555 relations: Abe Fortas, Abington School District v. Schempp, Abner Mikva, Abortion, Abraham Lincoln, Acronym, Adair v. United States, Adam Tomkins, Adequate and independent state ground, Adkins v. Children's Hospital, Advice and consent, Advisory opinion, Affirmative action, African Americans, Al Franken, Al Gore, Alexander Hamilton, Alfred A. Knopf, All Writs Act, Allstate, ALM (company), American Bar Association, American Civil Liberties Union, American Civil War, Amicus curiae, Andrew Jackson, Andrew Johnson, Andrew Napolitano, Anthony Kennedy, Antonin Scalia, Appeal, Appellate jurisdiction, Architect of the Capitol, Arizona v. California, Arlen Specter, Arthur Goldberg, Article Three of the United States Constitution, Article Two of the United States Constitution, Ashcroft v. Iqbal, Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Austria, Bail, Baker v. Carr, Balance of power (federalism), Baptists, Barack Obama, Barry Goldwater, Baze v. Rees, Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, ..., Bench memorandum, Bible, Black's Law Dictionary, Bluebook, Bob Woodward, Bolling v. Sharpe, Boumediene v. Bush, Bowers v. Hardwick, Brian Leiter, Brooklyn, Brown v. Board of Education, Bryan A. Garner, Buckinghamshire, Buckley v. Valeo, Buffalo, New York, Bush v. Gore, Byron White, Cameras in the Supreme Court of the United States, Capital punishment, Capital punishment in the United States, Carolina Academic Press, Case citation, Cass Gilbert, Catholic Church, Ceres, Fife, Cert pool, Certiorari, Certiorari before judgment, Charles A. Beard, Charles Evans Hughes, Charles Warren (U.S. author), Chattanooga, Tennessee, Chicago, Chief judge, Chief Justice of the United States, Chisholm v. Georgia, Christopher Moore (Canadian historian), Chrysler, Citizens United v. FEC, City of Boerne v. Flores, Civil liberties, Clarence Thomas, Climate change, Clinton v. City of New York, CNN, Cohens v. Virginia, Commerce Clause, Common Cause, Competition law, Concurring opinion, Congressional Quarterly, Congressional Research Service, Conscription in the United States, Conservatism, Contempt of court, Cornell University Library, County Antrim, Dames & Moore v. Regan, David B. Sentelle, David Garrow, David Josiah Brewer, David Souter, Dean of Harvard Law School, Defamation, Defendant, DeFunis v. Odegaard, Democratic ideals, Demography (journal), Denver, Desegregation, Dissenting opinion, District of Columbia Court of Appeals, District of Columbia v. Heller, Donald Trump, Donald Trump Supreme Court candidates, Doubleday (publisher), Dover Publications, Dred Scott v. Sandford, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Earl Warren, Edward Douglass White, Edwin Stanton, Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Eighth and Ninth Circuits Act of 1837, Eisenstadt v. 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Levine, Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, Zachary Taylor, Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 2009 term opinions of the Supreme Court of the United States. Expand index (505 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham "Abe" Fortas (June 19, 1910 – April 5, 1982) was a U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1965 to 1969.
Abington School District v. Schempp,,. was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court decided 8–1 in favor of the respondent, Edward Schempp, and declared school-sponsored Bible reading in public schools in the United States to be unconstitutional.
Abner Joseph Mikva (January 21, 1926 – July 4, 2016) was an American politician, federal judge, lawyer and law professor.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Adair v. United States, 208 U.S. 161 (1908), was a US labor law case of the United States Supreme Court which declared that bans on "yellow-dog" contracts (that forbade workers from joining labor unions) were unconstitutional.
Adam Tomkins (born 28 June 1969) is an academic and politician based within Scotland.
The adequate and independent state ground doctrine is a doctrine of United States law governing the power of the U.S. Supreme Court to review judgments entered by state courts.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923), is a United States Supreme Court opinion that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract, as protected by the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts.
An advisory opinion is an opinion issued by a court or a commission like an election commission that does not have the effect of adjudicating a specific legal case, but merely advises on the constitutionality or interpretation of a law.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Alan Stuart Franken (born May 21, 1951) is an American comedian, writer, producer, author, and politician who served as a United States Senator from Minnesota from 2009 to 2018.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
The All Writs Act is a United States federal statute, codified at, which authorizes the United States federal courts to "issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the usages and principles of law." The act in its original form was part of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The Allstate Corporation is the one of the largest insurance providers in the United States and one of the largest that is publicly held.
ALM (formerly American Lawyer Media) is a media company located in New York City, and is a provider of specialized business news and information, focused primarily on the legal, insurance, and commercial real estate sectors.
The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
An amicus curiae (literally, "friend of the court"; plural, amici curiae) is someone who is not a party to a case and may or may not have been solicited by a party, who assists a court by offering information, expertise, or insight that has a bearing on the issues in the case, and is typically presented in the form of a brief.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Andrew Peter Napolitano (born June 6, 1950) is an American syndicated columnist whose work appears in numerous publications, such as Fox News, The Washington Times, and Reason.
Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.
Appellate jurisdiction is the power of a higher court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts.
The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is the federal agency responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex, and also the head of that agency.
Arizona v. California is a set of United States Supreme Court cases, all dealing with disputes over water distribution from the Colorado River between the states of Arizona and California.
Arlen Specter (February 12, 1930 – October 14, 2012) was an American lawyer, author, and politician who served as United States Senator for Pennsylvania.
Arthur Joseph Goldberg (August 8, 1908January 19, 1990) was an American statesman and jurist who served as the 9th U.S. Secretary of Labor, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the 6th United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.
Article Two of the United States Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, which carries out and enforces federal laws.
Ashcroft v. Iqbal,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that top government officials were not liable for the actions of their subordinates without evidence that they ordered the allegedly discriminatory activity.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, was assassinated by well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. Shot in the head as he watched the play, Lincoln died the following day at 7:22 a.m., in the Petersen House opposite the theater.
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Bail is a set of restrictions that are imposed on a suspect while awaiting trial, to ensure they comply with the judicial process.
Baker v. Carr,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that redistricting (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide redistricting cases.
In federations, the balance of power is occasionally used informally to designate the degree to which power is centralized in the federal government or devolved to the subnational governments.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.
Baze v. Rees,, is a decision by the United States Supreme Court, which upheld the constitutionality of a particular method of lethal injection used for capital punishment.
Bell Atlantic Corp.
A bench memorandum (pl. bench memoranda) (also known as a bench memo) is a short and neutral memo which summarizes the facts, issues, and arguments of a court case.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Black's Law is the most widely used law dictionary in the United States.
The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, a style guide, prescribes the most widely used legal citation system in the United States.
Robert Upshur Woodward (born March 26, 1943) is an American investigative journalist and non-fiction author.
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case which deals with civil rights, specifically, segregation in the District of Columbia's public schools.
Boumediene v. Bush,, was a writ of habeas corpus submission made in a civilian court of the United States on behalf of Lakhdar Boumediene, a naturalized citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina, held in military detention by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba.
Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986), is a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld, in a 5–4 ruling, the constitutionality of a Georgia sodomy law criminalizing oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults, in this case with respect to homosexual sodomy, though the law did not differentiate between homosexual sodomy and heterosexual sodomy.
Brian Leiter (born 1963) is an American philosopher and legal scholar who is Karl N. Llewellyn Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Chicago Law School and founder and Director of Chicago's Center for Law, Philosophy & Human Values.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Bryan A. Garner (born November 17, 1958) is an American lawyer, lexicographer, and teacher who has written more than two dozen books about English usage and style, and advocacy.
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east.
Buckley v. Valeo,, is a U.S. constitutional law Supreme Court case on campaign finance.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
Bush v. Gore,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election.
Byron Raymond "Whizzer" White (June 8, 1917 – April 15, 2002) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Supreme Court of the United States does not allow cameras in the courtroom when the court is in session, a policy which is the subject of much debate.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 31 states, the federal government, and the military.
Carolina Academic Press (also known as CAP) is an academic publisher of books and software.
Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported.
Cass Gilbert (November 24, 1859 – May 17, 1934) was a prominent American architect.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Ceres is a village in Fife, Scotland, located in a small glen approximately 2 miles over the Ceres Moor from Cupar and 7 miles from St Andrews.
The cert pool is a mechanism by which the Supreme Court of the United States manages the influx of petitions for certiorari ("cert") to the court.
Certiorari, often abbreviated cert. in the United States, is a process for seeking judicial review and a writ issued by a court that agrees to review.
A petition for certiorari before judgment, in the Supreme Court of the United States, is a petition for a writ of certiorari in which the Supreme Court is asked to immediately review the decision of a United States District Court, without an appeal having been decided by a United States Court of Appeals, for the purpose of expediting the proceedings and obtaining a final decision.
Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century.
Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, Republican politician, and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States.
Charles Warren (March 9, 1868 – August 16, 1954) was an American lawyer and legal scholar who won a Pulitzer Prize for his book The Supreme Court in United States History (1922).
Chattanooga is a city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, with a population of 177,571 in 2016.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chief judge is the highest-ranking judge of a court that has more than one judge.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
Chisholm v. Georgia,, is considered the first United States Supreme Court case of significance and impact.
Christopher Hugh Moore (born 1950 in Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom) is an author, journalist, and blogger about Canadian history.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission,, is a landmark U.S. constitutional law, campaign finance, and corporate law case dealing with regulation of political campaign spending by organizations.
City of Boerne v. Flores,, was a US Supreme Court case concerning the scope of Congress's enforcement power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Clinton v. City of New York,, is a legal case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the line-item veto as granted in the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 violated the Presentment Clause of the United States Constitution because it impermissibly gave the President of the United States the power to unilaterally amend or repeal parts of statutes that had been duly passed by the United States Congress.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Cohens v. Virginia,, is a landmark case by the United States Supreme Court most notable for the Court's assertion of its power to review state supreme court decisions in criminal law matters when the defendant claims that their Constitutional rights have been violated.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
Common Cause is a watchdog group based in Washington, D.C. with chapters in 35 states.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
In law, a concurring opinion is in certain legal systems a written opinion by one or more judges of a court which agrees with the decision made by the majority of the court, but states different (or additional) reasons as the basis for his or her decision.
Congressional Quarterly, Inc., or CQ, is part of a privately owned publishing company called CQ Roll Call that produces a number of publications reporting primarily on the United States Congress.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War (including both the Korean War and the Vietnam War).
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Contempt of court, often referred to simply as "contempt", is the offense of being disobedient to or discourteous toward a court of law and its officers in the form of behavior that opposes or defies the authority, justice and dignity of the court.
The Cornell University Library is the library system of Cornell University.
County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim)) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. It is currently one of only two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south.
Dames & Moore v. Regan, was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with President Jimmy Carter's Executive Order 12170, which froze Iranian assets in the United States on November 14, 1979, in response to the Iran hostage crisis which began on November 4, 1979.
David Bryan Sentelle (born February 12, 1943) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
David J. Garrow (born May 11, 1953 in New Bedford, Massachusetts) is an American historian and author of the book ''Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference'' (1986), which won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for Biography.
David Josiah Brewer (June 20, 1837 – March 28, 1910) was an American jurist and an Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court for 20 years.
David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Dean of Harvard Law School is the head of Harvard Law School.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
DeFunis v. Odegaard,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the case had become moot and accordingly declined to render a merits decision on it.
Democratic ideals is an expression used to reflect personal qualities or standards of government behavior that are felt to be essential for the continuation of a democratic policy.
Demography is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering issues related to population and demography.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races.
A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
The District of Columbia Court of Appeals is the highest court of the District of Columbia.
District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home, and that Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban and requirement that lawfully-owned rifles and shotguns be kept "unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock" violated this guarantee.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
With the advice and consent of the United States Senate, the President of the United States appoints the members of the Supreme Court of the United States, which is the highest court of the federal judiciary of the United States.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).
Edward Douglass White Jr. (November 3, 1845 – May 19, 1921), American politician and jurist, was a United States Senator and the ninth Chief Justice of the United States.
Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War.
The Eighth Amendment (Amendment VIII) of the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishments.
The Eighth and Ninth Circuits Act of 1837 was a federal statute which increased the size of the Supreme Court of the United States from seven justices to nine, and which also reorganized the circuit courts of the federal judiciary.
Eisenstadt v. Baird,, is a United States Supreme Court case that established the right of unmarried people to possess contraception on the same basis as married couples.
El Paso (from Spanish, "the pass") is a city in and the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States.
Elena Kagan (pronounced; born April 28, 1960) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, nominated by President Barack Obama in May 10, 2010 and confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 5, 2010.
On May 10, 2010, President Barack Obama announced his selection of Elena Kagan for Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, to replace retiring Justice John Paul Stevens.
The Eleventh Amendment (Amendment XI) to the United States Constitution, which was passed by Congress on March 4, 1794, and ratified by the states on February 7, 1795, deals with each state's sovereign immunity and was adopted to overrule the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Chisholm v. Georgia,.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Engel v. Vitale,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency that administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace discrimination.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Ex parte McCardle,, is a United States Supreme Court decision that examines the extent of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to review decisions of lower courts under federal statutory law.
In the United States, the exclusionary rule is a legal rule, based on constitutional law.
Fairleigh Dickinson University is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian university founded in 1942.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
In the United States, a federal holiday is an authorized holiday which has been recognized by the US government.
The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
In the law of the United States, federal preemption is the invalidation of a U.S. state law that conflicts with federal law.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies, most frequently called the Federalist Society, is an organization of conservatives and libertarians seeking reform of the current American legal system in accordance with a textualist or originalist interpretation of the U.S. Constitution.
Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
A filibuster is a political procedure where one or more members of parliament or congress debate over a proposed piece of legislation so as to delay or entirely prevent a decision being made on the proposal.
FindLaw is a business of Thomson Reuters that provides online legal information and online marketing services for law firms.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti, 435 U.S. 765 (1978),.
The Florida District Courts of Appeal (DCAs) are the intermediate appellate courts of the Florida state court system.
Florida Star v. B.J.F., 491 U.S. 524 (1989), is a United States Supreme Court case involving freedom of the press and privacy rights.
Florida Today is the major daily newspaper serving Brevard County, Florida.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frederick "Fred" Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) was an American Democratic politician who served the United States in all three branches of government.
Furman v. Georgia, was a criminal case in which the United States Supreme Court struck down all death penalty schemes in the United States in a 5–4 decision, with each member of the majority writing a separate opinion.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Alexander Sutherland (March 25, 1862 – July 18, 1942) was an English-born U.S. jurist and politician.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is an American political commentator.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Georgia v. Brailsford,, was an early United States Supreme Court case holding that debts sequestered but not declared forfeit by states during the American Revolution could be recovered by bondholders.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
Gibbons v. Ogden, was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce, granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, encompassed the power to regulate navigation.
Gideon v. Wainwright,, is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history.
Gitlow v. New York,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the reach of certain limitations on federal government authority set forth in the First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states.
Goldwater v. Carter, 444 U.S. 996 (1979), was a United States Supreme Court case which was the result of a lawsuit filed by Senator Barry Goldwater and other members of the United States Congress challenging the right of President Jimmy Carter to unilaterally nullify the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, which the United States had signed with the Republic of China, so that relations could instead be established with the People's Republic of China.
Gonzales v. Carhart,, is a United States Supreme Court case that upheld the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003.
Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430 (1968) was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the freedom of choice plans created to avoid compliance with the Court's mandate in Brown II.
Gregg v. Georgia, Proffitt v. Florida, Jurek v. Texas, Woodson v. North Carolina, and Roberts v. Louisiana,, reaffirmed the United States Supreme Court's acceptance of the use of the death penalty in the United States, upholding, in particular, the death sentence imposed on Troy Leon Gregg.
Griswold v. Connecticut,, is a landmark case in the United States about access to contraception.
The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base,, The Independent, 29 April 2006 also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which is on the coast of Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American political figure, lawyer, and jurist.
Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945) is a Republican lawyer and former White House Counsel to President George W. Bush.
Harry Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908March 4, 1999) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School.
Henry Jacob Friendly (July 3, 1903 – March 11, 1986) was a prominent judge in the United States, who sat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit from 1959 through 1974 (including service as chief judge from 1971 to 1973) and in senior status until his death in 1986.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Horace Gray (March 24, 1828 – September 15, 1902) was an American jurist who ultimately served on the United States Supreme Court.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hugo Lafayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971.
Humphrey's Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935), was a United States Supreme Court case decided during the Franklin Delano Roosevelt presidency, regarding the powers that a President of the United States has to remove certain executive officials of a "quasi-legislative," "quasi-judicial" administrative body created by Congress, for purely political reasons and without the consent of Congress.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Impeachment in the United States is the process by which the lower house of a legislature brings charges against a civil officer of government for crimes alleged to have been committed, analogous to the bringing of an indictment by a grand jury.
In re Gault,, was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that held that juveniles accused of crimes in a delinquency proceeding must be afforded many of the same due process rights as adults, such as the right to timely notification of the charges, the right to confront witnesses, the right against self-incrimination, and the right to counsel.
An in-chambers opinion is an opinion by a single justice or judge of a multi-member appellate court, rendered on an issue that the court's rules or procedures allow a single member of the court to decide.
Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.
Independence Hall is the building where both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted.
The Independent Journal Review is an American conservative news and opinion website based in Alexandria, Virginia.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States.
John Michael Luttig (born June 13, 1954) is an American lawyer and a former United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.
James Iredell (October 5, 1751 – October 20, 1799) was one of the first Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.
James MacGregor Burns (August 3, 1918 in Melrose, MA – July 15, 2014 in Williamstown, MA) was an American historian and political scientist, presidential biographer, and authority on leadership studies.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Jan Crawford is a television journalist, author, and lawyer.
Jeffrey Ross Toobin (born May 21, 1960) is an American lawyer, blogger, author and pundit, and legal analyst for CNN and The New Yorker.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Joan Biskupic (born 1956) is an American journalist, author, and lawyer who has covered the United States Supreme Court since 1989.
John Claggett Danforth (born September 5, 1936) is a retired American politician who began his career in 1968 as the Attorney General of Missouri and served three terms as United States Senator from Missouri.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833October 14, 1911) was an American lawyer and politician who served as an associate justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971.
John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1975 until his retirement in 2010.
John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is an American lawyer who serves as the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States.
The Senate hearings on the nomination of John Roberts to the Supreme Court, began on September 12, 2005, with U.S. Senators posing questions to Roberts, who was nominated by President George W. Bush to fill the vacancy of Chief Justice of the United States.
John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 23, 1800) was the second Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and the first Governor of South Carolina after the Declaration of Independence.
Jon Stevens Corzine (born January 1, 1947) is an American financial executive and former politician.
Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judicial activism refers to judicial rulings that are suspected of being based on personal opinion, rather than on existing law.
The appointment of federal judges for United States federal courts has become viewed as a political process in the last several decades.
The Judicial Circuits Act of 1866 (ch. 210) reorganized the United States circuit courts and provided for the gradual elimination of several seats on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Judicial disqualification, also referred to as recusal, is the act of abstaining from participation in an official action such as a legal proceeding due to a conflict of interest of the presiding court official or administrative officer.
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
Judicial interpretation refers to different ways that the judiciary uses to interpret the law, particularly constitutional documents and legislation.
A judicial opinion is a form of legal opinion written by a judge or a judicial panel in the course of resolving a legal dispute, providing the decision reached to resolve the dispute, and usually indicating the facts which led to the dispute and an analysis of the law used to arrive at the decision.
The Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 (frequently called the "court-packing plan")Epstein, at 451.
Judicial restraint is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
In the United States, judicial review is the ability of a court to examine and decide if a statute, treaty or administrative regulation contradicts or violates the provisions of existing law, a State Constitution, or ultimately the United States Constitution.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch. 20) was a United States federal statute adopted on September 24, 1789, in the first session of the First United States Congress.
The United States Judiciary Act of 1802 (2 Stat.) was a Federal statute, enacted on April 29, 1802, to reorganize the federal court system.
The Judiciary Act of 1869 (16 Stat.), also called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, is a United States statute that stipulated that the makeup of the United States Supreme Court would consist of the Chief Justice and eight associate justices, any six of whom would constitute a quorum.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Justiciability concerns the limits upon legal issues over which a court can exercise its judicial authority.
Kansas v. Colorado is a longstanding litigation before the Supreme Court of the United States between two states of the United States, Kansas and Colorado.
Kelo v. City of New London, 545 U.S. 469 (2005),.
Kevin R. Constantine Gutzman (born May 20, 1963) is an American constitutional scholar and historian.
Korematsu v. United States,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
"Laboratories of democracy" is a phrase popularized by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis in New State Ice Co. v. Liebmann to describe how a "state may, if its citizens choose, serve as a laboratory; and try novel social and economic experiments without risk to the rest of the country." Brandeis was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
Larry Joseph Sabato (born August 7, 1952) is an American political scientist and political analyst.
Latino is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin America, in contrast to Hispanic which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.
A law library is a special library used by law students, lawyers, judges and their law clerks, historians and other scholars of legal history in order to research the law.
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.
A law review (or law journal) is a scholarly journal focusing on legal issues.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
Lawrence v. Texas,.
The United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers' Edition, or Lawyers' Edition (L. Ed. and L. Ed. 2d in case citations) is an unofficial reporter of Supreme Court of the United States opinions.
Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.,, is an employment discrimination decision of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Legal Information Institute (LII) is a non-profit, public service of Cornell Law School that provides no-cost access to current American and international legal research sources online at.
In law, a legal opinion is in certain jurisdictions a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an order or ruling in a case, laying out the rationale and legal principles for the ruling.
Legal research is "the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support legal decision-making.
Lemon v. Kurtzman.
Leonard I. Garth (April 7, 1921 – September 22, 2016) was a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.
Lewes is the county town of East Sussex and formerly all of Sussex.
Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (September 19, 1907 – August 25, 1998) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1971 to 1987.
LexisNexis Group is a corporation providing computer-assisted legal research as well as business research and risk management services.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A life tenure or service during good behaviour is a term of office that lasts for the office holder's lifetime (in some cases subject to mandatory retirement at a specified age), unless the office holder is removed from office for cause under extraordinary circumstances or chooses to resign.
The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 is a federal statute in the United States that was the first bill signed into law by US President Barack Obama on January 29, 2009.
The line-item veto, or partial veto, is a special form of veto that authorizes a chief executive to reject particular provisions of a bill enacted by a legislature without vetoing the entire bill.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States.
Law clerks have assisted the Supreme Court Justices in various capacities, since the first one was hired by Justice Horace Gray in 1882.
The Constitution does not require that any federal judges have any particular educational or career background, but the work of the Court involved complex questions of law – ranging from constitutional law to administrative law to admiralty law – and consequentially, a legal education has become a de facto prerequisite to appointment on the Supreme Court.
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.
A total of 113 Justices have served on the Supreme Court of the United States, the highest judicial body in the United States, since it was established in 1789.
This page serves as an index of lists of United States Supreme Court cases.
Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
The Lochner era is a period in American legal history from 1897 to 1937 in which the Supreme Court of the United States is said to have made it a common practice "to strike down economic regulations adopted by a State based on the Court's own notions of the most appropriate means for the State to implement its considered policies," by using its interpretation of substantive due process to strike down laws held to be infringing on economic liberty or private contract rights.
Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905), was a landmark U.S. labor law case in the US Supreme Court, holding that limits to working time violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Helen Lucile Lomen (August 21, 1920 – June 21, 1996) was the first woman to serve as a law clerk for a Supreme Court justice.
Lyle Denniston (born March 16, 1931) is an American legal journalist, professor, and author, who has reported on the Supreme Court of the United States since 1958.
In 1906, a young African American man named Ed Johnson was murdered by a lynch mob in his home town of Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Mandamus (Latin "we command") is a judicial remedy in the form of an order from a superior court, to any government, subordinate court, corporation, or public authority, to do (or forbear from doing) some specific act which that body is obliged under law to do (or refrain from doing), and which is in the nature of public duty, and in certain cases one of a statutory duty.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Mapp v. Ohio,, was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law.
Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.
Civil status, or marital status, is any of several distinct options that describe a person's relationship with a significant other.
Mark Reed Levin (born September 21, 1957) is an American lawyer, author, and radio personality.
Mark Victor Tushnet (born November 18, 1945) is a leading scholar of constitutional law and legal history, and currently the William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Law at Harvard Law School.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case decided on March 20, 1816.
Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency,,. is a 5-4 U.S. Supreme Court case in which twelve states and several cities of the United States brought suit against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to force that federal agency to regulate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) as pollutants.
McCulloch v. Maryland,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. (2010), is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that found that the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" as protected under the Second Amendment is incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment against the states.
Medium is an online publishing platform developed by Evan Williams, and launched in August 2012.
Melbourne is a city in Brevard County, Florida, United States.
Melrose is a city located in the Greater Boston metropolitan area in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Melville Weston Fuller (February 11, 1833 – July 4, 1910) was a politician, lawyer, and judge from Illinois.
Merrick Brian Garland (born November 13, 1952) is the Chief United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
Following the February 2016 death of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Antonin Scalia, President Barack Obama nominated Merrick Garland to fill Scalia's seat on the Supreme Court on March 16, 2016.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The Midnight Judges Act (also known as the Judiciary Act of 1801;, and officially An act to provide for the more convenient organization of the Courts of the United States) represented an effort to solve an issue in the U.S. Supreme Court during the early 19th century.
Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874) was the 13th President of the United States (1850–1853), the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House.
Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973),.
Minersville School District v. Gobitis,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States involving the religious rights of public school students under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Minor v. Happersett,, is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the Constitution did not grant anyone, and in this case specifically a female citizen of the state of Missouri, a right to vote even when a state law granted rights to vote to a certain class of citizens.
Miranda v. Arizona,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
The Office of the Missouri Attorney General was created in 1806 when Missouri was part of the Louisiana Territory.
Moderate is a general term for people who fall in the center category of the left–right political spectrum.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
Moot court is an extracurricular activity at many law schools in which participants take part in simulated court or arbitration proceedings, usually involving drafting memorials or memoranda and participating in oral argument.
Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was an attorney, judge, and politician from Ohio.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.
Neil McGill Gorsuch (born August 29, 1967) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Jersey v. Delaware,, is a United States Supreme Court case in which New Jersey sued Delaware, invoking the Supreme Court's original jurisdiction under (a), following Delaware's denial of oil company BP's petition to build a liquefied natural gas pipeline and loading facility on the New Jersey side of the Delaware River.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New York Times Co.
New York Times Co.
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.
The Nixon White House tapes are audio recordings of conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and Nixon administration officials, Nixon family members, and White House staff, produced between 1971 and 1973.
National Labor Relations Board v. Noel Canning,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court unanimously ruled that the President of the United States cannot use his or her authority under the Recess Appointment Clause of the United States Constitution to appoint public officials unless the United States Senate is in recess and not able to transact Senate business.
In law, nonacquiescence is the intentional failure by one branch of the government to comply with the decision of another to some degree.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Obergefell v. Hodges,, is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in a 5–4 decision that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Old City Hall located at Chestnut Street at 5th Street in the Independence Hall complex of Independence National Historical Park in Center City, Philadelphia, was built in 1790–91 in the Federal style.
Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807) was an American lawyer, judge, politician, and diplomat.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.
Oregon v. Mitchell, was a Supreme Court case which held that the United States Congress could set voting age requirements for federal elections but not for local or state elections.
The original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Oyez Project at the Illinois Institute of Technology's Chicago-Kent College of Law is an unofficial online multimedia archive of the Supreme Court of the United States, especially audio of oral arguments.
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No.
Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American paleoconservative political commentator, author, syndicated columnist, politician, and broadcaster.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often shortened to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.
Paul Finkelman (born November 15, 1949, in Brooklyn, New York) is an American legal historian, and became the President of Gratz College, Melrose Park, PA in 2017.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
In law, a per curiam decision (or opinion) is a ruling issued by an appellate court of multiple judges in which the decision rendered is made by the court (or at least, a majority of the court) acting collectively (and typically, though not necessarily, unanimously).
Peter H. Irons (born August 11, 1940) is an American political activist, civil rights attorney, legal scholar, and professor emeritus of political science.
A petitioner is a person who pleads with governmental institution for a legal remedy or a redress of grievances, through use of a petition.
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
Phyllis McAlpin Schlafly (née Stewart; August 15, 1924 – September 5, 2016) was an American constitutional lawyer and conservative political activist.
Pin Point is an unincorporated community in Chatham County, Georgia, United States; it is located southeast of Savannah.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state statutory provisions regarding abortion was challenged.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
In American Constitutional law, the political question doctrine is closely linked to the concept of justiciability, as it comes down to a question of whether or not the court system is an appropriate forum in which to hear the case.
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Company,, affirmed on rehearing,, with a ruling of 5–4, was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the unapportioned income taxes on interest, dividends and rents imposed by the Income Tax Act of 1894 were, in effect, direct taxes, and were unconstitutional because they violated the provision that direct taxes be apportioned.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court in the United States and the only court specifically established by the Constitution of the United States, implemented in 1789.
A public defender is an attorney appointed to represent people who cannot afford to hire one.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
In the United States, a recess appointment is an appointment by the President of a federal official when the U.S. Senate is in recess.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke,, was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
In politics, regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the national or normative interests of a particular region, group of regions or another subnational entity.
The Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States is the official charged with editing and publishing the opinions of the Supreme Court of the United States, both when announced and when they are published in permanent bound volumes of the United States Reports. The Reporter of Decisions is responsible for only the contents of the United States Reports issued by the Government Printing Office, first in preliminary prints and later in the final bound volumes.
A resignation is the formal act of giving up or quitting one's office or position.
Retirement is the withdrawal from one's position or occupation or from one's active working life.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Reynolds v. Sims, was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that unlike in the election of the United States Senate, in the election of any chamber of a state legislature the electoral districts must be roughly equal in population (thus negating the traditional function of a State Senate, which was to allow rural counties to counterbalance large towns and cities).
Richard Allen Epstein (born April 17, 1943) is an American legal scholar best known for his writings and studies on classical liberalism, libertarianism, torts, contracts, and a wide variety of topics in law and economics.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Heron Bork (March 1, 1927 – December 19, 2012) was an American judge, government official, and legal scholar who advocated the judicial philosophy of originalism.
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was an American attorney and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1946) is an American political commentator, professor, and author.
The Roberts Court is the time since 2005 during which the Supreme Court of the United States has been led by Chief Justice John Roberts.
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions.
Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Royal Exchange building in New York City, later known as the "Old Royal Exchange" and the Merchants Exchange was a covered marketplace located near the foot of Broad Street, near its intersection with Water Street.
The rule of four is a Supreme Court of the United States practice that permits four of the nine justices to grant a writ of certiorari.
The Running of the Interns is a Washington, DC, tradition, sometimes called a race, that involves interns of news outlets running to deliver results of major decisions by the Supreme Court of the United States to the press.
Ruth Bader Ginsburg (born Joan Ruth Bader; March 15, 1933) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County.
Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808May 7, 1873) was a U.S. politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Same-sex marriage in the United States was initially established on a state-by-state basis, expanding from 1 state in 2004 to 36 states in 2015, when, on June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was established in all 50 states as a result of the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges, in which it was held that the right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. (born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
On October 31, 2005, Samuel Alito was nominated by President George W. Bush for Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to replace the retiring Sandra Day O'Connor.
Samuel Chase (April 17, 1741 – June 19, 1811) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, having served from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until 2006.
Sanford Victor Levinson (born June 17, 1941) is an American legal scholar, best known for his writings on constitutional law and as a professor at the University of Texas Law School.
A school voucher, also called an education voucher, in a voucher system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by the student or the student's parents.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scott Armstrong is the current director of Information Trust, a former journalist for The Washington Post, and founder of the National Security Archive.
SCOTUSblog is a law blog written by lawyers, law professors, and law students about the Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes abbreviated "SCOTUS").
The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights.
A Segal–Cover score is an attempt to measure the "perceived qualifications and ideology" of United States Supreme Court justices.
Arver v. United States,, also known as the Selective Draft Law Cases, was a United States Supreme Court decision which upheld the Selective Service Act of 1917, and more generally, upheld conscription in the United States.
Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida,, was a United States Supreme Court case which held that Article One of the U.S. Constitution did not give the United States Congress the power to abrogate the sovereign immunity of the states that is further protected under the Eleventh Amendment.
Senior status is a form of semi-retirement for United States federal judges and judges in some state court systems.
Seniority is the concept of a person or group of people taking precedence over another person or group because the former is either older than the latter or has occupied a particular position longer than the latter.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted during the Reconstruction Era, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
In law, seriatim (Latin for "in series") indicates that a court is addressing multiple issues in a certain order, such as the order in which the issues were originally presented to the court.
The Seventh Circuit Act of 1807 (formally, "An Act establishing Circuit Courts, and abridging the jurisdiction of the district courts in the districts of Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio",; 9th Congress, ch. 16; enacted February 24, 1807) was a federal statute which increased the size of the Supreme Court of the United States from six Justices to seven, and which also reorganized the circuit courts of the federal judiciary.
Shelby County v. Holder,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court case regarding the constitutionality of two provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965: Section 5, which requires certain states and local governments to obtain federal preclearance before implementing any changes to their voting laws or practices; and Section 4(b), which contains the coverage formula that determines which jurisdictions are subjected to preclearance based on their histories of discrimination in voting.
Sheldon v. Sill,, is a ruling by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that Congress may restrict the jurisdiction of the lower federal courts by limiting the subjects those courts may hear, even if those subjects fall within the federal judicial power defined by the United States Constitution.
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
The United States Solicitor General is the fourth-highest-ranking official in the U.S. Department of Justice.
Sonia Maria Sotomayor (born June 25, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed by President Barack Obama in May 2009 and confirmed in August 2009.
On May 26, 2009, President Barack Obama announced his selection of Judge Sonia Sotomayor for Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, to replace retiring Justice David Souter.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
In the law of the United States, a special master is generally a subordinate official appointed by a judge to make sure that judicial orders are actually followed, or in the alternative, to hear evidence on behalf of the judge and make recommendations to the judge as to the disposition of a matter.
Standard Oil Co.
The state attorney general in each of the 50 U.S. states and territories is the chief legal advisor to the state government and the state's chief law enforcement officer.
In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state, as opposed to the federal government.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
In the United States, a state supreme court (known by other names in some states) is the ultimate judicial tribunal in the court system of a particular state (i.e., that state's court of last resort).
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Stetson University College of Law, founded in 1900 and part of Stetson University, is Florida's first law school.
Substantive due process, in United States constitutional law, is a principle allowing courts to protect certain fundamental rights from government interference, even if procedural protections are present or the rights are not specifically mentioned elsewhere in the US Constitution.
In law, a summary judgment (also judgment as a matter of law) is a judgment entered by a court for one party and against another party summarily, i.e., without a full trial.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
The Supreme Court Historical Society is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving and communicating the history of the U.S. Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court of Florida is the highest court in the U.S. state of Florida.
The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico —Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico (TSPR)— is the highest court of Puerto Rico, having judicial authority to interpret and decide questions of Puerto Rican law.
The Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands is the highest court in the territory of the United States Virgin Islands.
The Supreme Court of the United States Police is a small U.S. federal law enforcement agency headquartered in the District of Columbia, whose mission is to ensure the integrity of the constitutional mission of the U.S. Supreme Court by protecting the Supreme Court building, the Justices, employees, guests, and visitors.
A swing vote is a vote that is seen as potentially going to any of a number of candidates in an election, or, in a two-party system, may go to either of the two dominant political parties.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.
The Tenth Circuit Act of 1863 was a federal statute which increased the size of the Supreme Court of the United States from nine justices to ten, and which also reorganized the circuit courts of the federal judiciary.
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office.
The American Spectator is a conservative U.S. monthly magazine covering news and politics, edited by R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr. and published by the non-profit American Spectator Foundation.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court is a 1979 book by Bob Woodward and Scott Armstrong.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The Green Bag: An Entertaining Journal of Law (second series) is a quarterly legal journal dedicated to publishing "good writing" about the law.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The National Law Journal, a U.S. periodical founded in 1978 by Jerry Finkelstein, as a "sibling newspaper" of the New York Law Journal, that itself was founded in 1888.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court is a 2007 non-fiction book by legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin.
The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.
"The switch in time that saved nine" is the name given to what was perceived as the sudden jurisprudential shift by Associate Justice Owen Roberts of the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1937 case West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish.
The Telephone Cases were a series of U.S. court cases in the 1870s and 1880s related to the invention of the telephone, which culminated in the 1888 decision of the United States Supreme Court upholding the priority of the patents belonging to Alexander Graham Bell.
The Times is a daily newspaper owned by Advance Publications that serves Trenton and the Mercer County, New Jersey area, with a strong focus on the government of New Jersey.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.
Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Thomas C. Goldstein, known as simply Tom Goldstein, is an American attorney known for his advocacy before and blogging about the Supreme Court of the United States.
Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Twenty-sixth Amendment (Amendment XXVI) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Many of the divisions and offices of the United States Department of Justice are headed by an Assistant Attorney General.
The Associate Attorney General of the United States is the third-ranking official in the U.S. Department of Justice.
United States Attorneys (also known as chief federal prosecutors and, historically, as United States District Attorneys) represent the United States federal government in United States district courts and United States courts of appeals.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Capitol Police (USCP) is a federal law enforcement agency charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (in case citations, C.A.A.F. or USCAAF) is an Article I court that exercises worldwide appellate jurisdiction over members of the United States Armed Forces on active duty and other persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (in case citations, D.C. Cir.) known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit (in case citations, 8th Cir.) is a United States federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (in case citations, 11th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Federal Circuit; in case citations, Fed. Cir. or C.A.F.C.) is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D.C. The court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (in case citations, 5th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following federal judicial districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (in case citations, 1st Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (in case citations, 4th Cir.) is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia, with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (in case citations, 7th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (in case citations, 6th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (in case citations, 10th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (in case citations, 3d Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts for the following districts.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (in case citations, S.D.N.Y.) is a federal district court.
The Domestic Policy Council (DPC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering domestic policy matters, excluding economic matters, which are the domain of the National Economic Council.
The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a federal law-enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Justice.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States Reports are the official record (law reports) of the rulings, orders, case tables (list of every case decided, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner (the losing party in lower courts) and by the name of the respondent (the prevailing party below)), and other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 21 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation.
The Supreme Court Building is the seat of the Supreme Court of the United States and the Judicial Branch thereof.
United States v. Alcoa, 148 F.2d 416 (2d Cir. 1945), is a landmark decision concerning United States antitrust law.
United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936), was a U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the U.S. Congresss power to lay taxes is not limited only to the level necessary to carry out its other powers enumerated in Article I of the U.S. Constitution, but is a broad authority to tax and spend for the "general welfare" of the United States.
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp., 299 U.S. 304 (1936),.
United States v. Darby Lumber Co.,., was a case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, holding that the U.S. Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to regulate employment conditions.
United States v. Klein,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case stemming from the American Civil War (1861–1865).
United States v. Alfonso D. Lopez, Jr., was the first United States Supreme Court case since the New Deal to set limits to Congress' power under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case which resulted in a unanimous decision against President Richard Nixon, ordering him to deliver tape recordings and other subpoenaed materials to a federal district court.
United States v. Shipp, 203 U.S. 563 (1906),.
United States v. Texas,, is a United States Supreme Court case regarding the constitutionality of the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans (DAPA) program.
United States v. Virginia,, is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down the long-standing male-only admission policy of the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in a 7–1 decision. (Justice Clarence Thomas, whose son was enrolled at VMI at the time, recused himself.).
United States v. Windsor, (Docket No.), is a landmark civil rights case in which the United States Supreme Court held that restricting U.S. federal interpretation of "marriage" and "spouse" to apply only to opposite-sex unions, by Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), is unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are nominated by the President and are then confirmed by the Senate.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
Virginia v. Tennessee, 148 U.S. 503 (1893), was a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, which had two questions: (1) What is the correct boundary between the two states and, if the boundary was inaccurately set, can the state ask the court to change it? (2) Does an agreement setting the boundary between two states require approval of Congress under the Compact Clause of the Constitution of the United States? When two states have a controversy between each other, the case is filed for original jurisdiction with the United States Supreme Court.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
Ware v. Hylton, 3 U.S. (3 Dall.) 199 (1796) is a United States Supreme Court case where a divided court ruled that an article in the Treaty of Paris, which provided that creditors on both sides should meet no lawful impediment when recovering bona fide debts, took precedence and overruled a Virginia law passed during the American Revolution which had nullified such debts.
Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1986.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West (also known by its original name, West Publishing) is a business owned by Thomson Reuters that publishes legal, business, and regulatory information in print, and on electronic services such as Westlaw.
West Coast Hotel Co.
West v. Barnes,, was the first United States Supreme Court decision and the earliest case calling for oral argument.
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette,, is a decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment protects students from being forced to salute the American flag or say the Pledge of Allegiance in public school.
The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States whose role is to advise the President on all legal issues concerning the President and his Administration.
Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (1942), was a United States Supreme Court decision that dramatically increased the regulatory power of the federal government.
Wiley Blount Rutledge Jr. (July 20, 1894 – September 10, 1949) was an American educator and justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1943–49).
William Holcombe Pryor Jr. (born April 26, 1962) is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit and a Commissioner of the United States Sentencing Commission.
William Henry Harrison Sr. (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military officer, a principal contributor in the War of 1812, and the ninth President of the United States (1841).
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
William Paterson (December 24, 1745 – September 9, 1806) was a New Jersey statesman and a signer of the United States Constitution.
William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.
William Thaddeus "Bill" Coleman Jr. (July 7, 1920 – March 31, 2017) was an American attorney and politician.
Willis Van Devanter (April 17, 1859 – February 8, 1941) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 3, 1911, to June 2, 1937.
Worcester v. Georgia,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A writ of prohibition is a writ directing a subordinate to stop doing something the law prohibits.
Wyeth v. Levine, 555 U.S. 555 (2009), is a United States Supreme Court case holding that Federal regulatory clearance of a medication does not shield the manufacturer from liability under state law.
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris,, was a 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court that upheld an Ohio program that used school vouchers.
The 2009 term of the Supreme Court of the United States began October 5, 2009 and concluded October 3, 2010.
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