92 relations: Accretion (geology), Appalachian Mountains, Archean, Arctica, Atlantica, Baltica, Biogeography, Cambrian, Carbon dioxide, Carbonatite, Carboniferous, Cenozoic, Columbia (supercontinent), Continent, Continental drift, Convection cell, Craton, Cretaceous, Dropstone, Earth, Eclogite, Ediacaran, Eurasia, Flood basalt, Geologic time scale, Geology, Gondwana, Granite, Granulite, Greenhouse gas, Greenstone belt, Humid continental climate, Incompatible element, Iron, Isotopes of molybdenum, Isotopes of sulfur, Jurassic, Kenorland, Large low-shear-velocity provinces, Laurasia, Laurentia, Lid tectonics, List of supercontinents, Mantle (geology), Mantle plume, Mesoproterozoic, Milankovitch cycles, Mississippian (geology), Neoarchean, Neodymium, ..., Neoproterozoic, Ophiolite, Ordovician, Orogeny, Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleomagnetism, Paleoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Pangaea, Pannotia, Passive margin, Permian, Phanerozoic, Phosphorus, Plate reconstruction, Plate tectonics, Pleistocene, Pluton, Precambrian, Pyrite, Red beds, Redox, Rodinia, Sandstone, Sea level rise, Seafloor spreading, Shale, Siberia (continent), Silicate minerals, Silurian, Sulfate, Supercontinent cycle, Superocean, Tibetan Plateau, Triassic, Ur (continent), Vaalbara, Variscan orogeny, Weathering, Wilson cycle, Zircon. Expand index (42 more) » « Shrink index
Accretion, in geology, is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Arctica or Arctida was an ancient continent which formed approximately 2.565 billion years ago in the Neoarchean era.
Atlantica (Ατλαντικα; Atlantika) is an ancient continent that formed during the Proterozoic about (two billion years ago, Ga) from various 2 Ga cratons located in what is now West Africa and eastern South America.
Baltica is a paleocontinent that formed in the Paleoproterozoic and now constitutes northwestern Eurasia, or Europe north of the Trans-European Suture Zone and west of the Ural Mountains.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Columbia, also known as Nuna and Hudsonland, was one of Earth's ancient supercontinents.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
In the field of fluid dynamics, a convection cell is the phenomenon that occurs when density differences exist within a body of liquid or gas.
A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Dropstones are isolated fragments of rock found within finer-grained water-deposited sedimentary rocks.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Eclogite is a mafic metamorphic rock.
The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Granulites are a class of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the granulite facies that have experienced high-temperature and moderate-pressure metamorphism.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenstone belts are zones of variably metamorphosed mafic to ultramafic volcanic sequences with associated sedimentary rocks that occur within Archaean and Proterozoic cratons between granite and gneiss bodies.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
In petrology and geochemistry, an incompatible element is one that is unsuitable in size and/or charge to the cation sites of the minerals of which it is included.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
There are 33 known isotopes of molybdenum (42Mo) ranging in atomic mass from 83 to 115, as well as four metastable nuclear isomers.
Sulfur (16S) has 24 known isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 26 to 49, four of which are stable: 32S (95.02%), 33S (0.75%), 34S (4.21%), and 36S (0.02%).
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Kenorland was one of the earliest known supercontinents on Earth.
Large low-shear-velocity provinces, LLSVPs, also called LLVPs or superplumes, are characteristic structures of parts of the lowermost mantle (the region surrounding the outer core) of the Earth.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent.
Lid tectonics is the type of tectonics that is thought to exist on several planets and moons in the Solar System and possibly on Earth, during the early part of its history.
This is a list of supercontinents.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.
The Mesoproterozoic Era is a geologic era that occurred from.
Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.
The Mississippian (also known as Lower Carboniferous or Early Carboniferous) is a subperiod in the geologic timescale or a subsystem of the geologic record.
Not to be confused with archaea, in spite of biological discussion commonly alluding to the only life forms of that era, e.g. microbes The Neoarchean (also spelled Neoarchaean) is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from.
An ophiolite is a section of the Earth's oceanic crust and the underlying upper mantle that has been uplifted and exposed above sea level and often emplaced onto continental crustal rocks.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.
Paleoproterozoic Era, spanning the time period from (2.5–1.6 Ga), is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic Eon.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Pannotia (from Greek: pan-, "all", -nótos, "south"; meaning "all southern land"), also known as Vendian supercontinent, Greater Gondwana, and the Pan-African supercontinent, was a relatively short-lived Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of the Precambrian during the Pan-African orogeny (650–500 Ma) and broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.
A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere that is not an active plate margin.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Plate reconstruction is the process of reconstructing the positions of tectonic plates relative to each other (relative motion) or to other reference frames, such as the earth's magnetic field or groups of hotspots, in the geological past.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Red beds (or redbeds) are sedimentary rocks, which typically consist of sandstone, siltstone, and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rodinia (from the Russian родить, rodít, meaning "to beget, to give birth", or родина, ródina, meaning "motherland, birthplace") is a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that was assembled 1.3–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Siberia, also known as Angaraland (or simply Angara) and Angarida, is an ancient craton located in the heart of Siberia.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
The supercontinent cycle is the quasi-periodic aggregation and dispersal of Earth's continental crust.
A superocean is an ocean that surrounds a supercontinent.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Ur is a proposed supercontinent that formed in the Archean (3.1 billion).
Vaalbara was an Archean supercontinent consisting of the Kaapvaal Craton (now located in eastern South Africa) and the Pilbara Craton (now found in north-western Western Australia).
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
The Wilson cycle is a model where a continent rifts, forms an ocean basin in-between, and then begins a process of convergence that leads to the collision of the two plates and closure of the ocean.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.