257 relations: Absolute magnitude, Accelerating expansion of the universe, Accretion (astrophysics), Accretion disk, Adiabatic process, AIP Conference Proceedings, Amateur astronomy, American Physical Society, Andromeda Galaxy, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Antares, Apparent magnitude, Argentina, Aristotle, ASASSN-15lh, Asiago Astrophysical Observatory, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Astronomical spectroscopy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Astrophysical jet, Astrophysics and Space Science, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Balmer series, Basic Books, Beta decay, Betelgeuse, Big Bang, Binary star, Biochemistry, Biosphere, Black hole, Blue supergiant star, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, California Institute of Technology, Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carbon detonation, Carbon-burning process, Cassiopeia A, Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, Chandrasekhar limit, Charge-coupled device, Chemical element, Chemical reaction, Chinese astronomy, Cobalt, Compact star, ..., Convection, Cosmic distance ladder, Cosmic ray, Crab Nebula, CRC Press, D. Reidel, Degenerate matter, Doppler effect, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron capture, Electron degeneracy pressure, Electron neutrino, Emission spectrum, Eta Carinae, Expansion of the universe, Explosion, Extinction (astronomy), Failed supernova, Flavour (particle physics), Foe (unit), Fritz Zwicky, G1.9+0.3, Galaxy, Galaxy morphological classification, Gamma ray, Gamma Velorum, Gamma-ray burst, Goddard Space Flight Center, Gravitational collapse, Gravitational energy, Gravitational wave, Half-life, Helium, Helium star, Hubble's law, Hydrogen, Hydrogen spectral series, Hypergiant, IK Pegasi, Infrared, International Astronomical Union, International Journal of Astrobiology, Interstellar medium, Ionization, Iron, Irregular galaxy, Isotopes of cobalt, Isotopes of nickel, Isotopes of titanium, Johannes Kepler, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, Kelvin, Kepler's Supernova, Kilometre, Kinetic energy, Latin, Lead, Lecture Notes in Physics, Light curve, Light echo, Light-year, List of supernova remnants, List of supernovae, Lithium, Living Reviews in Relativity, Luminosity, Luminous blue variable, Macmillan Publishers, Magnetar, Main sequence, Messier 61, Metallicity, Metre per second, Milky Way, Millennium, Molecular cloud, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moscow State University, N6946-BH1, Nanometre, NASA, Nature (journal), Nature Physics, Nebula, Neutrino, Neutrino detector, Neutrino oscillation, Neutron, Neutron star, New Astronomy (journal), New Journal of Physics, NGC 1058, NGC 4526, NGC 613, NGC 6946, NGC 7610, Nickel, Nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide, Nova, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nucleosynthesis, Optical telescope, Optics, Order of magnitude, Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Pacific Ocean, Pair-instability supernova, Palomar Transient Factory, Parsec, Photodisintegration, Photon, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physics Reports, Planet, Plutonium, Positron, Positron emission, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Pulsar, Pulsar wind nebula, Quark-nova, R-process, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Random House, Red giant, Redshift, Rho Cassiopeiae, Rosario, Santa Fe, Rudolph Minkowski, RX J0852.0-4622, S-process, Science (journal), Scientific American, Shock wave, Silicon, Sky & Telescope, SN 1006, SN 1054, SN 1572, SN 185, SN 1885A, SN 1961i, SN 1961V, SN 1987A, SN 1993J, SN 2002cx, SN 2005gj, SN 2005gl, SN 2008ha, SN 2009ip, SN 2013fs, Solar core, Solar irradiance, Solar mass, Solar System, Spectral line, Speed of light, Spiral galaxy, Springer Science+Business Media, Star formation, Starburst galaxy, Stellar evolution, Stellar wind, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Stratum, Subatomic particle, Supergiant star, Superluminous supernova, Supernova Early Warning System, Supernova impostor, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Supernova remnant, Supernovae in fiction, Taxonomy (general), Telescope, The Astronomer's Telegram, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, The New York Times, Thermal radiation, Thermal runaway, Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae, Transient astronomical event, Tycho Brahe, Type Ia supernova, Type Ib and Ic supernovae, Type II supernova, U Scorpii, Ultraviolet, University of California, Uranium, Walter Baade, White dwarf, Wolf–Rayet star, WR 104, X-ray, Yale University Press, Zombie star, 2MASS. Expand index (207 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.
The accelerating expansion of the universe is the observation that the universe appears to be expanding at an increasing rate, so that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.
In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970.
Amateur astronomy is a hobby whose participants enjoy observing or imaging celestial objects in the sky using the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.
The Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.
Antares, also designated Alpha Scorpii (α Scorpii, abbreviated Alpha Sco, α Sco), is on average the fifteenth-brightest star in the night sky, and the brightest star in the constellation of Scorpius.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
ASASSN-15lh (supernova designation SN 2015L) is an extremely bright astronomical transient discovered by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN), with the appearance of a hypernova event.
The Asiago Astrophysical Observatory (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Asiago, or Asiago Observatory for short) is an Italian astronomical observatory (IAU code 043) owned and operated by the University of Padua.
The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) is an American scientific and educational organization, founded in San Francisco on February 7, 1889.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
An astrophysical jet is an astronomical phenomenon where outflows of ionised matter are emitted as an extended beam along the axis of rotation.
Astrophysics and Space Science is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering astronomy, astrophysics, and space science and astrophysical aspects of astrobiology.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The Balmer series or Balmer lines in atomic physics, is the designation of one of a set of six named series describing the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Betelgeuse, also designated Alpha Orionis (α Orionis, abbreviated Alpha Ori, α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Blue supergiant stars are hot luminous stars, referred to scientifically as OB supergiants.
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (BAAS; Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.) is the journal of record for the American Astronomical Society established in 1969.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon detonation or Carbon deflagration is the violent reignition of thermonuclear fusion in a white dwarf star that was previously slowly cooling.
The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the cores of massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that combines carbon into other elements.
Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is a supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Cassiopeia and the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky at frequencies above 1 GHz.
The Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) is the official international clearing house for information relating to transient astronomical events.
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
The cosmic distance ladder (also known as the extragalactic distance scale) is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Electron degeneracy pressure is a particular manifestation of the more general phenomenon of quantum degeneracy pressure.
The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
Eta Carinae (η Carinae, abbreviated to η Car), formerly known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity greater than five million times that of the Sun, located around 7,500 light-years (2,300 parsecs) distant in the constellation Carina.
The expansion of the universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.
A failed supernova is an astronomical event in time domain astronomy in which a star suddenly brightens as in the early stage of a supernova, but then does not increase to the massive flux of a supernova.
In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.
A foe is a unit of energy equal to 1044 joules or 1051 ergs, used to express the large amount of energy released by a supernova.
Fritz Zwicky (February 14, 1898 – February 8, 1974) was a Swiss astronomer.
G1.9+0.3 is a supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation of Sagittarius.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
Galaxy morphological classification is a system used by astronomers to divide galaxies into groups based on their visual appearance.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gamma Velorum (γ Vel, γ Velorum) is a multiple star system in the constellation Vela.
In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.
Gravitational energy is the potential energy a body with mass has in relation to another massive object due to gravity.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
A helium star or helium strong star is a class O or B star (blue), which has extraordinarily strong helium lines and weaker than normal hydrogen lines, indicating strong stellar winds and a mass loss of the outer envelope.
Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen is divided into a number of spectral series, with wavelengths given by the Rydberg formula.
A hypergiant (luminosity class 0 or Ia+) is among the very rare kinds of stars that typically show tremendous luminosities and very high rates of mass loss by stellar winds.
IK Pegasi (or HR 8210) is a binary star system in the constellation Pegasus.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The International Journal of Astrobiology (IJA) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 2002 and published by Cambridge University Press that covers research on the prebiotic chemistry, origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth and beyond, SETI (Search for extraterrestrial intelligence), societal and educational aspects of astrobiology.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
An irregular galaxy is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, unlike a spiral or an elliptical galaxy.
Naturally occurring cobalt (27Co) is composed of 1 stable isotope, 59Co.
Naturally occurring nickel (28Ni) is composed of five stable isotopes;,,, and with being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance).
Naturally occurring titanium (22Ti) is composed of 5 stable isotopes; 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti and 50Ti with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8% natural abundance).
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
The Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) is an automated telescope used in the search for supernovae.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
SN 1604, also known as Kepler's Supernova, Kepler's Nova or Kepler's Star, was a supernova of Type Ia that occurred in the Milky Way, in the constellation Ophiuchus.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lecture Notes in Physics (LNP) is a book series published by Springer Science+Business Media in the field of physics, including article related to both research and teaching.
In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity of a celestial object or region, as a function of time.
Reflected light following path B arrives shortly after the direct flash following path A but before light following path C. B and C have the same apparent distance from the star as seen from Earth. A light echo is a physical phenomenon caused by light reflected off surfaces distant from the source, and arriving at the observer with a delay relative to this distance.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
This is a list of observed supernova remnants.
This is a list of supernovae that are of historical significance.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Living Reviews in Relativity is a peer-reviewed open-access scientific journal publishing reviews on relativity in the areas of physics and astrophysics.
In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.
Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are massive evolved stars that show unpredictable and sometimes dramatic variations in both their spectra and brightness.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
A magnetar is a type of neutron star with an extremely powerful inferred magnetic field (\sim 10^ - 10^ G).
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Messier 61 (also known as M61 or NGC 4303) is an intermediate barred spiral galaxy in the Virgo Cluster of galaxies.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
N6946-BH1 is a disappearing red supergiant star in another galaxy, NGC 6946, on the northern border of the constellation of Cygnus.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Physics, is a monthly, peer reviewed, scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
A neutrino detector is a physics apparatus which is designed to study neutrinos.
Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon, or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
New Astronomy is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering topics in astronomy and astrophysics.
New Journal of Physics is an online-only, open-access, peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in all aspects of physics, as well as interdisciplinary topics where physics forms the central theme.
NGC 1058 is a Seyfert Type 2 galaxy in the NGC 1023 Group, located in the Perseus constellation.
NGC 4526 (also listed as NGC 4560) is a lenticular galaxy located approximately 55 million light-years from the Solar System in the Virgo constellation and discovered on 13 April 1784 by William Herschel.
NGC 613 is a barred spiral galaxy located 67 million light years away in the southern constellation of Sculptor.
NGC 6946 is a face-on intermediate spiral galaxy with a small bright nucleus, whose location in the sky straddles the boundary between the northern constellations of Cepheus and Cygnus.
NGC 7610 is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Pegasus.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
A nova (plural novae or novas) or classical nova (CN, plural CNe) is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright, apparently "new" star, that slowly fades over several weeks or many months.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
The Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, when combined, are the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A pair-instability supernova occurs when pair production, the production of free electrons and positrons in the collision between atomic nuclei and energetic gamma rays, temporarily reduces the internal pressure supporting a supermassive star's core against gravitational collapse.
The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF, obs. code: I41), was an astronomical survey using a wide-field survey camera designed to search for optical transient and variable sources such as variable stars, supernovae, asteroids and comets.
The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.
Photodisintegration (also called phototransmutation) is a nuclear process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs a high-energy gamma ray, enters an excited state, and immediately decays by emitting a subatomic particle.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Physics Reports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, a review section of Physics Letters that has been published by Elsevier since 1971.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (often abbreviated as PASP in references and literature) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal managed by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star or white dwarf that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.
A pulsar wind nebula (PWN, plural PWNe), sometimes called a plerion (derived from the Greek "πλήρης", pleres, meaning "full"), is a type of nebula found inside the shells of supernova remnants (SNRe) that is powered by pulsar winds generated by its central pulsar.
A quark-nova is the hypothetical violent explosion resulting from the conversion of a neutron star to a quark star.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
Rho Cassiopeiae (ρ Cas, ρ Cassiopeiae) is a yellow hypergiant star in the constellation Cassiopeia.
Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, in central Argentina.
Rudolph Minkowski (born Rudolf Leo Bernhard Minkowski;; May 28, 1895 – January 4, 1976) was a German-American astronomer.
RX J0852.0-4622 (also known as G266.2−1.2) is a supernova remnant.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.
SN 1006 was a supernova that is likely the brightest observed stellar event in recorded history, reaching an estimated −7.5 visual magnitude, and exceeding roughly sixteen times the brightness of Venus.
SN 1054 is a supernova that was first observed on 4 July 1054, and remained visible for around two years.
SN 1572 (Tycho's Supernova, Tycho's Nova), or B Cassiopeiae (B Cas), was a supernova of Type Ia in the constellation Cassiopeia, one of about eight supernovae visible to the naked eye in historical records.
SN 185 was a transient astronomical event observed in AD 185, likely a supernova.
SN 1961i was a supernova that was discovered in June 1961 in the Messier 61 (NGC 4303) galaxy, by Milton L. Humason at the Palomar Observatory, the brightest of 16 supernovae found at Palomar that year.
SN 1961V was an abnormal, supernova-like event that was a potential supernova impostor. The potential impostor nature of SN 1961V was first identified by Fritz Zwicky in 1964. SN 1961V occurred in galaxy NGC 1058, about 9.3 Mpc away (about 30 million light years). Unlike many supernovae, the progenitor star is tentatively known: an extremely large, very bright blue star, similar to Eta Carinae. Mass estimates of the precursor star were as high as 2000 times the mass of the sun, but these are likely to be extreme overestimates. If SN 1961V was not a supernova then it was most likely an extremely large outburst by a luminous blue variable star. The remnant of SN 1961V's explosion is expanding at 2,000 km/s, which is much slower than the majority of supernovae. The profile of its light curve, with a gradual climb to maximum brightness, was unusual when compared to a supernova. This unusual light curve led to suspicion that it was some other event. If the star survived this would identify SN 1961V as an impostor supernova rather than a true supernova. Attempts to determine if the progenitor star is still present have been extensive and have included use of both the Hubble Space Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope. These attempts have been hampered by the cloud of debris from the event, which have left the area obscured. Christopher Kochanek at Ohio State University has compared the event to the confirmed supernova SN 2005gl and suggested that the low velocity of expansion can be explained by a pre-supernova mass loss event similar to that which was observed to occur in SN 2005gl. The analysis by Kochanek's group strongly suggests that SN 1961V was indeed a genuine supernova. Almost at the same moment, another team detected a highly luminous blue star, labeled Object 7, remaining at the site of the supernova, although they couldn't rule out this being a surviving companion of the exploded star.
SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.
SN 1993J is a supernova observed in the galaxy M81.
SN 2002cx is a peculiar type Ia supernova.
SN 2005gj was a supernova located approximately 864 million light years (265 million parsecs) away from Earth.
SN 2005gl was a supernova in the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 266.
SN 2008ha was a type Ia supernova which was first observed around November 7, 2008 in the galaxy UGC 12682, which lies in the constellation Pegasus at a distance of about from Earth.
SN 2009ip was a supernova discovered in 2009 in the spiral galaxy NGC 7259 in the constellation of Piscis Austrinus.
SN 2013fs is a supernova, located in the spiral galaxy NGC 7610, discovered by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory sky survey at Palomar Observatory in October 2013 (and originally named iPTF 13dqy).
The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of solar radius.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Spiral galaxies form a class of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae(pp. 124–151) and, as such, form part of the Hubble sequence.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
A starburst galaxy is a galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation, as compared to the long-term average rate of star formation in the galaxy or the star formation rate observed in most other galaxies.
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.
The Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Государственный астрономический институт имени Штернберга in Russian), also known as GAISh (ГАИШ), is a research institution in Moscow, Russia, a division of Moscow State University.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.
A superluminous supernova (SLSN, plural superluminous supernovae or SLSNe; also known as hypernova) is a type of stellar explosion with a luminosity 10 or more times higher than that of standard supernovae.
The SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) is a network of neutrino detectors designed to give early warning to astronomers in the event of a supernova in the Milky Way, our home galaxy, or in a nearby galaxy such as the Large Magellanic Cloud or the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy.
Supernova impostors are stellar explosions that appear at first to be a type of supernova but do not destroy their progenitor stars.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
Supernovae in works of fiction often serve as plot devices.
Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Astronomer's Telegram (ATel) is an internet based short notice publication service for quickly disseminating information on new astronomical observations.
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Thermal runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result.
Timeline of neutron stars, pulsars, supernovae, and white dwarfs Note that this list is mainly about the development of knowledge, but also about some supernovae taking place.
A transient astronomical event, often shortened by astronomers to a transient, is an astronomical object or phenomenon whose duration may be from seconds to days, weeks, or even several years.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
A type Ia supernova (read "type one-a") is a type of supernova that occurs in binary systems (two stars orbiting one another) in which one of the stars is a white dwarf.
Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae are categories of supernovae that are caused by the core collapse of massive stars.
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.
U Scorpii (U Sco) is a recurrent nova system; one of 10 known recurring novae in the Milky Way galaxy.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 – June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who worked in the United States from 1931 to 1959.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
Wolf–Rayet stars, often abbreviated as WR stars, are a rare heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.
WR 104 is a triple star system located about from Earth.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
A zombie star is a hypothetical result of a Type Iax supernova which leaves behind a remnant star, rather than completely dispersing the stellar mass.
The Two Micron All-Sky Survey, or 2MASS, was an astronomical survey of the whole sky in the infrared spectrum and one of the most ambitious such projects.
Classical supernova, Core collapse supernova, Core collapse supernovae, Core-collapse supernova, Core-collapse supernovae, Electron capture supernova, Exploding stars, Little Bang, Photodisintegration Hypernovae, Photodisintegration hypernova, Photodisintegration hypernovae, SNe, Supanovae, Super Nova, Super nova, Super-nova, SuperNova, Supernova explosion, Supernova explosions, Supernova light curve, Supernova progenitor, Supernovae, Supernovas, Supernove, Type I supernova, Type I supernovae, Type IIa supernova, Type IIn, Typr Ib supernova.