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Index Surveying

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. [1]

170 relations: Abercrombie & Fitch, Abraham Lincoln, Accuracy and precision, Aerial photography, Algebra, Alkmaar, Altimeter, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, American Land Title Association, Ancient Egypt, Angle, Apprenticeship, Baseline (surveying), Beacon, Beating the bounds, Breda, Bridge, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Land Management, Cadastral surveying, Cadastre, Calculus, Canal, Cartography, César-François Cassini de Thury, Chartered Surveyor, Civil engineering, Communication, Compass, Concrete, Construction, Construction surveying, Continental Europe, Contour line, Contract, Cylinder, Dam, David T. Abercrombie, Deformation monitoring, Distance, Dividing engine, Domesday Book, Edmund Gunter, Engineering, Excursion, Exsecant, France, Francis Ronalds, General Land Office, Geodetic control network, ..., Geographic information system, Geometry, George Washington, Global Positioning System, Great Pyramid of Giza, Great Trigonometrical Survey, Groma surveying, Gromatici, Gunter's chain, Gyrotheodolite, Haidao Suanjing, Hydrographic survey, India, Industrial Revolution, International Federation of Surveyors, Invar, Iron, Jacques Cassini, James Watt, Jesse Ramsden, Land description, Land Ordinance of 1785, Law, Least squares, Least squares adjustment, Leonard Digges (scientist), Level (instrument), Levelling, Lidar, Liu Hui, Lost City of Z, Meridian arc, Mesopotamia, Metrology, Mine survey, Mount Everest, Mount Rushmore, Nail (fastener), Napoleon, Nathaniel Bowditch, National Park Service, Nile, Octant (instrument), Ordnance Survey, Orthophoto, Outfitter, Ownership, Parallactic angle, Percy Fawcett, Personal protective equipment, Philadelphia rod, Photogrammetry, Physics, Pipe (fluid conveyance), Pipeline transport, Plane table, Position resection, Post-nominal letters, President of the United States, Principal (commercial law), Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, Prismatic compass (surveying), Programming language, Public Land Survey System, Rail transport, Ramsden surveying instruments, Rangefinder, Real property, Real-time kinematic, Regression analysis, Reservoir, Retaining wall, Reticle, Retroreflector, Road, Robert Torrens, Rope stretcher, Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Satellite navigation, Special Flood Hazard Area, Springer Science+Business Media, Steel, Stonehenge, Structural encroachment, Survey marker, Surveying, Surveying in early America, Surveyor's wheel, Tacheometry, Tape measure, Telescope, Tellurometer, The Lost City of Z (book), The Lost City of Z (film), Theodolite, Thomas Jefferson, Topography, Torrens title, Total station, Transit (satellite), Transport, Traverse (surveying), Trevor Wadley, Triangulation, Triangulation station, Trigonometry, Tripod (surveying), UGM-27 Polaris, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Bureau of Reclamation, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Forest Service, United States Navy, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Vernier scale, Willebrord Snellius, William Gascoigne (scientist), William Roy, William the Conqueror, 3D scanner. Expand index (120 more) »

Abercrombie & Fitch

Abercrombie & Fitch (A&F) is an American retailer that focuses on upscale casual wear for people aged 21 to 24; its headquarters are in New Albany, Ohio.

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Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

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Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

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Aerial photography

Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.

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Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland.

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An altimeter or an altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.

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American Congress on Surveying and Mapping

The former American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) was an international professional association representing the interests of those engaged in measuring and communicating spatial data relating to the Earth's surface.

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American Land Title Association

The American Land Title Association (ALTA), founded in 1907, is the national trade association representing nearly 5,500 title insurance companies, title and settlement agents, independent abstracters, title searchers and real estate attorneys.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).

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Baseline (surveying)

In surveying, a baseline is a line between two points on the earth's surface and the direction and distance between them.

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A beacon is an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location.

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Beating the bounds

Beating the bounds is an ancient custom still observed in some English and Welsh parishes.

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Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.

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A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.

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Bureau of Indian Affairs

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior.

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Bureau of Land Management

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country.

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Cadastral surveying

Cadastral surveying is the sub-field of cadastre and surveying that specialises in the establishment and re-establishment of real property boundaries.

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A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.

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Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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César-François Cassini de Thury

César-François Cassini de Thury (17 June 1714 – 4 September 1784), also called Cassini III or Cassini de Thury, was a French astronomer and cartographer.

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Chartered Surveyor

Chartered Surveyor is the description (protected by law in many countries) of Professional Members and Fellows of the RICS entitled to use the designation (and a number of variations such as "Chartered Building Surveyor" or "Chartered Quantity Surveyor" or "Chartered Civil Engineering Surveyor" depending on their field of expertise) in Commonwealth countries and Ireland.

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Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.

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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Construction surveying

Construction surveying or building surveying (otherwise known as "staking", "stake-out", "lay-out", "setting-out" or "BS") is to stake out reference points and markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Contour line

A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.

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A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.

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A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

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A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.

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David T. Abercrombie

David Thomas Abercrombie (June 6, 1867 – August 29, 1931) was the founder of the American lifestyle brand Abercrombie & Fitch.

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Deformation monitoring

Deformation monitoring (also referred to as deformation survey) is the systematic measurement and tracking of the alteration in the shape or dimensions of an object as a result of stresses induced by applied loads.

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Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.

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Dividing engine

A dividing engine is a device employed to mark graduations on measuring instruments to allow for reading smaller measurements than can be allowed by directly engraving them.

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Domesday Book

Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.

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Edmund Gunter

Edmund Gunter (1581 – 10 December 1626), was an English clergyman, mathematician, geometer and astronomer of Welsh descent.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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An excursion is a trip by a group of people, usually made for leisure, education, or physical purposes.

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The exsecant (exsec, exs) and excosecant (excosec, excsc, exc) are trigonometric functions defined in terms of the secant and cosecant functions.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Ronalds

Sir Francis Ronalds FRS (21 February 1788 – 8 August 1873) was an English scientist and inventor, and arguably the first electrical engineer.

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General Land Office

The General Land Office (GLO) was an independent agency of the United States government responsible for public domain lands in the United States.

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Geodetic control network

A geodetic control network (also geodetic network, reference network, control point network, or control network) is a network, often of triangles, which are measured exactly by techniques of terrestrial surveying or by satellite geodesy.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.

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Great Trigonometrical Survey

The Great Trigonometrical Survey was a project which aimed to measure the entire Indian subcontinent with scientific precision.

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Groma surveying

The Groma or gruma was a Roman surveying instrument.

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Gromatici (from Latin groma or gruma, a surveyor's pole) or agrimensores was the name for land-surveyors amongst the ancient Romans.

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Gunter's chain

Gunter's chain or the surveyor's chain (also known as Gunter’s measurement or surveyor’s measurement) is a distance measuring device used for land survey.

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In surveying, a gyrotheodolite (also: surveying gyro) is an instrument composed of a gyroscope mounted to a theodolite.

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Haidao Suanjing

Haidao Suanjing (海岛算经; The Sea Island Mathematical Manual) was written by the Chinese mathematician Liu Hui of the Three Kingdoms era (220–280) as an extension of chapter 9 of The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.

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Hydrographic survey

Hydrographic survey is the science of measurement and description of features which affect maritime navigation, marine construction, dredging, offshore oil exploration/offshore oil drilling and related activities.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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International Federation of Surveyors

International Federation of Surveyors (abbreviated FIG, after the Fédération Internationale des Géomètres) is the UN-recognized global organization for the profession of surveying and related disciplines.

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Invar, also known generically as FeNi36 (64FeNi in the US), is a nickel–iron alloy notable for its uniquely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE or α).

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Jacques Cassini

Jacques Cassini (18 February 1677 – 16 April 1756) was a French astronomer, son of the famous Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini.

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James Watt

James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

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Jesse Ramsden

Jesse Ramsden FRS FRSE (6 October 1735 – 5 November 1800) was a British mathematician, astronomical and scientific instrument maker.

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Land description

A land description location of the written words which delineate a specific piece of real property.

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Land Ordinance of 1785

The Land Ordinance of 1785 was adopted by the United States Congress of the Confederation on May 20, 1785.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Least squares

The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.

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Least squares adjustment

Least squares adjustment is a model for the solution of an overdetermined system of equations based on the principle of least squares of observation residuals.

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Leonard Digges (scientist)

Leonard Digges (c.1515 – c.1559) was a well-known English mathematician and surveyor, credited with the invention of the theodolite, and a great populariser of science through his writings in English on surveying, cartography, and military engineering.

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Level (instrument)

A level is a surveying optical instrument used to establish or verify points in the same horizontal plane.

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Levelling (British English) or leveling (American English; see spelling differences) is a branch of surveying, the object of which is to.

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Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.

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Liu Hui

Liu Hui was a Chinese mathematician who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China.

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Lost City of Z

The Lost City of Z is the name given by Col. Percy Harrison Fawcett, a British surveyor, to an indigenous city that he believed had existed in the jungle of the Mato Grosso state of Brazil.

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Meridian arc

In geodesy, a meridian arc measurement is the distance between two points with the same longitude, i.e., a segment of a meridian curve or its length.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metrology is the science of measurement.

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Mine survey

Mine surveying is the practice of determining the relative positions of points on or beneath the surface of the earth by direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction & elevation.

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Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.

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Mount Rushmore

Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore, a batholith in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota, United States.

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Nail (fastener)

In woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped object of metal (or wood, called a tree nail or "trunnel") which is used as a fastener, as a peg to hang something, or sometimes as a decoration.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nathaniel Bowditch

Nathaniel Bowditch (March 26, 1773 – March 16, 1838) was an early American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation.

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National Park Service

The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Octant (instrument)

The octant, also called reflecting quadrant, is a measuring instrument used primarily in navigation.

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Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.

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An orthophoto, orthophotograph or orthoimage is an aerial photograph or image geometrically corrected ("orthorectified") such that the scale is uniform: the photo has the same lack of distortion as a map.

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An outfitter is a shop or person that sells specialized clothes (an outfit is a set of clothing).

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Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property.

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Parallactic angle

In spherical astronomy, the parallactic angle is the angle between the great circle through a celestial object and the zenith, and the hour circle of the object.

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Percy Fawcett

Lieutenant Colonel Percy Harrison Fawcett (18 August 1867during or after 1925) was a British geographer, artillery officer, cartographer, archaeologist and explorer of South America.

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Personal protective equipment

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.

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Philadelphia rod

A Philadelphia rod is a level staff used in surveying.

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Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pipe (fluid conveyance)

A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Plane table

A plane table (plain table prior to 1830) is a device used in surveying and related disciplines to provide a solid and level surface on which to make field drawings, charts and maps.

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Position resection

Resection is a method for determining an unknown position (position finding) measuring angles with respect to known positions.

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Post-nominal letters

Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate that that individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute or fraternity.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Principal (commercial law)

In commercial law, a principal is a person, legal or natural, who authorizes an agent to act to create one or more legal relationships with a third party.

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Principal Triangulation of Great Britain

The Principal Triangulation of Britain was the first high-precision trigonometric survey of the whole of Great Britain (including Ireland), carried out between 1791 and 1853 under the auspices of the Board of Ordnance.

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Prismatic compass (surveying)

A prismatic compass is a navigation and surveying instrument which is extensively used to find out the bearing of the traversing and included angles between them, waypoints (an endpoint of the lcourse) and direction.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Public Land Survey System

The Public Land Survey System (PLSS) is the surveying method developed and used in the United States to plat, or divide, real property for sale and settling.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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Ramsden surveying instruments

The Ramsden surveying instruments are those constructed by Jesse Ramsden and used in high precision geodetic surveys carried out in the period 1784 to 1853.

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A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, in a process called ranging.

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Real property

In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.

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Real-time kinematic

Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is a satellite navigation technique used to enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based positioning systems (global navigation satellite systems, GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou.

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Regression analysis

In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.

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A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.

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Retaining wall

Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides.

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A reticle, or reticule, also known as a graticule, is a pattern of fine lines or markings built into the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescopic sight in a telescope, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope, to provide references during visual examination.

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A retroreflector (sometimes called a retroflector or cataphote) is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a minimum of scattering.

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A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.

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Robert Torrens

Sir Robert Richard Torrens, (1 July 1814 – 31 August 1884) was the third Premier of South Australia and a pioneer and author of a simplified system of transferring land.

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Rope stretcher

In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher (or harpedonaptai) was a surveyor who measured real property demarcations and foundations using knotted cords, stretched so the rope did not sag.

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Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors

The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) is a professional body that accredits professionals within the land, property, construction, and infrastructure sectors worldwide.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Special Flood Hazard Area

A Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) is an area identified by the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as an area with a special flood or mudflow, and/or flood related erosion hazard, as shown on a flood hazard boundary map or flood insurance rate map.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.

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Structural encroachment

A structural encroachment is a concept in American real property law, in which a piece of real property hangs from one property over the property line of another landowner's premises.

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Survey marker

Survey markers, also called survey marks, survey monuments, or geodetic marks, are objects placed to mark key survey points on the Earth's surface.

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Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.

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Surveying in early America

The history of surveying in early America included the mapping of large, unknown territories and the layout of the District of Columbia.

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Surveyor's wheel

A surveyor's wheel, also called a clickwheel, hodometer, waywiser, trundle wheel, measuring wheel or perambulator is a device for measuring distance.

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Tacheometry (from Greek for "quick measure"), is a system of rapid surveying, by which the horizontal and vertical positions of points on the earth's surface relative to one another are determined without using a chain or tape, or a separate levelling instrument.

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Tape measure

A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler and used to measure distance.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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The Tellurometer was the first successful microwave electronic distance measurement equipment.

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The Lost City of Z (book)

The Lost City of Z: A Tale of Deadly Obsession in the Amazon is the debut non-fiction book by American author David Grann.

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The Lost City of Z (film)

The Lost City of Z is a 2016 American biographical adventure drama film written and directed by James Gray, based on the 2009 book of the same name by David Grann.

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A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Torrens title

Torrens title is a land registration and land transfer system, in which a state creates and maintains a register of land holdings, which serves as the conclusive evidence (termed "indefeasibility") of title of the person recorded on the register as the proprietor (owner), and of all other interests recorded on the register.

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Total station

A total station (TS) or total station theodolite (TST) is an electronic/optical instrument used for surveying and building construction.

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Transit (satellite)

The Transit system, also known as NAVSAT or NNSS (for Navy Navigation Satellite System), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.

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Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

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Traverse (surveying)

Traverse is a method in the field of surveying to establish control networks.

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Trevor Wadley

Trevor Lloyd Wadley, (1920 – 21 May 1981) was a South African electrical engineer, best known for his development of the Wadley Loop circuit for greater stability in communications receivers.

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In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.

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Triangulation station

A triangulation station, also known as a triangulation pillar, trigonometrical station, trigonometrical point, trig station, trig beacon, or trig point, and sometimes informally as a trig, is a fixed surveying station, used in geodetic surveying and other surveying projects in its vicinity.

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Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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Tripod (surveying)

A surveyor's tripod is a device used to support any one of a number of surveying instruments, such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits.

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UGM-27 Polaris

The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.

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United States Army Corps of Engineers

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.

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United States Bureau of Reclamation

The United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and formerly the United States Reclamation Service (not to be confused with the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement), is a federal agency under the U.S. Department of the Interior, which oversees water resource management, specifically as it applies to the oversight and operation of the diversion, delivery, and storage projects that it has built throughout the western United States for irrigation, water supply, and attendant hydroelectric power generation.

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United States Fish and Wildlife Service

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the federal government within the U.S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats.

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United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Vernier scale

A vernier scale is a visual aid that allows the user to measure more precisely than could be done unaided when reading a uniformly divided straight or circular measurement scale.

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Willebrord Snellius

Willebrord Snellius (born Willebrord Snel van Royen) (13 June 158030 October 1626) was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, known in the English-speaking world as Snell.

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William Gascoigne (scientist)

William Gascoigne (1612 – 2 July 1644) was an English astronomer, mathematician and maker of scientific instruments from Middleton, Leeds who invented the micrometer.

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William Roy

Major-General William Roy FRS, FSA FRSE (4 May 1726 – 1 July 1790) was a Scottish military engineer, surveyor, and antiquarian.

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William the Conqueror

William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.

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3D scanner

A 3D scanner is a device that analyses a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. colour).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveying

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