72 relations: Actinide, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, B2FH paper, Beta decay, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Binding energy, Black hole, Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carbon-burning process, Chandrasekhar limit, Chemical element, Critical mass, Donald D. Clayton, Endothermic process, Exothermic process, Fred Hoyle, Half-life, Icarus (journal), Invariant mass, Isotope, Isotopes of nickel, Light curve, LIGO, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Nature (journal), Neon, Neutron, Neutron flux, Neutron star, Nickel, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nucleon, Nucleosynthesis, Nuclide, Outer space, Oxygen, Oxygen-burning process, P-nuclei, Photodisintegration, Physical Review Letters, Positron emission, Primordial nuclide, Proton, R-process, Radiant exposure, ..., Radioactive decay, Red giant, Reviews of Modern Physics, Rice University, Rp-process, S-process, Science (journal), Silicon-burning process, Sky & Telescope, SN 1987A, Star, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Supergiant star, Supernova, The Astrophysical Journal, Thorium, Triple-alpha process, Type II supernova, University of Chicago Press, Uranium, Virgo interferometer, White dwarf. Expand index (22 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The B2FH paper, named after the initials of the authors of the paper, Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey Burbidge, William A. Fowler, and Fred Hoyle, is a landmark paper on the origin of the chemical elements published in Reviews of Modern Physics in 1957.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the cores of massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that combines carbon into other elements.
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Donald Delbert Clayton (born March 18, 1935) is an American astrophysicist whose most visible achievement was the prediction from nucleosynthesis theory that supernovae are intensely radioactive.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Naturally occurring nickel (28Ni) is composed of five stable isotopes;,,, and with being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance).
In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity of a celestial object or region, as a function of time.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The oxygen-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores.
p-nuclei (p stands for proton-rich) are certain proton-rich, naturally occurring isotopes of some elements between selenium and mercury inclusive which cannot be produced in either the s- or the r-process.
Photodisintegration (also called phototransmutation) is a nuclear process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs a high-energy gamma ray, enters an excited state, and immediately decays by emitting a subatomic particle.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
In radiometry, radiant exposure or fluence is the radiant energy received by a surface per unit area, or equivalently the irradiance of a surface, integrated over time of irradiation, and spectral exposure or is the radiant exposure per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.
The rp-process (rapid proton capture process) consists of consecutive proton captures onto seed nuclei to produce heavier elements.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.
SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The Virgo interferometer is a large interferometer designed to detect gravitational waves predicted by the general theory of relativity.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.