132 relations: Aegis Combat System, AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-78 Standard ARM, Air force, Air supremacy, Aircraft, Albert Speer, Altitude, AN/MPQ-49 Forward Area Alerting Radar, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-ship missile, Arado Ar 234, Attack helicopter, BAC TSR-2, Bachem Ba 349, Battle of Okinawa, Beam riding, Bell Labs, Berlin, Bloodhound (missile), Blowpipe (missile), Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Bofors 40 mm gun, Bomber, Brakemine, CIM-10 Bomarc, Cold War, Combined Bomber Offensive, Command guidance, Crotale (missile), Cruise missile, Data link, David's Sling, Enzian, Fairey Stooge, Federation of American Scientists, Feuerlilie, Fighter aircraft, FIM-43 Redeye, FIM-92 Stinger, Fliegerfaust, FN-6, Fritz X, Gama Goat, General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, Glide bomb, Hanoi, Henschel Hs 117, ..., Henschel Hs 293, Holman Projector, Identification friend or foe, Infrared homing, Joseph Stalin, Kamikaze, Kirov-class battlecruiser, Laser, List of anti-aircraft weapons, List of missiles, List of NATO reporting names for surface-to-air missiles, List of surface-to-air missiles, Man-portable air-defense system, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, MIM-104 Patriot, MIM-23 Hawk, MIM-3 Nike Ajax, MIM-46 Mauler, MIM-72 Chaparral, Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany), Missile, Missile guidance, Moscow, Nike Hercules, North Vietnam, Operation Bumblebee, Operation Iron Hand, Operation Linebacker II, Panavia Tornado, Peenemünde, Philippines Campaign (1944–1945), Project Nike, Projectile, Projectile motion, Radar, Radio control, Rapier (missile), Rheinmetall Air Defence, Rheintochter, RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile, RIM-174 Standard ERAM, RIM-7 Sea Sparrow, RIM-8 Talos, Roland (missile), RSD 58, S-25 Berkut, S-300 missile system, S-400 missile system, S-75 Dvina, SAM-N-2 Lark, Sea skimming, Seacat (missile), Seaslug (missile), Semi-active radar homing, Solid-propellant rocket, Soviet Union, Starstreak, Strategic bomber, Strategic bombing, Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses, Taifun (rocket), Terminal guidance, Thunderbird (missile), Ticonderoga-class cruiser, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Army Air Forces, United States Navy, Vadim Shcherbakov, Walter Dornberger, Walther von Axthelm, Warship, Wasserfall, Wernher von Braun, Wild Weasel, World War II, Z Battery, 2K12 Kub, 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41, 9K32 Strela-2, 9K33 Osa, 9K34 Strela-3. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin.
AGM-45 Shrike is an American anti-radiation missile designed to home in on hostile anti-aircraft radar.
The AGM-78 Standard ARM was an anti-radiation missile developed by General Dynamics, United States.
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
The AN/MPQ-49 Forward Area Alerting Radar (FAAR) is a lightweight early warning radar system consisting of the AN/TPQ-43 radar, AN/TPX-50 Mark XII IFF receiver, a 5 kW generator set, and a Gama Goat providing mobility.
The Avenger Air Defense System, designated AN/TWQ-1 under the Joint Electronics Type Designation System, is an American self-propelled surface-to-air missile system which provides mobile, short-range air defense protection for ground units against cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, low-flying fixed-wing aircraft, and helicopters.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats.
The Arado Ar 234 Blitz (English: lightning) was the world's first operational jet-powered bomber, built by the German Arado company in the closing stages of World War II.
An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.
The British Aircraft Corporation TSR-2 was a cancelled Cold War strike and reconnaissance aircraft developed by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) for the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
The Bachem Ba 349 Natter (Colubrid, grass-snake) was a World War II German point-defence rocket-powered interceptor, which was to be used in a very similar way to a manned surface-to-air missile.
The (Uchinaa ikusa), codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army.
Beam-riding, also known as Line-Of-Sight Beam Riding (LOSBR) or beam guidance, is a technique of directing a missile to its target by means of radar or a laser beam.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Bristol Bloodhound is a British surface-to-air missile developed during the 1950s as the UK's main air defence weapon, and was in large-scale service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the forces of four other countries.
The Shorts Blowpipe is a man-portable surface-to-air missile that was in use with the British Army and Royal Marines from 1975.
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC).
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
Brakemine was an early surface-to-air missile (SAM) development project carried out in the United Kingdom during World War II.
The Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc (IM-99 Weapon System prior to September 1962) was a supersonic long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) used during the Cold War for the air defense of North America.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO) was an Anglo-American offensive of strategic bombing during World War II in Europe.
Command guidance is a type of missile guidance in which a ground station or aircraft relay signals to a guided missile via radio control or through a wire connecting the missile to the launcher and tell the missile where to steer in order to intercept its target.
The Crotale EDIR (Ecartométrie Différentielle InfraRouge, "InfraRed Differential Ecartometry") is an all-weather short-range anti-air missile, which can be used to intercept low-flight anti-ship missiles and aircraft.
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
In telecommunication a data link is the means of connecting one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving digital information.
David's Sling (Kelah Da'vid), also formerly known as Magic Wand (Sharvit Ksamim), is an Israel Defense Forces military system being jointly developed by the Israeli defense contractor Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and the American defense contractor Raytheon, designed to intercept enemy planes, drones, tactical ballistic missiles, medium- to long-range rockets and cruise missiles, fired at ranges from 40 km (24.85 miles) to 300 km (186.41 miles) with speeds of up to mach 7.5.
The Enzian (named for a genus of mountain flower, in English the Gentian) was a German WWII surface-to-air anti-aircraft missile that was the first to use a radio controlled guidance system.
The Fairey Aviation Stooge was a command guided surface-to-air missile (SAM) development project carried out in the United Kingdom starting in World War II.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Feuerlilie (English: fire lily) was the code name of a German anti-aircraft missile, which was developed in 1940 and was shelved because of problems with the controller and the drive section at the end of January 1945 in favour of other projects.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The General Dynamics FIM-43 Redeye was a man-portable surface-to-air missile system.
The FIM-92 Stinger is a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) that operates as an infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM).
The Fliegerfaust (lit. "pilot fist" or "plane fist"), also known as the "Luftfaust" (lit. "air fist"), was a German prototype of an unguided, man-portable, and multi-barreled ground-to-air rocket launcher, designed to destroy enemy ground attack planes.
FN-6 or Feinu-6 is a third generation passive infrared homing (IR) man portable air defence system (MANPADS).
Fritz X was the most common name for a German guided anti-ship glide bomb used during World War II.
The Gama Goat was a six-wheel drive semi-amphibious off-road vehicle originally developed for use by the US military in the Vietnam War.
The General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark was a supersonic, medium-range interdictor and tactical attack aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic nuclear bomber, aerial reconnaissance, and electronic-warfare aircraft in its various versions.
A glide bomb or stand-off bomb is a standoff weapon with flight control surfaces to give it a flatter, gliding flight path than that of a conventional bomb without such surfaces.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
The Henschel Hs 117 Schmetterling (German for Butterfly) was a radio-guided German surface-to-air missile project developed during World War II.
The Henschel Hs 293 was a World War II German anti-ship guided missile: a radio controlled glide bomb with a rocket engine slung underneath it.
The Holman Projector was an anti-aircraft weapon used by the Royal Navy during World War II, primarily between early 1940 and late 1941.
Identification, friend or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for command and control.
Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.
The Kirov-class battlecruiser is a class of nuclear-powered warship of the Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
List of antiaircraft weapons.
Below is a list of missiles, sorted alphabetically by name.
NATO reporting name for SA series surface-to-air missiles, with Soviet designations.
This is a list of surface-to-air missiles (SAMs).
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was a German rocket-powered interceptor aircraft.
The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations.
The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk is an American medium-range surface-to-air missile.
The United States Army's Nike Ajax was the world's first operational surface-to-air missile (SAM), entering service in 1954.
The General Dynamics MIM-46 Mauler was a self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system designed to a late 1950s US Army requirement for a system to combat low-flying high-performance tactical fighters and short-range ballistic missiles.
The MIM-72A/M48 Chaparral was an American self-propelled surface-to-air missile system based on the AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile system.
The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938 The Ministry of Aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium), abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany (1933–45).
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Nike Hercules, initially designated SAM-A-25 and later MIM-14, was a surface-to-air missile (SAM) used by U.S. and NATO armed forces for medium- and high-altitude long-range air defense.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Operation Bumblebee was a US Navy effort to develop surface to air missiles (SAMs) to provide a mid-range layer of anti-aircraft defence, between anti-aircraft guns in the short range and fighter aircraft operating at long range.
Operation Iron Hand was a joint United States Air Force and Navy operation conducted from 1965 to 1973 during the Vietnam War.
Operation Linebacker II was a US Seventh Air Force and US Navy Task Force 77 aerial bombing campaign, conducted against targets in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) during the final period of US involvement in the Vietnam War.
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing multirole combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany.
Peenemünde ("Peene Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The Philippines campaign, the Battle of the Philippines or the Liberation of the Philippines (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas, Labanan sa Pilipinas & Liberasyon ng Pilipinas), (Operation Musketeer I, II, and III) (Filipino: Operasyon Mosketero I, II, at III), was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines during World War II.
Project Nike, (Greek: Νίκη, "Victory", pronounced), was a U.S. Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Laboratories, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
Projectile motion is a form of motion experienced by an object or particle (a projectile) that is thrown near the Earth's surface and moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only (in particular, the effects of air resistance are assumed to be negligible).
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio signals to remotely control a device.
Rapier is a surface-to-air missile developed for the British Army to replace their towed Bofors 40/L70 anti-aircraft guns.
Rheinmetall Air Defence AG is a division of German armament manufacturer Rheinmetall, created when the company's Oerlikon Contraves unit was renamed on 1 January 2009 and integrated with Rheinmetall's other air-defence products.
Rheintochter was a German surface-to-air missile developed by Rheinmetall-Borsig during World War II.
The RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) is a small, lightweight, infrared homing surface-to-air missile in use by the German, Japanese, Greek, Turkish, South Korean, Saudi Arabian, Egyptian, and U.S. navies.
The RIM-174 Standard Extended Range Active Missile (ERAM), or Standard Missile 6 (SM-6) is a missile in current production for the United States Navy.
RIM-7 Sea Sparrow is a U.S. ship-borne short-range anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapon system, primarily intended for defense against anti-ship missiles.
The Bendix RIM-8 Talos was a long-range naval surface-to-air missile, and was among the earliest surface-to-air missiles to equip United States Navy ships. The Talos used radar beam riding for guidance to the vicinity of its target, and semiactive radar homing (SARH) for terminal guidance. The array of four antenna which surround the nose are SARH receivers which functioned as a continuous wave interferometer. Initial thrust was provided by a solid rocket booster for launch and a Bendix ramjet for flight to the target with the warhead serving as the ramjet's compressor.
The Roland is a Franco-German mobile short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system.
The RSD 58 is an early production surface-to-air missile system developed by Contraves-Oerlikon in Switzerland from 1947.
The S-25 Berkut (С-25 «Беркут»; "Berkut" means golden eagle in English) is a surface-to-air guided missile, the first operational SAM system in the Soviet Union.
The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version.
The S-400 Triumf (C-400 Триумф, Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family.
The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
The Lark project was a high-priority, solid-fuel boosted, liquid-fueled rocket surface-to-air missile developed by the United States Navy to meet the kamikaze threat.
Sea skimming is a technique many anti-ship missiles and some fighter or strike aircraft use to avoid radar and infrared detection during their approach.
Seacat was a British short-range surface-to-air missile system intended to replace the ubiquitous Bofors 40 mm gun aboard warships of all sizes.
Seaslug was a first generation surface-to-air missile designed by Armstrong Whitworth (later part of the Hawker Siddeley group) for use by the Royal Navy.
Semi-active radar homing (SARH) is a common type of missile guidance system, perhaps the most common type for longer-range air-to-air and surface-to-air missile systems.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Starstreak is a British short range man-portable air-defence system (MANPADS) manufactured by Thales Air Defence (formerly Shorts Missile Systems), in Belfast.
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD, pronounced), also known as "Wild Weasel" and "Iron Hand" operations in the United States, are military actions to suppress enemy surface-based air defenses, including not only surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) but also interrelated systems such as early-warning radar and command, control and communication (C3) functions, while also marking other targets to be destroyed by an air strike.
Taifun (German for "typhoon") was a German World War II anti-aircraft unguided rocket system.
In the field of weaponry, terminal guidance refers to any guidance system that is primarily or solely active during the "terminal phase", just before the weapon impacts its target.
The English Electric Thunderbird was a British surface-to-air missile produced for the British Army.
The Ticonderoga class of guided missile cruisers is a class of warships in the United States Navy, first ordered and authorized in the 1978 fiscal year.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Vadim Petrovich Shcherbakov was an officer in the Soviet Air Defense Forces (PVO Strany).
Walther von Axthelm (23 December 1893 – 6 January 1972) was a German general (General der Flakartillerie) in the Luftwaffe during World War II who commanded the 1.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
The Wasserfall Ferngelenkte FlaRakete (Waterfall Remote-Controlled A-A Rocket), was a German guided surface-to-air missile project of World War II.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
Wild Weasel is a code name given by the United States Armed Forces, specifically the US Air Force, to an aircraft, of any type, equipped with radar-seeking missiles and tasked with destroying the radars and SAM installations of enemy air defense systems.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Z Battery was a short range anti-aircraft weapon system, which launched 3-inch (76 mm) diameter rockets from ground-based single and multiple launchers, for the air defence of the United Kingdom in World War II.
The 2K12 "Kub" (2К12 "Куб"; cube) (NATO reporting name: SA-6 "Gainful") mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
The 9K32 Strela-2 (Cтрела, "arrow"; NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system (MANPADS) with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance.
The 9K33 Osa (wasp) is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system designed in the Soviet Union.
The 9K34 Strela-3 (9К34 «Стрела-3»; arrow) is a man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) developed in the Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela 2 (SA-7 Grail) system.
Anti Air Missile, Anti-aircraft missile, Anti-aircraft missiles, Antiaircraft missile, GTAM, Ground-to-air, Ground-to-air missile, SAM Missile, SAM Sites, SAM battery, SAM missile, SAM site, Sam site, Surface to Air Missile, Surface to Air Missiles, Surface to air missile, Surface-to-Air Missile, Surface-to-Air Missiles, Surface-to-Air missile, Surface-to-air, Surface-to-air missiles, Surface-to-air-missile, Surface-to-air-missiles.