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Index Surfactant

Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid. [1]

184 relations: AbbVie Inc., Adhesive, Adsorption, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alkylbenzene sulfonates, Alkylphenol, Amine, Ammonium lauryl sulfate, Amphiphile, Amphoterism, Anti-fog, Assay, Benzalkonium chloride, Benzethonium chloride, Beractant, Betaine, Biocide, Blend word, BP, Bromide, Carboxylic acid, Cetrimonium bromide, Cetylpyridinium chloride, CHAPS detergent, Chelation, Chemical polarity, Chloride, Cholic acid, Cleavable detergent, Cocamide DEA, Cocamide MEA, Cocamidopropyl betaine, Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, Corexit, Cosmetics, Decyl glucoside, Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Defoamer, Deinking, Denaturation (biochemistry), Detergent, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride, Dispersant, Docusate, Electrophoresis, Ellipsometry, ..., Emulsion, Endocrine disruptor, Enhanced oil recovery, Enzyme, Ethoxylation, Fabric softener, Fatty alcohol, Ferrofluid, Firefighting, Fluorocarbon, Fluorosurfactant, Foaming agent, Gibbs isotherm, Glycerol monostearate, Hair conditioner, Halide, Herbicide, Honey bee, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophile, Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, Hydrophobe, Hydrotrope, Hydroxysultaine, Ink, Inorganic compound, Insecticide, Interface (matter), Iodide, Ion, Lauryl glucoside, Lauryldimethylamine oxide, Laxative, Lignosulfonates, Lipid bilayer, Lipophilicity, Liquid–liquid extraction, Lung, Maltosides, Mammal, Mass diffusivity, Maximum bubble pressure method, MBAS assay, Median lethal dose, Medical Subject Headings, Metabolite, Metal, Methyl bisulfate, Micelle, Microbial enhanced oil recovery, Molecular mass, Monolaurin, N-Octyl beta-D-thioglucopyranoside, Nanocellulose, Narrow-range ethoxylate, Niosome, Nonoxynol-9, Nonoxynols, Nonylphenol, NP-40, Octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, Octenidine dihydrochloride, Octyl glucoside, Oil dispersants, Oil well, Organic compound, Organosulfate, Paint, Paper recycling, Pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid, Perfluorononanoic acid, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Persistent organic pollutant, Petroleum, Phosphate, Phosphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphine oxide, Phospholipid, Plasticizer, Poloxamer, Polyatomic ion, Polyethoxylated tallow amine, Polyethylene glycol, Polypropylene glycol, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80, Protein structure, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary surfactant, Pulmonary surfactant (medication), Pyridinium, Quantum dot, Quaternary ammonium cation, Receptor (biochemistry), Rhamnolipid, Sewage treatment, Shampoo, Siloxane, Ski wax, Soap, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium laureth sulfate, Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate, Sodium myreth sulfate, Sodium stearate, Sophorolipid, Sorbitan monolaurate, Sorbitan monostearate, Sorbitan tristearate, Spermicide, Sphingomyelin, Spinning drop method, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Sulfonate, Surface rheology, Surface tension, Surfactants in paint, Swarming motility, Toothpaste, Tosyl, Transition metal, Triethanolamine, Triflate, Triton X-100, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States National Library of Medicine, Wetting, Zwitterion. Expand index (134 more) »

AbbVie Inc.

AbbVie is a publicly traded biopharmaceutical company founded in 2013.

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An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

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Alkylbenzene sulfonates

Alkylbenzene sulfonates are a class of anionic surfactants, consisting of a hydrophilic sulfonate head-group and a hydrophobic alkylbenzene tail-group.

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Alkylphenols are a family of organic compounds obtained by the alkylation of phenols.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Ammonium lauryl sulfate

Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) is the common name for ammonium dodecyl sulfate (CH3(CH2)10CH2OSO3NH4).

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An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.

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In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.

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Anti-fog agents, also known as anti-fogging agents and treatments, are chemicals that prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface which resemble fog.

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An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).

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Benzalkonium chloride

Benzalkonium chloride, also known as BZK, BKC, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a type of cationic surfactant.

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Benzethonium chloride

Benzethonium chloride, also known as hyamine is a synthetic quaternary ammonium salt.

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Beractant, also known by the trade name of Survanta, is a modified bovine pulmonary surfactant containing bovine lung extract (phospholipids, neutral lipids, fatty acids, and bovine surfactant proteins), to which synthetic DPPC, tripalmitin and palmitic acid are added.

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A betaine in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (generally: onium ions) that bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group that may not be adjacent to the cationic site.

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A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.

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Blend word

In linguistics, a blend word is one formed from parts of two or more other words.

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BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.

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A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Cetrimonium bromide

Cetrimonium bromide Br; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; CTAB is a quaternary ammonium surfactant.

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Cetylpyridinium chloride

Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound used in some types of mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, throat sprays, breath sprays, and nasal sprays.

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CHAPS detergent

CHAPS is a zwitterionic surfactant used in the laboratory to solubilize biological macromolecules such as proteins.

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Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Cholic acid

Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol and acetic acid), it is a white crystalline substance.

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Cleavable detergent

Cleavable detergents, also known as cleavable surfactants, are special surfactants (detergents) that are used in biochemistry and especially in proteomics to enhance protein denaturation and solubility.

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Cocamide DEA

Cocamide DEA, or cocamide diethanolamine, is a diethanolamide made by reacting the mixture of fatty acids from coconut oils with diethanolamine.

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Cocamide MEA

Cocamide MEA, or cocamide monoethanolamine, is a solid, off-white to tan compound, often sold in flaked form.

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Cocamidopropyl betaine

Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a mixture of closely related organic compounds derived from coconut oil and dimethylaminopropylamine.

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Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine

Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine (CAHS) is a synthetic amphoteric surfactant from the hydroxysultaine group.

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Corexit (often styled COREXIT) is a product line of oil dispersants used during oil spill response operations.

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Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.

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Decyl glucoside

Decyl glucoside is a mild non-ionic surfactant used in cosmetic formularies including baby shampoo and in products for individuals with a sensitive skin.

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Deepwater Horizon oil spill

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill/leak, the BP oil disaster, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and the Macondo blowout) is an industrial disaster that began on 20 April 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill.

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A defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.

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Deinking is the industrial process of removing printing ink from paperfibers of recycled paper to make deinked pulp.

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Denaturation (biochemistry)

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.

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A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.

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Dimethyl sulfoxide

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.

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Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide

Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (also dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide or DODAB) is a double-chained quaternary ammonium surfactant that forms unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) in water.

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Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride

No description.

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A dispersant or a dispersing agent or a plasticizer or a superplasticizer is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface-active substance added to a suspension, usually a colloid, to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping.

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Docusate, also known as docusate salts or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, is a laxative of the stool softener type used to treat constipation.

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Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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Ellipsometry is an optical technique for investigating the dielectric properties (complex refractive index or dielectric function) of thin films.

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An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).

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Endocrine disruptor

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.

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Enhanced oil recovery

Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ethoxylation is a chemical reaction in which ethylene oxide adds to a substrate.

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Fabric softener

A fabric softener (or conditioner) is a conditioner that is typically applied to laundry during the rinse cycle in a washing machine.

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Fatty alcohol

Fatty alcohols (or long-chain alcohols) are usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4–6 carbons to as many as 22–26, derived from natural fats and oils.

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A ferrofluid (portmanteau of ferromagnetic and fluid) is a liquid that becomes strongly magnetized in the presence of a magnetic field.

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Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, vehicles, woodlands, etc.

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Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.

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Fluorosurfactants (also fluorinated surfactants, perfluorinated alkylated substances or PFASs) are synthetic organofluorine chemical compounds that have multiple fluorine atoms.

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Foaming agent

A foaming agent is a material that facilitates formation of foam such as a surfactant or a blowing agent.

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Gibbs isotherm

The Gibbs adsorption isotherm for multicomponent systems is an equation used to relate the changes in concentration of a component in contact with a surface with changes in the surface tension, which results in a corresponding change in surface energy.

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Glycerol monostearate

Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is an monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods.

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Hair conditioner

Hair conditioner is a hair care product used to improve the feel, appearance and manageability of hair.

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A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.

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Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Honey bee

A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance

The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of a surfactant is a measure of the degree to which it is hydrophilic or lipophilic, determined by calculating values for the different regions of the molecule, as described by Griffin in 1949 and 1954.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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A hydrotrope is a compound that solubilises hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions (by means other than micellar solubilization).

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Hydroxysultaines are chemical compounds used in high-foaming shampoos, bath products and shower gels especially in conjunction with ether sulfates and alkyl sulfates.

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Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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Interface (matter)

In the physical sciences, an interface is the boundary between two spatial regions occupied by different matter, or by matter in different physical states.

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An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Lauryl glucoside

Lauryl glucoside is a surfactant used in cosmetics.

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Lauryldimethylamine oxide

Lauryldimethylamine oxide (LDAO), also known as dodecyldimethylamine oxide (DDAO), is an amine oxide based nonionic surfactant, with a C12 (dodecyl) alkyl tail.

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Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.

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Lignosulfonates, or sulfonated lignin, (CAS number 8062-15-5) are water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers: they are byproducts from the production of wood pulp using sulfite pulping.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Alkyl Maltosides are a class of detergents composed of a hydrophilic maltose and a hydrophobic alkyl chain.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mass diffusivity

Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for diffusion).

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Maximum bubble pressure method

In physics, the maximum bubble pressure method, or in short bubble pressure method, is a technique to measure the surface tension of a liquid, with surfactants.

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MBAS assay

A methylene blue active substances assay, or MBAS assay, is a colorimetric analysis test method that uses methylene blue to detect the presence of anionic surfactants (such as a detergent or foaming agent) in a sample of water.

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Median lethal dose

In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.

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Medical Subject Headings

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.

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A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Methyl bisulfate

Methyl bisulfate is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4O4S.

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A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.

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Microbial enhanced oil recovery

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a biological based technology consisting in manipulating function or structure, or both, of microbial environments existing in oil reservoirs.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Monolaurin, also known as glycerol monolaurate, glyceryl laurate or 1-lauroyl-glycerol, is a monoglyceride.

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N-Octyl beta-D-thioglucopyranoside

n-Octyl β-D-thioglucopyranoside (octylthioglucoside, OTG) is a mild nonionic detergent that is used for cell lysis or to solubilise membrane proteins without denaturing them.

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Nanocellulose is a term referring to nano-structured cellulose.

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Narrow-range ethoxylate

Fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers with a narrow homolog distribution, which are also known as narrow-range ethoxylates (NRE), are known nonionic surfactants, which are industrially produced, for example, by addition of ethylene oxide onto fatty alcohols in the presence of suitable catalysts (layer compounds which have been calcined or hydrophobized with fatty acids).

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A Niosome is a non-ionic surfactant-based Vesicle (biology and chemistry).

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Nonoxynol-9, sometimes abbreviated as N-9, is an organic compound that is used as a surfactant.

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Nonoxynols also known as nonaethylene glycol or polyethylene glycol nonyl phenyl ether are mixtures of nonionic surfactants used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents or defoaming agents.

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Nonylphenols, from the Latin nōnus (number 9) and phenol, are a family of closely related organic compounds composed of phenol bearing a 9 carbon-tail.

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NP-40 is a commercially available detergent with CAS 9016-45-9.

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Octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether

Octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8) is a nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of dodecanol (lauryl alcohol) to give a material with 8 repeat units of ethylene glycol.

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Octenidine dihydrochloride

Octenidine dihydrochloride is a cationic surfactant, with a gemini-surfactant structure, derived from pyridine, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

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Octyl glucoside

Octyl glucoside (n-octyl-β-D-glucoside) is a nonionic surfactant frequently used to solubilise integral membrane proteins for studies in biochemistry.

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Oil dispersants

An oil dispersant is a mixture of emulsifiers and solvents that helps break oil into small droplets following an oil spill.

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Oil well

An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organosulfates are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group commonly with the structure R-O-SO3−.

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Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.

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Paper recycling

There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.

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Pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether

Pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E5) is a nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of dodecanol (lauryl alcohol) to give a material with 5 repeat units of ethylene glycol.

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Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid

Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) is a chemical compound with a four carbon fluorocarbon chain and a sulfonic acid functional group.

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Perfluorononanoic acid

Perfluorononanoic acid, or PFNA, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant that is also an environmental contaminant found in people and wildlife along with PFOS and PFOA.

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Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.

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Perfluorooctanoic acid

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup.

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Phosphatidylethanolamines are a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes.

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Phosphine oxide

Phosphine oxides are phosphorus compounds with the formula OPX3.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.

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Poloxamers are nonionic triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)).

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Polyatomic ion

A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.

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Polyethoxylated tallow amine

Polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) refers to a range of non-ionic surfactants derived from animal fats (tallow).

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Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.

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Polypropylene glycol

Polypropylene glycol or polypropylene oxide is the polymer of propylene glycol.

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Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in some pharmaceuticals and food preparation.

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Polysorbate 20

Polysorbate 20 (common commercial brand names include Scattics, Alkest TW 20 and Tween 20) is a polysorbate-type nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of sorbitan before the addition of lauric acid.

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Polysorbate 80

Polysorbate 80 is a nonionic surfactant and emulsifier often used in foods and cosmetics.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.

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Pulmonary alveolus

A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.

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Pulmonary surfactant

Pulmonary surfactant is a surface-active lipoprotein complex (phospholipoprotein) formed by type II alveolar cells.

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Pulmonary surfactant (medication)

Pulmonary surfactant is used as a medication to treat and prevent respiratory distress syndrome in newborn babies.

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Pyridinium refers to the cation +. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine.

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Quantum dot

Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.

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Quaternary ammonium cation

Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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Rhamnolipids are a class of glycolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, amongst other organisms, frequently cited as the best characterised of the bacterial surfactants.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.

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A siloxane is a functional group in organosilicon chemistry with the Si–O–Si linkage.

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Ski wax

Ski wax is a material applied to the bottom of snow runners, including skis, snowboards, and toboggans, to improve their coefficient of friction performance under varying snow conditions.

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Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.

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Sodium dodecyl sulfate

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), synonymously sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or sodium laurilsulfate, is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4 Na.

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Sodium laureth sulfate

Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), an accepted contraction of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), is an anionic detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc.). SLES is an inexpensive and very effective foaming agent.

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Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate

Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (INCI), also known as sarkosyl, is an ionic surfactant derived from sarcosine used as a foaming and cleansing agent in shampoo, shaving foam, toothpaste, and foam wash products.

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Sodium myreth sulfate

Sodium myreth sulfate is a mixture of organic compounds with both detergent and surfactant properties.

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Sodium stearate

Sodium stearate is the sodium salt of stearic acid.

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A sophorolipid is a surface-active glycolipid compound that can be synthesized by a selected number of non-pathogenic yeast species.

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Sorbitan monolaurate

Sorbitan monolaurate is a mixture of esters formed from the fatty acid lauric acid and polyols derived from sorbitol, including sorbitan and isosorbide.

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Sorbitan monostearate

Sorbitan monostearate is an ester of sorbitan (a sorbitol derivative) and stearic acid and is sometimes referred to as a synthetic wax.

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Sorbitan tristearate

Sorbitan tristearate is a nonionic surfactant.

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Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy.

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Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons.

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Spinning drop method

The spinning drop method (rotating drop method) is one of the methods used to measure interfacial tension.

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Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

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A sulfonate is a salt or ester of a sulfonic acid.

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Surface rheology

Surface rheology is a description of the rheological properties of a free surface.

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Surface tension

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.

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Surfactants in paint

Paint has four major components: pigments, binders, solvents, and additives.

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Swarming motility

Swarming motility is a rapid (2–10 μm/s) and coordinated translocation of a bacterial population across solid or semi-solid surfaces, and is an example of bacterial multicellularity and swarm behaviour.

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Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.

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A toluenesulfonyl (shortened tosyl, abbreviated Ts or Tos) group is CH3C6H4SO2.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Triethanolamine aka Trolamine (abbr. as TEOA to distinguish it from TEA which is for triethylamine) is a viscous organic compound that is both a tertiary amine and a triol.

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Triflate, also known by the systematic name trifluoromethanesulfonate, is a functional group with the formula CF3SO3−.

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Triton X-100

Triton X-100 (n) is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain (on average it has 9.5 ethylene oxide units) and an aromatic hydrocarbon lipophilic or hydrophobic group.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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Wetting is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting from intermolecular interactions when the two are brought together.

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In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surfactant

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