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Index Surname

A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture). [1]

375 relations: Abraham ben Abraham, Acronym, Adams (surname), Adyghe people, Akkadian language, Albanian name, Alexander the Great, American Library Association, Ancestry.com, Andersen, Andhra Pradesh, Anglicisation of names, Anglosphere, Angola, Aoyama Gakuin University, Arabic, Aramaic language, Archer (surname), Argead dynasty, Aristides, Armstrong (surname), Artur, Aslak Hætta, Assyria, Assyrian people, Asturias, Atlantic slave trade, Australian Aboriginal kinship, Austria, Álava, Ó Creachmhaoil, Bailey (surname), Baker, Baker (surname), Basil Cottle, Basque language, Bavaria, Beaton (surname), Belgium, Ben (Hebrew), Ben Adam, Benjamin, Benson (surname), Blacksmith, Brazil, Brazilians, Brewer (surname), Bridget, British Isles, Brooks (surname), ..., Brown (surname), Bulgarian name, Burton (name), Bush (surname), Butcher (surname), Byzantine Empire, Cameron (surname), Camp (surname), Campbell (surname), Cantabria, Caranus of Macedon, Carnation Revolution, Carpenter (surname), Carter (name), Cartwright (surname), Caste, Catalan language, Catalonia, Chandler (surname), Chinese Indonesian surname, Chinese name, Chinese surname, Christian name, Christianity, Cidade da Maia, Circassians, Civil code, Clan, Clan Forbes, Clark, Clarke, Cognate, Collation, Collier (surname), Community of Portuguese Language Countries, Conservative Party (UK), Convention (norm), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Cook (surname), Cooper (surname), Council of Europe, County Galway, Crawford (name), Cuba, Culture of Europe, Davies, Davis (surname), Dawson (surname), Denmark, Doctor (title), Domesday Book, Dominican Republic, Double-barrelled name, Douglas (surname), Dyer (surname), East Asian cultural sphere, East Syrian Rite, Eastern Aramaic languages, Eastern Slavic naming customs, Ecuador, Edwards (surname), Eisenhower (surname), English name, English-speaking world, Epithet, Ernle, Etymology, Europe, European Union, Evans (surname), Farm (revenue leasing), Farmer, Farmer (surname), Faulkner (surname), Ferguson (name), Finnic peoples, First Nations, Fisher (surname), Fletcher (surname), Folk etymology, Fowler (surname), Fox (surname), France, French Canadians, Fuller (surname), Fuxi, Galicia (Spain), Galton–Watson process, Genealogy, Generation name, Giovanni (name), Gitxsan, Given name, Glover (surname), Goidelic languages, Grant (name), Greece, Greek name, Green, Grove (surname), Guatemala, Haida people, Hall (surname), Hamilton (name), Hans (name), Hansen (surname), Harris (name), Harrison (name), Hassan (surname), Hawkins (name), Hayward (profession), Hebrew name, Henderson (surname), Henry VIII of England, Heracleidae, Heracles, Hewer, Hill, Hill (surname), Hispanophone, Holmes (surname), Honduras, Honorific, House of Windsor, Hudson (surname), Hungarians, Hunt (surname), Hunter (surname), Hyphen, Iain Duncan Smith, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Italy, Jackson (name), Japanese name, Jenkinson, Jews, Johan (given name), Johansen, Johnson, Jones (surname), José, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Judge (surname), Kabardians, Kerala, King (surname), Knight (surname), Kohen, Korean name, Latin alphabet, Latin America, Lee (English surname), Legal name, Levite, Lewis (surname), Li (surname 李), List of family name affixes, Lists of most common surnames, London (name), Lord (surname), Lucca, Lucy Stone, Luis, Luis Telmo Paz y Miño, Lusophone, Macdonald, Madagascar, Madison (name), Maiden and married names, Malaysian names, Mario Vargas Llosa, Mason (surname), Matrilineality, Matriname, Matronymic, Meir Bar-Ilan, Mesopotamia, Metalsmith, Mexico, Military dictatorship, Miller, Miller (name), Miss, Mongolian name, Mononymous person, Moore (surname), Morrow (surname), Mr., Mrs., Ms., Murphy, Murray (surname), Name blending, Name change, Naming conventions in Ethiopia and Eritrea, Naming law, Nicaragua, Nicholson (name), Nickname, Nisba (onomastics), Nobiliary particle, Norman conquest of England, Norway, NPR, O'Brien dynasty, Old English, Ole (name), Olsen (surname), One-name study, Online Writing Lab, Onomastics, Oxford University Press, OxfordDictionaries.com, Pablo Picasso, Page (surname), Palmer (surname), Panama, Parker (surname), Patrick (given name), Patrick Hanks, Patrilineality, Patronymic, Patronymic surname, Pazmiño, Perry (surname), Personal name, Peru, Phonaesthetics, Poland, Polysemy, Porter (name), Portugal, Potter (name), Pottery, Powell (surname), Preposition and postposition, Purdue University, Putative father, Quebec, Reeve (surname), Reeves (surname), Reynolds (surname), Richardson (surname), Roberts (surname), Robinson (name), Rodríguez (surname), Rogers (surname), Roman Empire, Roman naming conventions, Romania, Ryan (surname), Saddam Hussein, Salvador Dalí, Sami people, Sana'a, Sawyer (occupation), Schmidt (surname), Schneider (surname), Scottish Gaelic name, Scottish surnames, Sephardi Jews, Shang dynasty, Shepherd, Shepherd (name), Short stature, Simpson (name), Slater, Slave name, Slavs, Smith (surname), Social norm, Social Security Administration, South India, Spain, Spanish language, Sri Lanka, Stephenson, Stewart (name), Stone (surname), Stringer (name), Sudono Salim, Surname, Surname law, Surname map, Surnames by country, Sweden, Syria, Tamil Nadu, Taylor (surname), T–V distinction, Telmo Além da Silva, Testator, Thai Chinese, Thatching, Thompson (surname), Tikrit, Title, Toponymic surname, Turkey, Turner (surname), Tussenvoegsel, Underwood, University of the West of England, Bristol, Uralic languages, Vickers (surname), Vietnamese name, Vocation, Wainwright (name), Walker (surname), Watson (surname), Weaver (surname), West Germany, White (surname), Williams (surname), Willis (surname), Wilson (name), Wood (surname), Wright, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, Young (surname), Zapatero (surname), 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Expand index (325 more) »

Abraham ben Abraham

Abraham ben Abraham (אברהם בן אברהם, lit. "Avraham the son of Avraham") (c. 1700 – May 23, 1749), also known as Count Valentine (Valentin, Walentyn) Potocki (Pototzki or Pototski), was a purported Polish nobleman of the Potocki family who converted to Judaism and was burned at the stake by the Roman Catholic Church because he had renounced Catholicism and had become an observant Jew.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Adams (surname)

Adams is a common surname of English, Scottish, and Irish origin, meaning "son of Adam".

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Adyghe people

The ethnonym "Adyghe" (Адыгэ/Adygè, Ады́ги) is used as an endonym by the Caucasian-speaking Circassians of the North Caucasus and as a demonym for the inhabitants of the Republic of Adygea, a federal subject of Russia located in the southwestern part of European Russia, enclaved within Krasnodar Krai, where it is also rendered as Adygeans (Адыгейцы).

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.

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Albanian name

Albanian names are names used in, or originating in, Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia and the Albanian diaspora.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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American Library Association

The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.

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Ancestry.com LLC is a privately held online company based in Lehi, Utah.

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Andersen is a Danish-Norwegian patronymic surname meaning "son of Anders" (itself derived from the Greek name "Ανδρέας/Andreas", cf. English Andrew).

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Anglicisation of names

The anglicisation of personal names is the change of non-English-language personal names to spellings nearer English sounds, or substitution of equivalent or similar English personal names in the place of non-English personal names.

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The Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history, which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation.

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Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Aoyama Gakuin University

Aoyama Gakuin University (AGU) is a private university in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Archer (surname)

Archer is a surname in the English language.

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Argead dynasty

The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Macedonian Greek royal house.

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Aristides (Ἀριστείδης, Aristeides; 530–468 BC) was an ancient Athenian statesman.

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Armstrong (surname)

Armstrong is a surname of Scottish borders origin.

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Artur is a cognate to the common male given name Arthur, meaning "bear-like," which is believed to possibly be descended from the Roman surname Artorius or the Celtic bear-goddess Artio or more probably from the Celtic word artos ("bear").

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Aslak Hætta

Aslak Jacobsen Hætta (24 January 1824 – 14 October 1854) was one of the leaders of the Sami revolt in Guovdageaidnu, called the Kautokeino Rebellion, in November 1852.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Australian Aboriginal kinship

Australian Aboriginal kinship are the systems of law governing social interaction, particularly marriage, in traditional Australian Aboriginal cultures.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.

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Ó Creachmhaoil

Ó Creachmhaoil is an Irish surname, often anglicised as Craughwell, Croughwell, Crockwell, and Crowell.

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Bailey (surname)

Bailey is an occupational surname of English or possibly Norman origin.

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A baker is someone who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made using an oven or other concentrated heat source.

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Baker (surname)

Baker is a famous surname of Old English (Anglo-Saxon) origin.

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Basil Cottle

Arthur Basil Cottle (17 March 1917 – 13 May 1994) was a British grammarian, historian and archaeologist.

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Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

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Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Beaton (surname)

Beaton is a Scottish surname in the English language, which has multiple origins.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Ben (Hebrew)

The Hebrew word Ben, meaning "son", forms part of many surnames in Hebrew.

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Ben Adam

"Ben Adam" (בן אדם, English translation: "Human Being", literally "Son of Adam") was the Israeli entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1988, performed in Hebrew by Yardena Arazi.

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Benjamin was the last-born of Jacob's thirteen children (12 sons and 1 daughter), and the second and last son of Rachel in Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition.

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Benson (surname)

Benson is a common patronymic surname of English origin meaning "son of Ben" (Benedict, Benjamin, Bennett).

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A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilians (brasileiros in Portuguese) are citizens of Brazil.

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Brewer (surname)

Brewer is a surname, meaning a person who brews beer.

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Bridget or Brigid is a Gaelic/Irish female name derived from the noun brígh, meaning "power, strength, vigor, virtue".

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Brooks (surname)

Brooks is a toponymic surname that is thought to have been derived residing near a stream (or brook) from both the Swedish surname Bäckland, meaning bäck "brook, stream" and lund "grove" and English, Gaelic and Scottish from the possessive case of Brook (i.e. ‘of the brook’) from pre 7th century English origins; Old English broc and appearing in the Medieval predecessors of "Brooks" such as "Ate-Broc" and "Atte-Broc".

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Brown (surname)

Brown is an English-language surname in origin chiefly descriptive of a person with brown hair, complexion or clothing.

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Bulgarian name

The Bulgarian name system has considerable similarities with most other European name systems, and with those of other Slavic peoples such as the Russian name system, though it has certain unique features.

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Burton (name)

Burton is an English surname with habitational origins.

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Bush (surname)

The surname Bush is an English surname, derived from either the Old English word "busc" or the Old Norse "buskr," both of which mean "bush," a shrub.

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Butcher (surname)

Butcher is a common family name in England but it may have French origins.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cameron (surname)

Cameron is a Scottish surname and thus somewhat common throughout the English-speaking world.

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Camp (surname)

Camp is an English surname taken from Latin roots.

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Campbell (surname)

Campbell is primarily a Scottish surname of Gaelic origins.

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Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.

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Caranus of Macedon

Caranus or Karanos (Κάρανος, Káranos) was the first king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon according to later traditions.

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Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.

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Carpenter (surname)

Carpenter is a surname.

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Carter (name)

Carter is a family name, and also may be a given name.

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Cartwright (surname)

Cartwright is an English surname that originally means a maker of carts.

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Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Chandler (surname)

Chandler, and its variant spellings, is a family name that originated as an occupational surname in medieval England.

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Chinese Indonesian surname

A large number of ethnic Chinese people have lived in Indonesia for many centuries.

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Chinese name

Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.

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Chinese surname

Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities.

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Christian name

A Christian name, sometimes referred to as a baptismal name, is a religious personal name historically given on the occasion of a Christian baptism, though now most often assigned by parents at birth.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Cidade da Maia

Cidade da Maia is a civil parish in the municipality of Maia, Portugal.

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The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Civil code

A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.

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A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.

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Clan Forbes

Clan Forbes is a Highland Scottish clan from Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

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Clark is an English language surname, ultimately derived from the Latin clericus meaning "scribe", "secretary" or a scholar within a religious order, referring to someone who was educated.

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Clarke is an Anglo-Irish surname which means "clerk".

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

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Collier (surname)

Collier is an English surname.

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Community of Portuguese Language Countries

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa; abbreviated as CPLP), occasionally known in English as the Lusophone Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language, mostly of former colonies of the Portuguese Empire.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Convention (norm)

A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.

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Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.

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Cook (surname)

Cook is a surname of English origin.

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Cooper (surname)

Cooper is an English surname originating in England; see Cooper (profession).

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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County Galway

County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe) is a county in Ireland.

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Crawford (name)

Crawford is a surname (and occasional given name) of English, Scottish and Northern Irish origin.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Culture of Europe

The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.

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Davies is a patronymic Welsh surname.

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Davis (surname)

Davis may be a corruption of Dyfed, itself a corruption of Dési, colonists from south-east Ireland who occupied the old tribal area of the Demetae in south-west Wales in the late third century AD, establishing a dynasty which lasted five centuries.

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Dawson (surname)

Dawson is an English surname.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Doctor (title)

Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.

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Domesday Book

Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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Double-barrelled name

In the Western tradition of surnames, there are several types of double surname (also double-barrelled surname).

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Douglas (surname)

Douglas (occasionally spelled Douglass) is a common surname of Scottish origin, thought to derive from the Gaelic dubh glas, meaning "black stream".

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Dyer (surname)

Dyer is an English surname with early medieval origins, deriving from the trade of cloth dying.

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East Asian cultural sphere

The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.

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East Syrian Rite

The East Syrian Rite or East Syriac Rite, also called Assyrian Rite, Persian Rite, Chaldean Rite, or Syro-Oriental Rite is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that uses East Syriac dialect as liturgical language.

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Eastern Aramaic languages

Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).

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Eastern Slavic naming customs

Eastern Slavic naming customs are the traditional ways of identifying a person by name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian: in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine. They are also used in some countries using South Slavic languages, including Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia, as well as some countries using non-Slavic languages (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan) because of the expansion of Russia, with its Russification. The full name uses the following standard structure.

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Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Edwards (surname)

Edwards is a patronymic surname, which arose separately in England and Wales.

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Eisenhower (surname)

Eisenhower is a surname derived from the German word Eisenhauer, meaning "iron hewer".

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English name

English names are names used in, or originating in, England.

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English-speaking world

Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.

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An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.

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Ernle was the surname of an English gentry or landed family descended from the lords of the manor of Earnley in Sussex who derived their surname from the name of the place where their estates lay.

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EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evans (surname)

Evans is a surname of Welsh, and possibly Cornish, origin.

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Farm (revenue leasing)

Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered.

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A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.

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Farmer (surname)

Farmer is an English surname.

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Faulkner (surname)

Faulkner, Falkner and Faulknor are name variants of Falconer.

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Ferguson (name)

Ferguson is a Scottish surname and given name, a patronymic form of the personal name Fergus which translates as son of the angry (one) from Scots Gaelic.

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Finnic peoples

The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Fisher (surname)

Fisher is an English occupational name for one who obtained his living by fishing or living by a fishing weir.

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Fletcher (surname)

Fletcher is a surname of English, Scottish, and Irish origin.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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Fowler (surname)

Fowler is an English and/or Scots surname with a linguistic origin in the Old English fugelere, indicative of a person occupied as a bird-catcher.

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Fox (surname)

Fox or Foxe or Foxx is a surname originating in England and Ireland.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French Canadians

French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.

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Fuller (surname)

Fuller is a surname referring to someone who treats wool with the process called fulling (a process also known as walking—or waulking in Scotland—and tucking, hence the names Walker and Tucker) and may refer to.

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Fuxi (Chinese: 伏羲), also romanized as Fu-hsi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited (along with his sister Nüwa 女娲) with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing and cooking as well as the Cangjie system of writing Chinese characters c. 2,000 BCE.

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Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.

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Galton–Watson process

The Galton–Watson process is a branching stochastic process arising from Francis Galton's statistical investigation of the extinction of family names.

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Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Generation name

Generation name, variously zibei or banci, is one of the characters in a traditional Chinese name, and is so called because each member of a generation (i.e. siblings and cousins of the same generation) share that character, unlike surnames or given names.

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Giovanni (name)

Giovanni is a male Italian given name (from Latin Ioannes).

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Gitxsan (also spelled Gitksan) are an indigenous people of Canada whose home territory comprises most of the area known as the Skeena Country in English (Git: means "people of" and Xsan: means "the River of Mist").

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Given name

A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.

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Glover (surname)

Glover, which means a maker or seller of gloves, is an English surname.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Grant (name)

Grant can be both a surname and a given name.

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No description.

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Greek name

In the modern world, personal names among people of Greek language and culture generally consist of a given name, a patronymic and a family name.

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Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.

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Grove (surname)

Grove is a surname.

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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Haida people

Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.

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Hall (surname)

Hall is a common surname of English origin.

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Hamilton (name)

The name Hamilton most probably originated in the village of Hamilton, Leicestershire, England, but bearers of that name became established in the 13th century in Lanarkshire, Scotland.

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Hans (name)

Hans is a masculine given name.

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Hansen (surname)

Hansen or Hanssen is a Scandinavian patronymic surname, meaning son of Hans.

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Harris (name)

Harris is a (patronymic or paternal) family name of British origins, and has many different spellings, none of which are definitive or 'correct'.

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Harrison (name)

Harrison is a common patronymic surname of English origin.

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Hassan (surname)

Hassan (also spelled Hasan, Hassane, Hassen, Hasson, Hassin, Hassine, Hacen, Hasen, Hasin, Hass, Hassa, Hasa, Hess, Cassin, Chassan, Chasan, Chasson, Chason, Khassan, Khasan, Cassan, Casan, Hazan, Hasso, Hassanein, Hasnen, Hassani, Hasani, Alhassan, Al-Hassan, Lassana, Alassane, Lacen, Lasanah, Assan, Asan, Asanov/Asanova, Hasanov/Hasanova, Khasanov/Khasanova, Hasanoff, Jasanoff, Hasanović, Hasanovic, Asanović, Hasanovich, Hasanovski/Hasanovska, Asanovski/Asanovska, O'Hassan, Haasan, or Hasaan) is an Arabic, Irish, Scottish, or Hebrew surname.

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Hawkins (name)

The English language surname Hawkins originated in the 11th century in Kent, England.

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Hayward (profession)

Hayward, or "hedge warden", was an officer of an English parish dating from the Middle Ages in charge of fences and enclosures; also, a herdsman in charge of cattle and other animals grazing on common land.

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Hebrew name

Hebrew names are names that have a Hebrew language origin, classically from the Hebrew Bible.

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Henderson (surname)

Henderson is a common Scottish surname.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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In Greek mythology, the Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι) or Heraclids were the numerous descendants of Heracles (Hercules), especially applied in a narrower sense to the descendants of Hyllus, the eldest of his four sons by Deianira (Hyllus was also sometimes thought of as Heracles' son by Melite).

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Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.

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A hewer (Hauer or Häuer) is a miner who loosens rock and minerals in a mine.

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A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain.

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Hill (surname)

Hill is a surname of English origin, meaning "a person who lived on a hill", or derived from the Greek or Latin name Hilary or Hillary.

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Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.

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Holmes (surname)

Holmes is an English-language surname with several origins.

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Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.

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An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.

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House of Windsor

The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Hudson (surname)

Hudson is an English surname.

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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hunt (surname)

Hunt is an occupational surname related with hunting, originating in England and Ireland.

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Hunter (surname)

Hunter is an English and Scottish surname.

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The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

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Iain Duncan Smith

George Iain Duncan Smith (born 9 April 1954), often referred to by his initials IDS, is a British Conservative Party politician.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jackson (name)

Jackson is a common surname of English and Scottish origin.

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Japanese name

in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name.

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Jenkinson is a surname.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Johan (given name)

Johan is a masculine given name of Hebrew origin.

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Johansen is a Scandinavian patronymic surname meaning "son of Johan".

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Johnson is a surname of Danish, English, Scottish and Swedish origin.

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Jones (surname)

Jones is a surname of English and Welsh origins, meaning "John's son".

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José is a predominantly Spanish and Portuguese form of the given name Joseph.

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José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960) is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).

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Judge (surname)

Judge is an occupational surname of British origin.

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The Kabardians (Highland Adyghe: Къэбэрдей адыгэхэр; Lowland Adyghe: Къэбэртай адыгэхэр; Кабардинцы), or Kabardinians, are the largest one of the twelve Adyghe (Circassian) tribes (sub-ethnic groups).

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Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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King (surname)

King is an English, Scottish and French surname.

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Knight (surname)

Knight is an English surname.

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Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.

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Korean name

A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Lee (English surname)

Lee is a common surname in English-speaking countries.

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Legal name

Legal name is the name that identifies a person for legal, administrative and other official purposes.

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A Levite or Levi is a Jewish male whose descent is traced by tradition to Levi.

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Lewis (surname)

Lewis is a surname in the English language.

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Li (surname 李)

Li is the second most common surname in China, behind only Wang.

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List of family name affixes

Family name affixes are a clue for surname etymology and can sometimes determine the ethnic origin of a person.

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Lists of most common surnames

The most common surnames in the world are, in order, Li (or Lee), Zhang (or Trương and Jang), Wang, Nguyễn, García, González, Hernández, Smith, Smirnov (or Smirnova), and Müller.

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London (name)

London is a surname, derived from the city of London, and occasionally a given name.

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Lord (surname)

Lord is a surname, and may refer to.

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Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Lucy Stone

Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 18, 1893) was a prominent U.S. orator, abolitionist, and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting rights for women.

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Luis (and its variant forms) is the Spanish, Portuguese (Luís), Galician, Aragonese form of the Germanic given name Hludowig and Chlodovech (modern German Ludwig).

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Luis Telmo Paz y Miño

Luis Telmo Paz y Miño Estrella (15 April 1884–1962), more commonly known as Telmo Paz y Miño, was President of the Supreme Military Junta of Ecuador in July 1925.

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Lusophones (lusófonos) are people who speak the Portuguese language, either as native speakers or as learners.

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MacDonald, Macdonald, and McDonald are Scottish and Irish surnames.

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Madison (name)

Madison is a surname of English origin, which has become a popular given name in the United States.

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Maiden and married names

When a person (traditionally the wife in many cultures) assumes the family name of his or her spouse, that name replaces the person's birth surname, which in the case of the wife is called the maiden name (birth name is also used as a gender-neutral or masculine substitute for maiden name), whereas a married name is a family name or surname adopted by a person upon marriage.

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Malaysian names

Personal names in Malaysia are extremely useful in tracing a person's cultural and ethnic background as Malaysia comprises many ethnicities and cultures in which each has its own distinct system of names.

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Mario Vargas Llosa

Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936), more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor.

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Mason (surname)

Mason is an Italian, French or English surname that refers to someone who did stonemasonry work, or it derives from the given name "Maso", which is the short form of the personal name "Tommaso".

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Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.

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A matrilineal surname or matrinameSykes, Bryan (2001).

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A matronymic is a personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor.

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Meir Bar-Ilan

Meir Berlin, later Hebraized to Meir Bar-Ilan, (1880 at Volozhin, Russian Empire – 1949 at Jerusalem, Israel) was an Orthodox rabbi and leader of Religious Zionism, the Mizrachi movement in the United States and the British Mandate of Palestine.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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A metalsmith or simply smith is a craftsman fashioning useful items (for example, tools, kitchenware, tableware, jewellery, and weapons) out of various metals.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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A miller is a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour.

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Miller (name)

Miller and Millar are surnames of English language, Old English or Scottish origin.

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Miss (pronounced) is an English language honorific traditionally used only for an unmarried woman (not using another title such as "Doctor" or "Dame").

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Mongolian name

Mongolian names have gone through certain revolutions in the history of Mongolia.

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Mononymous person

A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a single name, or mononym.

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Moore (surname)

Moore is a popular English-language surname.

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Morrow (surname)

Morrow is a surname of Gaelic origins and most people with the surname are described as (or said to be descended from) Irish, Scottish or Scotch-Irish people.

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Mister, usually written in its abbreviated form Mr. (US) or Mr (UK), is a commonly used English honorific for men under the rank of knighthood.

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Mrs. (American English) or Mrs (British English) (Standard English pronunciation) is a commonly used English honorific used for women, usually for those who are married and who do not instead use another title (or rank), such as Dr, Professor, President, Dame, Prime Minister, etc.

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"Ms" or "Ms." (normally, but also, or when unstressed)Oxford English Dictionary online, Ms, n.2.

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Murphy is an Irish surname.

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Murray (surname)

Murray is both a Scottish and an Irish surname with two distinct respective etymologies.

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Name blending

Name blending or meshing is the practice of combining two existing names to form a new name.

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Name change

Name change generally refers to the legal act by a person of adopting a new name different from their name at birth, marriage or adoption.

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Naming conventions in Ethiopia and Eritrea

The naming convention used in Eritrea and Ethiopia does not have family names and typically consists of an individual personal name and a separate patronymic.

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Naming law

A naming law restricts the names that parents can legally give to their children, usually to protect the child from being given an offensive or embarrassing name.

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Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Nicholson (name)

Nicholson is a Germanic surname.

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A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule.

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Nisba (onomastics)

In Arabic names, a nisba (also spelled nesba, sometimes nesbat; نسبة, "attribution") is an adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).

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Nobiliary particle

A nobiliary particle is used in a surname or family name in many Western cultures to signal the nobility of a family.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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O'Brien dynasty

The O'Brien dynasty (Classical Irish Ua Briain, (Modern Irish Ó Briain, IPA: /oːˈbʲɾʲiənʲ/), genitive Uí Bhriain, IPA: /iːˈβʲɾʲiənʲ/) are a royal and noble house founded in the 10th century by Brian Boru of the Dál gCais or Dalcassians.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Ole (name)

Ole is a Danish and Norwegian masculine given name, derived from the Old Norse name Óláfr, meaning "ancestor's descendant".

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Olsen (surname)

Olsen is a Danish-Norwegian patronymic surname meaning "son of Ole".

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One-name study

A one-name study is a project researching a specific surname, as opposed to a particular pedigree (ancestors of one person) or descendancy (descendants of one person or couple).

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Online Writing Lab

An Online Writing Lab (OWL) is often an extension of a university writing center.

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Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the origin, history, and use of proper names.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

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Page (surname)

No description.

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Palmer (surname)

Palmer is an occupational surname of English and Scottish origin.

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Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

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Parker (surname)

Parker is a surname of English origin, derived from Old French with the meaning "keeper of the park".

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Patrick (given name)

Patrick in its earliest form, can be found as the name derived from the Latin name Patricius (patrician, i.e. "nobleman").

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Patrick Hanks

Patrick Hanks (born 24 March 1940) is an English lexicographer, corpus linguist, and onomastician.

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Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.

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Patronymic surname

A patronymic surname is a surname originated from the given name of the father or a patrilineal ancestor.

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Pazmiño is a Spanish language surname of Sephardi judaeo-converso origin, and originating in its present-day form in what is today Ecuador, formerly the Royal Audience of Quito.

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Perry (surname)

Perry is a surname with several distinct origins.

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Personal name

A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Phonaesthetics (from the φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound"; and αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetics") is a branch of phonetics concerned with "the possible connection between sound sequences and meaning", according to Raymond Hickey.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.

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Porter (name)

Porter (\p(o)-rter\) is a common English surname and also a given name.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Potter (name)

Potter is an English surname that originally referred to someone who made pottery.

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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Powell (surname)

Powell is a surname of Welsh origin.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Purdue University

Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.

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Putative father

A putative father, with some variations in specific language, generally means a man whose legal relationship to a child has not been established but who is alleged to be or claims that he may be the biological father of a child who is born to a woman to whom he is not married at the time of the child's birth.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Reeve (surname)

Reeve is a surname.

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Reeves (surname)

Reeves is a surname.

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Reynolds (surname)

Reynolds is a surname in the English language.

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Richardson (surname)

Richardson is an English surname of Anglo Saxon origin.

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Roberts (surname)

Roberts is a British surname of patronymic origin or reflecting servile status, deriving from the given name Robert, meaning "bright renown" – from the Germanic elements "hrod" meaning renown and "beraht" meaning bright.

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Robinson (name)

Robinson is an English language patronymic surname, originating in England.

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Rodríguez (surname)

Rodríguez is a Spanish patronymic (meaning Son of Rodrigo; archaic: Rodericksson) and a common surname in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines.

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Rogers (surname)

Rogers/Rodgers is a patronymic surname of English origin, deriving from the given name of Roger commonly used by the Normans and meaning "son of Roger".

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman naming conventions

Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Ryan (surname)

Ryan (Irish: Ó Riain) is a common Irish surname, as well as being a common given name.

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Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

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Salvador Dalí

Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.

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Sawyer (occupation)

Sawyer is an occupational term referring to someone who saws wood, particularly using a pit saw either in a saw pit or with the log on trestles above ground or operates a sawmill.

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Schmidt (surname)

Schmidt is a common German occupational surname derived from the German word "Schmied" meaning "blacksmith" and/or "metalworker".

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Schneider (surname)

Schneider (German for "tailor", literally "someone who cuts," from the verb schneiden "to cut") is a very common surname in Germany.

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Scottish Gaelic name

A formal Gaelic language name consists of a given name and a surname.

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Scottish surnames

Scottish surnames are surnames currently found in Scotland, or surnames that have a historical connection with the country.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.

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Shepherd (name)

Shepherd, Shepard, Sheppard, Shephard and Shepperd are surnames and given names, and alternative spellings and cognates of the English word "Shepherd".

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Short stature

Short stature refers to a height of a human being which is below typical.

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Simpson (name)

Simpson is an English/Scottish patronymic surname from the medieval masculine given name 'Simme'.

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A slater, or slate mason, is a tradesman who covers buildings with slate.

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Slave name

A slave name is the personal name given by others to an enslaved person, or a name inherited from enslaved ancestors.

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Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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Smith (surname)

Smith is a surname originating in England.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social Security Administration

The United States Social Security Administration (SSA) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits.

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South India

South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Stephenson is a medieval patronymic surname meaning "son of Stephen".

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Stewart (name)

Stewart is a Scottish surname (also used as a masculine given name) possibly of pre-7th century Old English origin, derived from stigeweard, the genitive prefix stige meaning "hall", and the suffix weard meaning "guardian" or "warden".

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Stone (surname)

Stone is a surname of Anglo-Saxon English origin.

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Stringer (name)

Stringer (pronounced to rhyme with "ringer") is an English occupational surname and occasionally used as a given name.

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Sudono Salim

Sudono Salim (16 July 1916 – 10 June 2012), also known as Liem Sioe Liong, was an Indonesian Chinese businessman of Fuzhou origin.

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A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).

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Surname law

Surname law can refer to any law regulating the use of surnames.

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Surname map

Surname maps are maps which display and indicate the highest concentration of residents with a particular surname, or set of surnames.

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Surnames by country

Surname conventions and laws vary around the world.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.

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Taylor (surname)

Taylor is a surname used in the British Isles of French and Latin origin which originated as a Norman occupational surname (meaning tailor) in France It is derived from the Old French tailleur ("cutter"), which is in turn derived from the Late Latin taliator, from taliare ("to cut").

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T–V distinction

In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.

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Telmo Além da Silva

Telmo Além da Silva (born 13 January 1975), known simply as Telmo, is a Brazilian retired footballer who played as a left back.

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A testator is a person who has written and executed a last will and testament that is in effect at the time of his/her death.

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Thai Chinese

Thai of Chinese origin, often called Thai Chinese, consist of Thai people of full or partial Chinese ancestry – particularly Han Chinese.

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Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.

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Thompson (surname)

Thompson is a patronymic surname of English and Scottish origin, with a variety of spellings meaning "son of Thom".

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Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.

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A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.

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Toponymic surname

A toponymic surname is a surname derived from a place name.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turner (surname)

Turner is a common surname originating from Normandy, France, and arriving in England after the Norman conquest with the earliest known records dated in the 12th century.

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A tussenvoegsel in Dutch linguistics is a word that is positioned between a person's first name and the main part of the last name similar to Irish or Scottish surname prefixes, French ''particules'' or German von.

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Underwood is a surname of English topographic origin.

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University of the West of England, Bristol

The University of the West of England, Bristol (UWE Bristol) is a public university, located in and around Bristol, England, which received university status in 1992.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Vickers (surname)

Vickers is a surname.

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Vietnamese name

Vietnamese personal names generally consist of three parts: one family name, one or more middle name(s), and one given name, used in that order.

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A vocation is an occupation to which a person is specially drawn or for which they are suited, trained, or qualified.

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Wainwright (name)

Wainwright is an Anglo-Saxon occupational surname derived from the pre-7th century Old English word waegnwyrhta.

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Walker (surname)

Walker is an English and German surname derived from either a fuller, from the Middle High German walker, meaning "a fuller of cloth", or an officer whose duty consisted of walking or inspecting a certain part of a forest.

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Watson (surname)

Watson is a patronymic surname of English and Scottish origin.

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Weaver (surname)

Weaver is a surname.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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White (surname)

White is a surname either of English or of Scottish and Irish origin, the latter being an anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic MacGillebhàin, "Son of the fair gillie" and the Irish "Mac Faoitigh" or "de Faoite".

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Williams (surname)

Williams is a patronymic form of the name William that originated in medieval England and Wales.

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Willis (surname)

Willis is a surname of French and English origin.

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Wilson (name)

Wilson is an English and Scottish surname, common in the English-speaking world.

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Wood (surname)

Wood is a surname in the English language.

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Wright is an occupational surname originating in England.

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Xavier Sala-i-Martin

Xavier Sala i Martín (also Sala-i-Martin in English) is a Catalan American economist and a professor at Columbia University born in Cabrera de Mar, Catalonia, Spain.

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Young (surname)

The surname Young has several origins.

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Zapatero (surname)

Zapatero is a Spanish-language occupational surname literally meaning "shoemaker".

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1755 Lisbon earthquake

The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, the holy day of All Saints' Day, at around 09:40 local time.

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Ancestral name, Ancestral names, Cognominal surname, Compound surname, Eke-name, Family name, Family name etymology, Family names, Familyname, Habitational name, Habitative name, Last Name, Last Names, Last name, Lastname, Location name, Nickname surname, Occupational name, Occupational surname, Ornamental name, Paternal name, Sirname, Sur name, Surname derived from the occupation, Surname etymology, Surnames, Upper name.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surname

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