supercomputer system from IBM Research which uses hot water cooling to achieve heat efficiency.

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Assaf Schuster

Assaf Schuster is an Israeli professor of computer science whose works have been published in such journals as Computer Aided Verification and Journal of Systems and Software.

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AsusTek Computer Inc. (stylised as ASUSTeK or ΛSUS) is a Taiwanese multinational computer and phone hardware and electronics company headquartered in Beitou District, Taipei, Taiwan.

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Atlas (computer)

The Atlas Computer was a joint development between the University of Manchester, Ferranti, and Plessey.

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Belle (chess machine)

Belle was a chess computer developed by Joe Condon (hardware) and Ken Thompson (software) at Bell Labs.

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Benchmark (computing)

In computing, a benchmark is the act of running a computer program, a set of programs, or other operations, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by running a number of standard tests and trials against it.

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Beowulf cluster

A Beowulf cluster is a computer cluster of what are normally identical, commodity-grade computers networked into a small local area network with libraries and programs installed which allow processing to be shared among them.

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Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC, pronounced – rhymes with "oink"), an open-source middleware system, supports volunteer and grid computing.

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Blue Gene

Blue Gene is an IBM project aimed at designing supercomputers that can reach operating speeds in the PFLOPS (petaFLOPS) range, with low power consumption.

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Blue Waters

Blue Waters is a petascale supercomputer at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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CDC 6600

The CDC 6600 was the flagship of the 6000 series of mainframe computer systems manufactured by Control Data Corporation.

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CDC 7600

The CDC 7600 was the Seymour Cray-designed successor to the CDC 6600, extending Control Data's dominance of the supercomputer field into the 1970s.

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CDC 8600

The CDC 8600 was the last of Seymour Cray's supercomputer designs while he worked for Control Data Corporation.

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CDC Cyber

The CDC Cyber range of mainframe-class supercomputers were the primary products of Control Data Corporation (CDC) during the 1970s and 1980s.

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The CDC STAR-100 is a vector supercomputer that was designed, manufactured, and marketed by Control Data Corporation (CDC).

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), with historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republic of China era, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

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Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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Cloud computing

Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.

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CNK operating system

Compute Node Kernel (CNK) is the node level operating system for the IBM Blue Gene series of supercomputers.

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Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.

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Computational science

Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.

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Compute Node Linux

Compute Node Linux (CNL) is a runtime environment based on the Linux kernel for the Cray XT3, Cray XT4, Cray XT5, Cray XT6, Cray XE6 and Cray XK6 supercomputer systems based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer cluster

A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.

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Computer cooling

Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Connection Machine

A Connection Machine (CM) is a member of a series of massively parallel supercomputers that grew out of doctoral research on alternatives to the traditional von Neumann architecture of computers by Danny Hillis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the early 1980s.

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Control Data Corporation

Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.

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Convex Computer

Convex Computer Corporation was a company that developed, manufactured and marketed vector minisupercomputers and supercomputers for small-to-medium-sized businesses.

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CPU power dissipation

Central processing unit power dissipation or CPU power dissipation is the process in which central processing units (CPUs) consume electrical energy, and dissipate this energy in the form of heat due to the resistance in the electronic circuits.

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Cray Inc. is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.

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The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.

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The Cray-2 is a supercomputer with four vector processors made by Cray Research starting in 1985.

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Crossbar switch

In electronics, a crossbar switch (cross-point switch, matrix switch) is a collection of switches arranged in a matrix configuration.

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Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.

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CUDA is a parallel computing platform and application programming interface (API) model created by Nvidia.

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Cyclops64 (formerly known as Blue Gene/C) is a cellular architecture in development by IBM.

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Data Encryption Standard

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data.

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Dawning Information Industry

Dawning Information Industry (Shuguang, 曙光) is a supercomputer manufacturer in the People's Republic of China.

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Deep Blue (chess computer)

Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM.

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The DEGIMA (DEstination for Gpu Intensive MAchine) is a high performance computer cluster used for hierarchical N-body simulations at the Nagasaki Advanced Computing Center, Nagasaki University.

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Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

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EFF DES cracker

In cryptography, the EFF DES cracker (nicknamed "Deep Crack") is a machine built by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) in 1998, to perform a brute force search of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher's key space – that is, to decrypt an encrypted message by trying every possible key.

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Embarrassingly parallel

In parallel computing, an embarrassingly parallel workload or problem (also called perfectly parallel or pleasingly parallel) is one where little or no effort is needed to separate the problem into a number of parallel tasks.

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The ETA10 is a line of vector supercomputers designed, manufactured, and marketed by ETA Systems, a spin-off division of Control Data Corporation (CDC).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evans & Sutherland ES-1

The ES-1 was Evans & Sutherland's abortive attempt to enter the supercomputer market.

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Exascale computing

Exascale computing refers to computing systems capable of at least one exaFLOPS, or a billion billion calculations per second.

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Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993.

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Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

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Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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Floating-point unit

A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.

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In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations.

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Fluorinert is the trademarked brand name for the line of electronics coolant liquids sold commercially by 3M.

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Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project for disease research that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics.

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Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies

The Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) is a private-public institution for basic theoretical research in various areas of science focusing on interdisciplinary research.

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is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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Fujitsu VP

The Fujitsu FACOM VP is a series of vector supercomputers designed, manufactured, and marketed by Fujitsu.

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General-purpose computing on graphics processing units

General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).

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GLaDOS (Genetic Lifeform and '''D'''isk '''O'''perating '''S'''ystem) is a fictional artificially intelligent computer system from the video game series Portal.

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Goodyear MPP

The Goodyear Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) was a massively parallel processing supercomputer built by Goodyear Aerospace for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

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Gravity Pipe

Gravity Pipe (abbreviated GRAPE) is a project which uses hardware acceleration to perform gravitational computations.

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Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search

The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) is a collaborative project of volunteers who use freely available software to search for Mersenne prime numbers.

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Green computing

Green computing, green ICT as per International Federation of Global & Green ICT "IFGICT", green IT, or ICT sustainability, is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT.

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Grid computing

Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.

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Groupe Bull

Bull SAS (also known as Groupe Bull, Bull Information Systems, or simply Bull) is a French-owned computer company headquartered in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, in the western suburbs of Paris.

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GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research

The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung) is a federally and state co-funded heavy ion research center in the Wixhausen suburb of Darmstadt, Germany.

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Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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HAL 9000

HAL 9000 is a fictional character and the main antagonist in Arthur C. Clarke's Space Odyssey series.

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Heat flux

Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time.

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The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

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History of science and technology in China

Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.

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The HITAC S-810 is a vector supercomputer developed, manufactured and marketed by Hitachi.

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() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.

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Hitachi SR2201

The Hitachi SR2201 was a distributed memory parallel system that was introduced in March 1996 by Hitachi.

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Hydra (chess)

Hydra was a chess machine, designed by a team with Dr. Christian "Chrilly" Donninger, Dr.

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Hydrocarbon exploration

Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.

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In marketing, iAPX (Intel Advanced Performance Architecture with X standing in for the Greek letter χ (chi)) was a short lived designation used for several Intel microprocessors, including some 8086 family processors.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 7030 Stretch

The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.

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IBM 7090

The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications".

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IBM Roadrunner

Roadrunner was a supercomputer built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA.

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IBM Sequoia

IBM Sequoia is a petascale Blue Gene/Q supercomputer constructed by IBM for the National Nuclear Security Administration as part of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC).

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The ILLIAC IV was the first massively parallel computer.

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InfiniBand (abbreviated IB) is a computer-networking communications standard used in high-performance computing that features very high throughput and very low latency.

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Infrastructure as a service

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) refers to online services that provide high-level APIs used to dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security, backup etc.

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In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

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Inspur, formerly, is a Chinese multinational information technology company headquartered in Jinan, Shandong, China.

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Instruction pipelining

Instruction pipelining is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.

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Instructions per second

Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed.

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Integro-differential equation

In mathematics, an integro-differential equation is an equation that involves both integrals and derivatives of a function.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Intel 8086

The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.

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Intel i860

The Intel i860 (also known as 80860) was a RISC microprocessor design introduced by Intel in 1989.

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Intel iPSC

The Intel Personal SuperComputer (Intel iPSC) was a product line of parallel computers in the 1980s and 1990s.

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Intel Paragon

The Intel Paragon is a discontinued series of massively parallel supercomputers that was produced by Intel in the 1990s.

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Itautec is a Brazilian electronics company that was founded in 1979.

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Jaguar (supercomputer)

Jaguar or OLCF-2 was a petascale supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Job scheduler

A job scheduler is a computer application for controlling unattended background program execution of jobs.

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Jungle computing

Jungle computing is a form of high performance computing that distributes computational work across cluster, grid and cloud computing.

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K computer

The K computer named for the Japanese word, meaning 10 quadrillion (1016)See Japanese numbers is a supercomputer manufactured by Fujitsu, currently installed at the Riken Advanced Institute for Computational Science campus in Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.

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is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture.

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Lenovo Group Ltd. or Lenovo PC International, often shortened to Lenovo (formerly stylized as lenovo), is a Chinese multinational technology company with headquarters in Beijing, China and Morrisville, North Carolina.

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Liebert (company)

Liebert Corporation, a business of Vertiv, is a global manufacturer of power, precision cooling and infrastructure management systems for mainframe computer, server racks, and critical process systems.

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Lightweight Kernel Operating System

A lightweight kernel (LWK) operating system is one used in a large computer with many processor cores, termed a parallel computer.

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LINPACK benchmarks

The LINPACK Benchmarks are a measure of a system's floating point computing power.

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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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Livermore, California

Livermore (formerly Livermores, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham) is a city in Alameda County, California, in the United States.

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Locale (computer hardware)

In computer architecture a locale is an abstraction of the concept of a localized set of hardware resources which are close enough to enjoy uniform memory access.

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Loose coupling

In computing and systems design a loosely coupled system is one in which each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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LU decomposition

In numerical analysis and linear algebra, LU decomposition (where "LU" stands for "lower–upper", and also called LU factorization) factors a matrix as the product of a lower triangular matrix and an upper triangular matrix.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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MasPar Computer Corporation was a minisupercomputer vendor that was founded in 1987 by Jeff Kalb.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Massively parallel

In computing, massively parallel refers to the use of a large number of processors (or separate computers) to perform a set of coordinated computations in parallel (simultaneously).

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Mersenne prime

In mathematics, a Mersenne prime is a prime number that is one less than a power of two.

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Message Passing Interface

Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a standardized and portable message-passing standard designed by a group of researchers from academia and industry to function on a wide variety of parallel computing architectures.

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Metric prefix

A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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In computing, MIMD (multiple instruction, multiple data) is a technique employed to achieve parallelism.

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Monte Carlo method

Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.

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Multi-core processor

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.

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Multivac is the name of a fictional supercomputer appearing in several science fiction stories by American writer Isaac Asimov.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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National University of Defense Technology

National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) or People's Liberation Army National University of Defense Science and Technology in full is a top military academy, as well as a research type national key university located in Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

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nCUBE was a series of parallel computing computers from the company of the same name.

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Nebulae (computer)

Nebulae is a petascale supercomputer located at the National Supercomputing Center in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

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is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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NEC SX architecture

The SX series are vector supercomputers designed, manufactured, and marketed by NEC.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Numerical weather prediction

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions.

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Numerical Wind Tunnel (Japan)

Numerical Wind Tunnel (数値風洞) was an early implementation of the vector parallel architecture developed in a joint project between National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan and Fujitsu.

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Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.

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Nvidia Tesla Personal Supercomputer

The Tesla Personal Supercomputer is a desktop computer (personal supercomputer) that is backed by Nvidia and built by various hardware vendors.

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.

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Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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OpenCL (Open Computing Language) is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of central processing units (CPUs), graphics processing units (GPUs), digital signal processors (DSPs), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and other processors or hardware accelerators.

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OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) is an application programming interface (API) that supports multi-platform shared memory multiprocessing programming in C, C++, and Fortran, on most platforms, instruction set architectures and operating systems, including Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, Linux, macOS, and Windows.

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Osaka University

, or, is a national university located in Osaka, Japan.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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Parallel Virtual Machine

Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is a software tool for parallel networking of computers.

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Performance per watt

In computing, performance per watt is a measure of the energy efficiency of a particular computer architecture or computer hardware.

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Peta is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1015.

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Petascale computing

In computing, petascale refers to a computer system capable of reaching performance in excess of one petaflops, i.e. one quadrillion floating point operations per second.

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PEZY Computing

PEZY Computing is a Japanese fabless computer chip design company specialising in the design of manycore processors for supercomputers.

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Physics of the Future

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 is a 2011 book by theoretical physicist Michio Kaku, author of Hyperspace and Physics of the Impossible.

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Platform as a service

Platform as a Service (PaaS) or application platform as a Service (aPaaS) or platform base service is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.

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Power 775

The Power 775 is a supercomputing component from IBM Corporation.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Random walk

A random walk is a mathematical object, known as a stochastic or random process, that describes a path that consists of a succession of random steps on some mathematical space such as the integers.

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Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.

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MDGRAPE-3 is an ultra-high performance petascale supercomputer system developed by the RIKEN research institute in Japan.

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RSC Group

RSC Group is a Russian supercomputer company founded in 2009.

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Sandia National Laboratories

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.

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Scheduling (computing)

In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.

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Science fiction

Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.

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Seymour Cray

Seymour Roger Cray (September 28, 1925 – October 5, 1996) was an American electrical engineer and supercomputer architect who designed a series of computers that were the fastest in the world for decades, and founded Cray Research which built many of these machines.

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Silicon Graphics

Silicon Graphics, Inc. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software.

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Software as a service

Software as a service (SaaS) is a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted.

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SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Summit (supercomputer)

Summit or OLCF-4 is a supercomputer developed by IBM for use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which as of June 8, 2018 is the fastest supercomputer in the world.

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Sun Microsystems

Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.

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Sunway (processor)

Sunway, or ShenWei, (Chinese: 神威), is a series of computer microprocessors, developed by Jiāngnán Computing Lab (江南计算技术研究所) in Wuxi, China.

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Sunway TaihuLight

The Sunway TaihuLight (Shénwēi·tàihú zhī guāng) is a Chinese supercomputer which,, is ranked second in the TOP500 list, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops.

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Super Micro Computer, Inc.

Super Micro Computer, Inc (commonly referred to as Supermicro) (NASDAQ: SMCI) is an American information technology company based in San Jose, California.

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A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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Supercomputer architecture

Approaches to supercomputer architecture have taken dramatic turns since the earliest systems were introduced in the 1960s.

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Supercomputer operating systems

Since the end of the 20th century, supercomputer operating systems have undergone major transformations, as fundamental changes have occurred in supercomputer architecture.

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Supercomputing in China

China operates a number of supercomputer centers which, altogether, hold 29.3% performance share of world's fastest 500 supercomputers.

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Supercomputing in Europe

Several centers for supercomputing exist across Europe, and distributed access to them is coordinated by European initiatives to facilitate high-performance computing.

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Supercomputing in India

India's supercomputer program was started in late 1980s because Cray supercomputers were denied for import due to an arms embargo imposed on India, as it was a dual-use technology and could be used for developing nuclear weapons.

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Supercomputing in Japan

Japan operates a number of centers for supercomputing which hold world records in speed, with the K computer becoming the world's fastest in June 2011.

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System X (computing)

System X (pronounced "System Ten") was a supercomputer assembled by Virginia Tech's Advanced Research Computing facility in the summer of 2003.

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T-Platforms is a Russian supercomputer company.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tera is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1012 or (one trillion short scale; one billion long scale).

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Testing high-performance computing applications

High performance computing applications run on massively parallel supercomputers consist of concurrent programs designed using multi-threaded, multi-process models.

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The Evitable Conflict

"The Evitable Conflict" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov.

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The Journal of Supercomputing

The Journal of Supercomputing is an academic computer science journal concerned with theoretical and practical aspects of supercomputing.

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The Machine Stops

"The Machine Stops" is a science fiction short story (12,300 words) by E. M. Forster.

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Thermal design power

The thermal design power (TDP), sometimes called thermal design point, is the maximum amount of heat generated by a computer chip or component (often the CPU or GPU) that the cooling system in a computer is designed to dissipate under any workload.

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Three-dimensional integrated circuit

In microelectronics, a three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) is an integrated circuit manufactured by stacking silicon wafers or dies and interconnecting them vertically using, for instance, through-silicon vias (TSVs) or Cu-Cu connections, so that they behave as a single device to achieve performance improvements at reduced power and smaller footprint than conventional two dimensional processes.

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Tianhe-I, Tianhe-1, or TH-1 (Sky River Number One) is a supercomputer capable of an Rmax (maximum range) of 2.5 petaFLOPS.

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Tianhe-2 or TH-2 (that is, "Milky Way 2") is a 33.86-petaflop supercomputer located in National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou, China.

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Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.

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Titan (supercomputer)

Titan or OLCF-3 is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, that uses graphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs). Titan is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS. The upgrade began in October 2011, commenced stability testing in October 2012 and it became available to researchers in early 2013. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded primarily by the United States Department of Energy. Titan is due to be eclipsed at Oak Ridge by Summit in 2019, which is being built by IBM and features fewer nodes with much greater GPU capability per node as well as local per-node non-volatile caching of file data from the system's parallel file system. Titan employs AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar. It uses 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS; in the LINPACK benchmark used to rank supercomputers' speed, it performed at 17.59 petaFLOPS. This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan is available for any scientific purpose; access depends on the importance of the project and its potential to exploit the hybrid architecture. Any selected programs must also be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard programs were the first selected. They dealt mostly with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others were queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their programs. The modifications typically increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes often yield greater performance even on CPU-only machines.

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The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.

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Torus interconnect

A torus interconnect is a switch-less network topology for connecting processing nodes in a parallel computer system.

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Transport phenomena

In engineering, physics and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems.

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Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

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Tyan Computer Corporation (泰安電腦科技股份有限公司; also known as Tyan Business Unit, or TBU), is a subsidiary of MiTAC International, and a manufacturer of computer motherboards, including models for both Intel and AMD processors.

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Ultra Network Technologies

Ultra Network Technologies (previously called Ultra Corporation) is a now defunct networking company.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vector processor

In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.

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Victoria University of Manchester

The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College.

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Virtual tape library

A virtual tape library (VTL) is a data storage virtualization technology used typically for backup and recovery purposes.

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In computing, virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, storage devices, and computer network resources.

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Volunteer computing

Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing, "an arrangement in which people, so-called volunteers, provide computing resources to projects, which use the resources to do distributed computing and/or storage".

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Vulcan's Hammer

Vulcan's Hammer is a 1960 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick.

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Waste heat

Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Weather forecasting

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.

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Wipro Limited (Western India Palm Refined Oils Limited or more recently, Western India Products Limited) is an Indian Information Technology Services corporation headquartered in Bengaluru, India.

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Wuxi is a city in southern Jiangsu province, China.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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Zilog Z8000

The Z8000 ("zee-eight-thousand") is a 16-bit microprocessor introduced by Zilog in early 1979, between the launch of the Intel 8086 (April 1978) and the Motorola 68000 (September 1979).

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3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer

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