77 relations: Aerospace Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Ahmad Azari Qomi, Ali Khamenei, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Assembly of Experts, Basij, Chief Justice of Iran, Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Democracy, Elections in Iran, Executive (government), Expediency Discernment Council, Faqīh, Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs, Francis Fukuyama, Ground Forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Guardian Council, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, Guilt (law), Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Iran, Iranian constitutional referendum, 1989, Iranian Revolution, Iranian Supreme Leader election, 1989, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Defense Force, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Judicial system of Iran, Judiciary, Jumu'ah, Khomeyn, Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Legislature, Leon Trotsky, Life tenure, List of heads of state of Iran, List of monarchs of Persia, Marja', Markazi Province, Mashhad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, October Revolution, Office of the Supreme Leader of Iran, ..., Persian language, President of Iran, Quds Force, Razavi Khorasan Province, Referendum, Resignation, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sayyid, Sharia, Shia Islam, Special Clerical Court, Succession of Ali Khamenei, Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, Supreme Court of Iran, Supreme leader, Supreme National Security Council, Tehran, The Wall Street Journal, Theocracy, Twelver, Ulama, University of Bern, Usuli, Veto, Vladimir Lenin, Yann Richard, 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
The Aerospace Force of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (AFAGIR), known in the United States as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Aerospace Force (IRGC AF), is the air force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).
Grand Ayatollah Ahmad Azari-Qomi-Bigdeli (1925–1999) was an Iranian cleric.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).
The Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari) —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
The Chief Justice of Iran is the head of the Judicial system of Iran (Head of Judiciary) and is responsible for its administration and supervision.
Farmandeye Koll-e Qova (فرمانده کل قوا), formerly known as Bozorg Arteshtaran (بزرگارتشتاران), is the supreme commanding authority of all the Armed Forces of Iran and the highest possible military position within the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Iran elects on national level a head of state and head of government (the president), a legislature (the Majlis), and an "Assembly of Experts" (which elects the Supreme Leader).
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
The Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans (بنیاد شهید و امور ایثارگران), Affairs is an Iranian foundation that receives its funding directly from the national budget.
Yoshihiro Francis "Frank" Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author.
The Ground Forces of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, acronymed NEZSA (نزسا), are the force which the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, also known as Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), maintain in parallel to the regular army of Iran.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist (ولایت فقیه, Vilayat-e Faqih; ولاية الفقيه, Wilayat al-Faqih), is a post-Age-of-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh (Islamic jurist) custodianship over people.
In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 28 July 1989, alongside presidential elections.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Supreme Leader of Iran election, 1989 was an indirect election where the Assembly of Experts members voted to choose the second Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
Velayat-e faqih (ولایت فقیه, velāyat-e faqīh), also known as Islamic Government (حکومت اسلامی, Hokumat-i Eslami), is a book by the Iranian Muslim cleric, faqīh, and revolutionary Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of theocratic rule.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Khatam al-Anbia Air Defense Base (قرارگاه پدافند هوایی خاتم الانبياء ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is a branch split from IRIAF and part of Islamic Republic of Iran Army that controls Iran's military land-based air defense.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF; نیروی هوایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the aviation branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.
The Navy of Islamic Republic of Iran Army (نیروی دریایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) acronymed NEDAJA (نداجا), is the naval warfare service branch of Iran's regular military, the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (''Artesh'').
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Jumu'ah (صلاة الجمعة, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah, "Friday prayer"), is a congregational prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer.
Khomeyn (خمين, also Romanized as Khomeīn, Khowmeyn, and Khūmaīn) is a city and capital of Khomeyn County, Markazi Province, Iran.
The Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran or Disciplinary Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نیروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران Nīrū-ye entezāmī-ye jomhūrī-ye eslāmī-ye Īrān), abbreviated as NAJA (ناجا) is the uniformed police force in Iran.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
A life tenure or service during good behaviour is a term of office that lasts for the office holder's lifetime (in some cases subject to mandatory retirement at a specified age), unless the office holder is removed from office for cause under extraordinary circumstances or chooses to resign.
This article lists the heads of state of Iran since establishment of the Iran's modern Nation-State on 1501 AD.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics.
Markazi Province (fa, Ostān-e Markazi) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
The Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) or Revolutionary Guards' Navy (نیروی دریایی سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی), acronym NEDSA (ندسا), consists of 20,000 men and 1,500 boats and fast attack boats separate from the regular Navy of ''Artesh'' assuming control over Iranian maritime operations in the Persian Gulf.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The House of Leadership (بیت رهبری, Beit-e Rahbari; official name: Office of the Supreme Leader of Iran (دفتر مقام معظم رهبری); Daftar-e Magham-e Moazzam-e Rahbari) is the official residence, bureaucratic office and principal workplace of the Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Quds Force (سپاه قدس sepāh-e qods) is a special forces unit of Iran's Revolutionary Guards responsible for their extraterritorial operations.
Razavi Khorasan Province (استان خراسان رضوی, Ostâne Xorâsâne Razavi) is a province located in northeastern Iran.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
A resignation is the formal act of giving up or quitting one's office or position.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Special Clerical Court, or Special Court for Clerics (دادگاه ویژه روحانیت) is an Iranian court system for examining transgressions within the clerical establishment.
The succession of Ali Khamenei, the current Supreme Leader of Iran, has been a taboo in Iran.
Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution (SCRC; شورای عالی انقلاب فرهنگی, also translated the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council) is a conservative-dominated body based in Qom, was set up at the time of Ayatollah Khomeini.
The Supreme Court of Iran, consisting of the most prominent judges of the country, is the highest juridical authority in Iran, established to supervise the correct implementation of laws by courts of justice, to ensure uniformity of judicial procedure and to carry out the legal responsibilities being assigned to it based on the criteria determined by the head of the judiciary.
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.
Supreme National Security Council (SNSC; شورای عالی امنیت ملی Showrāye Āliye Amniyate Mellī) is the national security council of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the current secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of which is Rear Admiral Upper Half Ali Shamkhani.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The University of Bern (Universität Bern, Université de Berne, Universitas Bernensis) is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834.
Usulis (الاصولية) are the majority Twelver Shi'a Muslim group.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Yann Richard, born in 1948 in Joncy (Saône-et-Loire), is a French specialist of religious sociology of modern chiism, history of contemporary Iran as well as persian literature.
The 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners was a series of state-sponsored execution of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting for approximately five months.
Iran's Supreme Leader, Islamic Repbulic Leader, Leader of Iran, List of Supreme Leaders of Iran, List of Supreme Leaders of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Maghame Rahbari, Office of the Supreme Leader, Rahbar, Rahbare Enqelab, Suprem leader, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, Supreme leader of Iran, Supreme leader of iran, The Office of the Supreme Leader, The Supreme Guide, رهبر انقلاب, مقام رهبری.