56 relations: Action potential, Anatomical terms of location, ARNTL, Basic helix-loop-helix, Chronobiology, Circadian rhythm, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, CLOCK, Cocaine, Cortisol, Cryptochrome, Drosophila, Ectotherm, Endothermic process, Entrainment (chronobiology), Gene expression, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Hypothalamus, Hypothermia, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Italian wall lizard, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Melanopsin, Melatonin, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder, Optic chiasm, Peptide, PER1, PER2, PER3, Period (gene), Photoreceptor cell, Physiology, Pineal gland, Pretectal area, Protein dimer, Pupil, Retina, Retinal ganglion cell, Retinohypothalamic tract, Shift work sleep disorder, Superior colliculus, Supra (grammar), Thermoregulation, Third ventricle, Time perception, Timeless (gene), ..., Transcription factor, Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Vasopressin, Vertebrate, Visual cortex, Zeitgeber. Expand index (6 more) » « Shrink index
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 is protein that in humans is encoded by the ARNTL gene, also known as BMAL1, MOP3, and, less commonly, BHLHE5, BMAL, BMAL1C, JAP3, PASD3, and TIC.
A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) is a protein structural motif that characterizes one of the largest families of dimerizing transcription factors.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) are a family of sleep disorders affecting (among other bodily processes) the timing of sleep.
Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) is a gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor (CLOCK) that is believed to affect both the persistence and period of circadian rhythms.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
The Italian wall lizard, ruin lizard, or İstanbul lizard (Podarcis sicula from the Greek meaning 'agile' and 'feet') is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (non-24), is one of several chronic circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs).
The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
The PER1 gene encodes the period circadian protein homolog 1 protein in humans.
PER2 is a protein in mammals encoded by the PER2 gene.
The PER3 gene encodes the period circadian protein homolog 3 protein in humans.
Period (per) is a gene located on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.
Shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia and excessive sleepiness affecting people whose work hours overlap with the typical sleep period.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
Supra (Latin for "above") is an academic and legal citation signal used when a writer desires to refer a reader to an earlier-cited authority.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
The third ventricle is one of four connected fluid-filled cavities comprising the ventricular system within the mammalian brain.
Time perception is a field of study within psychology, cognitive linguistics and neuroscience that refers to the subjective experience, or sense, of time, which is measured by someone's own perception of the duration of the indefinite and unfolding of events.
Timeless (tim) is a gene in multiple species but is most notable for its role in Drosophila for encoding TIM, an essential protein that regulates circadian rhythm.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
A zeitgeber is any external or environmental cue that entrains or synchronizes an organism's biological rhythms to the Earth's 24-hour light/dark cycle and 12-month cycle.