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Suspension (vehicle)

Index Suspension (vehicle)

Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. [1]

158 relations: Abbot-Downing Company, AC Ace, AC Aceca, Active Body Control, Active suspension, Air suspension, Aircraft, Alex Moulton, Anti-roll bar, Anti-tank warfare, Armoured fighting vehicle, Austin Allegro, Automobile handling, Automobile layout, Automotive suspension design, Axle, Ball joint, Beam axle, Bellcrank, Bicycle fork, Bicycle suspension, BMC ADO16, Bogie, Bose Corporation, British Leyland, British Motor Corporation, Brush Motor Car Company, Buick, Bump steer, Bushing (isolator), Camber angle, Cant (road/rail), Car, Carbon steel, Caster angle, Central tire inflation system, Chapman strut, Chassis, Christie suspension, Citroën, Citroën 2CV, Coil spring, Coilover, Concord, New Hampshire, Continuous track, Control arm, Corduroy road, Corporate average fuel economy, Corvette leaf spring, Curiosity (rover), ..., Dakar Rally, Damping ratio, De Dion tube, Deflection (engineering), Differential (mechanical device), Double wishbone suspension, Drag (physics), Drive shaft, Electromagnetic suspension, Expense, Fiat 500, Ford Model T, Ford Motor Company, Four-wheel drive, Front-wheel drive, G-force, Height adjustable suspension, Henry Ford, Hooke's law, Horstmann suspension, Hotchkiss drive, Hudson Motor Car Company, Hydraulic fluid, Hydrolastic, Hydropneumatic suspension, Inch, Independent suspension, Industrial Revolution, Inerter (mechanical networks), Inertia, Korres P4, Lancia Lambda, Land mine, Leaf spring, Leyland Motors, Linkage (mechanical), Lotus Cars, M3 Lee, M4 Sherman, Macadam, MacPherson strut, Maglev, Magnetic levitation, Magnetorheological fluid, Malcolm C. Smith, Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-Benz CL-Class, Metacentric height, MG F / MG TF, Millimetre, Mini, Mors (automobile), Motorcycle fork, Multi-link suspension, Newton (unit), Nissan, Off-road vehicle, Oleo strut, Ox, Packard, Panhard Dyna Z, Panhard rod, Panther tank, Paris, Pascal (unit), Peugeot 403, Pound (force), Pounds per square inch, Ratio, Resonance, Reza N. Jazar, Ride quality, Roll center, Scrub radius, Self-levelling suspension, Shear modulus, Shock absorber, Sliding pillar suspension, Sports car, Spring (device), Sprung mass, Strut bar, Suspension (motorcycle), Suspension (vehicle), Swing axle, T-34, Tank, Tilting train, Tire, Torque tube, Torsion bar suspension, Track (rail transport), Trailing-arm suspension, Triumph TR3, Tuned mass damper, Twist-beam rear suspension, United States, Universal joint, Unsprung mass, Vehicle, Washboarding, Watt's linkage, Wheel, World Rally Championship, World War I, World War II, 4-poster, 7 post shaker. Expand index (108 more) »

Abbot-Downing Company

Abbot-Downing Company was a coach and carriage builder in Concord, New Hampshire, which became known throughout the United States for its products — in particular the first Concord stagecoach.

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AC Ace

AC Ace is a car which was produced by AC Cars of Thames Ditton, England, from 1953 to 1963.

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AC Aceca

The Aceca (pronounced "A-See-Ka") is a closed coupé from the British AC Cars company, produced from 1954 until 1963.

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Active Body Control

Active Body Control, or ABC, is the Mercedes-Benz brand name used to describe hydraulic fully active suspension, that allows control of the vehicle body motions and therefore virtually eliminates body roll in many driving situations including cornering, accelerating, and braking.

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Active suspension

Active suspension is a type of automotive suspension that controls the vertical movement of the wheels relative to the chassis or vehicle body with an onboard system, rather than in passive suspension where the movement is being determined entirely by the road surface.

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Air suspension

Air suspension is a type of vehicle suspension powered by an electric or engine-driven air pump or compressor.

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Aircraft

An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

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Alex Moulton

Alexander Eric ("Alex") Moulton CBE, FREng (9 April 1920 – 9 December 2012) was an English engineer and inventor, specialising in suspension design.

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Anti-roll bar

An anti-roll bar (roll bar, anti-sway bar, sway bar, stabilizer bar) is a part of many automobile suspensions that helps reduce the body roll of a vehicle during fast cornering or over road irregularities.

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Anti-tank warfare

Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.

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Armoured fighting vehicle

An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.

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Austin Allegro

The Austin Allegro is a small family car that was manufactured by the Austin-Morris division of British Leyland from 1973 until 1982.

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Automobile handling

Automobile handling and vehicle handling are descriptions of the way a wheeled vehicle responds and reacts to the inputs of a driver, as well as how it moves along a track or road.

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Automobile layout

In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found.

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Automotive suspension design

Automotive suspension design is an aspect of automotive engineering, concerned with designing the suspension for cars and trucks.

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Axle

An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.

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Ball joint

In an automobile, ball joints are spherical bearings that connect the control arms to the steering knuckles.

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Beam axle

A beam axle, rigid axle or solid axle is a dependent suspension design, in which a set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft.

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Bellcrank

A bellcrank is a type of crank that changes motion through an angle.

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Bicycle fork

A bicycle fork is the part of a bicycle that holds the front wheel.

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Bicycle suspension

Bicycle suspension is the system, or systems, used to suspend the rider and bicycle in order to insulate them from the roughness of the terrain.

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BMC ADO16

The BMC ADO16 (Amalgamated Drawing Office project number 16) is a range of small family cars built by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) and, later, British Leyland.

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Bogie

A bogie (in some senses called a truck in North American English) is a chassis or framework carrying wheelsets, attached to a vehicle, thus serving as a modular subassembly of wheels and axles.

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Bose Corporation

Bose Corporation is a privately held American corporation, based in Framingham, Massachusetts, that designs, develops and sells audio equipment.

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British Leyland

British Leyland was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings.

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British Motor Corporation

The British Motor Corporation Limited (BMC) was a UK-based vehicle manufacturer, formed in early 1952 to give effect to an agreed merger of the Morris and Austin businesses.

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Brush Motor Car Company

Brush Motor Car Company (1907-1909), later the Brush Runabout Company (1909-1913), was based in Highland Park, Michigan.

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Buick

Buick, formally the Buick Motor Division, is an upscale automobile brand of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM).

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Bump steer

Bump steer or roll steer is the term for the tendency of the wheel of a car to steer itself as it moves through the suspension stroke.

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Bushing (isolator)

A bushing or rubber bushing is a type of vibration isolator.

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Camber angle

From the front of the car, a right wheel with a negative camber angle Camber angle is the angle made by the wheels of a vehicle; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheels used for steering and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear.

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Cant (road/rail)

The cant of a railway track or camber of a road (also referred to as superelevation, cross slope or cross fall) is the rate of change in elevation (height) between the two rails or edges.

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Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Carbon steel

Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.

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Caster angle

θ is the caster angle, the red line is the pivot line, and the grey area is the tire. The caster angle or castor angle is the angular displacement of the steering axis from the vertical axis of a steered wheel in a car, motorcycle, bicycle or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction.

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Central tire inflation system

A central tire inflation system (CTIS) is a system to provide control over the air pressure in each tire of a vehicle as a way to improve performance on different surfaces.

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Chapman strut

The Chapman strut is a design of independent rear suspension used for light cars, particularly sports and racing cars.

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Chassis

A chassis (plural chassis) is the internal framework of an artificial object, which supports the object in its construction and use.

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Christie suspension

The Christie suspension is a suspension system developed by American engineer J. Walter Christie for his tank designs.

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Citroën

Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).

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Citroën 2CV

The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".

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Coil spring

A coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces.

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Coilover

A coilover is an automobile suspension device.

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Concord, New Hampshire

Concord is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the county seat of Merrimack County.

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Continuous track

Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.

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Control arm

In automotive suspension, a control arm, also known as an A-arm, is a hinged suspension link between the chassis and the suspension upright or hub that carries the wheel.

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Corduroy road

A corduroy road or log road is a type of road made by placing logs, perpendicular to the direction of the road over a low or swampy area.

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Corporate average fuel economy

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are regulations in the United States, first enacted by the United States Congress in 1975, after the 1973–74 Arab Oil Embargo, to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) produced for sale in the United States.

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Corvette leaf spring

Corvette leaf spring commonly refers to a type of independent suspension that utilizes a fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) mono-leaf spring instead of more conventional coil springs.

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Curiosity (rover)

Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).

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Dakar Rally

The Dakar Rally (or simply "The Dakar"; formerly known as the "Paris–Dakar Rally") is an annual rally raid organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation.

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Damping ratio

Damping is an influence within or upon an oscillatory system that has the effect of reducing, restricting or preventing its oscillations.

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De Dion tube

De Dion rear axle A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology.

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Deflection (engineering)

In engineering, deflection is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load.

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Differential (mechanical device)

A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.

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Double wishbone suspension

In automobiles, a double wishbone suspension is an independent suspension design using two (occasionally parallel) wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel.

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Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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Drive shaft

A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft (prop shaft), or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.

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Electromagnetic suspension

Electromagnetic suspension (EMS) is the magnetic levitation of an object achieved by constantly altering the strength of a magnetic field produced by electromagnets using a feedback loop.

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Expense

In common usage, an expense or expenditure is an outflow of money to another person or group to pay for an item or service, or for a category of costs.

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Fiat 500

The Fiat 500 (Cinquecento) is a rear-engined, four seat, small city car that was manufactured and marketed by Fiat Automobiles from 1957 to 1975 over a single generation in two-door saloon and two-door station wagon bodystyles.

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Ford Model T

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.

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Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

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Four-wheel drive

Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.

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Front-wheel drive

Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.

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G-force

The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.

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Height adjustable suspension

Height adjustable suspension is a feature of certain automobile suspension systems that allow the motorist to vary the ride height or ground clearance.

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Henry Ford

Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.

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Hooke's law

Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.

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Horstmann suspension

Horstmann suspension is a type of tracked suspension devised by the British engineer Sidney Horstmann in 1922.

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Hotchkiss drive

The Hotchkiss drive is a shaft drive form of power transmission.

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Hudson Motor Car Company

The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, Michigan, from 1909 to 1954.

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Hydraulic fluid

A hydraulic fluid or hydraulic liquid is the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery.

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Hydrolastic

Hydrolastic is a type of space-efficient automotive suspension system used in many cars produced by British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successor companies.

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Hydropneumatic suspension

Hydropneumatic suspension is a type of motor vehicle suspension system, designed by Paul Magès, invented by Citroën, and fitted to Citroën cars, as well as being used under licence by other car manufacturers, notably Rolls-Royce (Silver Shadow), Maserati (Quattroporte II) and Peugeot.

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Inch

The inch (abbreviation: in or &Prime) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to yard but usually understood as of a foot.

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Independent suspension

Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of the others.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Inerter (mechanical networks)

In the study of mechanical networks in control theory, an inerter is a two-terminal device in which the forces applied at the terminals are equal, opposite, and proportional to relative acceleration between the nodes.

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Inertia

Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.

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Korres P4

The Korres P4 is a Greek made sports car designed by Korres Engineering and is the first Greek "true" supercar and the only sports/super car that can travel on both dirt and pavement at high speeds.

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Lancia Lambda

The Lancia Lambda is an innovative automobile produced from 1922 through 1931.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Leaf spring

A leaf spring is a simple form of spring commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles.

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Leyland Motors

Leyland Motors Limited was a British vehicle manufacturer of lorries, buses and trolleybuses.

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Linkage (mechanical)

A mechanical linkage is an assembly of bodies connected to manage forces and movement.

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Lotus Cars

Lotus Cars is a British automotive company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars in its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom.

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M3 Lee

The M3 Lee, officially Medium Tank, M3, was an American medium tank used during World War II.

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M4 Sherman

The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.

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Macadam

Macadam is a type of road construction, pioneered by Scottish engineer John Loudon McAdam around 1820, in which single-sized crushed stone layers of small angular stones are placed in shallow lifts and compacted thoroughly.

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MacPherson strut

The MacPherson strut is a type of automotive suspension system that uses the top of a telescopic damper as the upper steering pivot.

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Maglev

Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a system of train transportation that uses two sets of magnets, one set to repel and push the train up off the track as in levitation (hence Maglev, Magnetic-levitation), then another set to move the 'floating train' ahead at great speed taking advantage of the lack of friction.

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Magnetic levitation

Magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields.

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Magnetorheological fluid

A magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid, or MRF) is a type of smart fluid in a carrier fluid, usually a type of oil.

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Malcolm C. Smith

Malcolm Clive Smith FREng, FIEEE is a British electrical engineer.

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Mercedes-Benz

Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.

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Mercedes-Benz CL-Class

The Mercedes-Benz CL-Class is a line of full-size luxury grand tourers which was produced by the German automaker Mercedes-Benz, produced from 1992 to 2014 in the US.

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Metacentric height

The metacentric height (GM) is a measurement of the initial static stability of a floating body.

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MG F / MG TF

The MG F and MG TF are mid-engined, rear wheel drive roadster cars that were sold under the MG marque by three manufacturers between 1995 and 2011.

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Millimetre

The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Mini

The Mini is a small economy car produced by the English-based British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 until 2000.

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Mors (automobile)

The Mors automobile factory was an early French car manufacturer.

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Motorcycle fork

A motorcycle fork connects a motorcycle's front wheel and axle to its frame, typically via a triple tree, which consists of an upper triple clamp joined to a lower triple clamp via a steering stem, a shaft that runs through the steering head, creating the steering axis.

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Multi-link suspension

A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design typically used in independent suspensions, using three or more lateral arms, and one or more longitudinal arms.

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Newton (unit)

The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.

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Nissan

, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.

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Off-road vehicle

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

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Oleo strut

An oleo strut is a pneumatic air–oil hydraulic shock absorber used on the landing gear of most large aircraft and many smaller ones.

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Ox

An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.

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Packard

Packard was an American luxury automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, United States.

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Panhard Dyna Z

The Panhard Dyna Z is a lightweight motor car produced by Panhard of France from 1954 to 1959.

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Panhard rod

A Panhard rod (also called Panhard bar, track bar, or track rod) is a suspension link that provides lateral location of the axle.

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Panther tank

The Panther is a German medium tank deployed during World War II on the Eastern and Western Fronts in Europe from mid-1943 to the war's end in 1945.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Peugeot 403

The Peugeot 403 is a car produced by French automobile manufacturer Peugeot between May 1955 and October 1966.

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Pound (force)

The pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.

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Pounds per square inch

The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.

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Ratio

In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.

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Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

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Reza N. Jazar

Gholamreza "Reza" Nakahie Jazar is a professor of mechanical engineering at RMIT University.

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Ride quality

Ride quality refers to a vehicle's effectiveness in insulating the occupants from undulations in the road surface (eg bumps or corrugations).

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Roll center

The roll center of a vehicle is the notional point at which the cornering forces in the suspension are reacted to the vehicle body.

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Scrub radius

The scrub radius is the distance in front view between the king pin axis and the center of the contact patch of the wheel, where both would theoretically touch the road.

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Self-levelling suspension

Self-levelling refers to an automobile suspension system that maintains a constant ride height of the vehicle above the road, regardless of load.

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Shear modulus

In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: where The derived SI unit of shear modulus is the pascal (Pa), although it is usually expressed in gigapascals (GPa) or in thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi).

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Shock absorber

A shock absorber (in reality, a shock "damper") is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses.

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Sliding pillar suspension

A sliding pillar suspension is a form of independent front suspension for light cars.

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Sports car

A sports car, or sportscar, is a small, usually two-seater, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling.

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Spring (device)

A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.

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Sprung mass

In a vehicle with a suspension, such as an automobile, motorcycle or a tank, sprung mass (or sprung weight) is the portion of the vehicle's total mass that is supported above the suspension, including in most applications approximately half of the weight of the suspension itself.

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Strut bar

A strut bar, strut brace, or strut tower brace (STB) is an automotive suspension accessory usually used in conjunction with MacPherson struts on monocoque or unibody chassis to provide extra stiffness between the strut towers.

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Suspension (motorcycle)

A motorcycle's suspension serves a dual purpose: contributing to the vehicle's handling and braking, and providing safety and comfort by keeping the vehicle's passengers comfortably isolated from road noise, bumps and vibrations.

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Suspension (vehicle)

Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.

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Swing axle

A swing axle is a simple type of independent (rear wheel) suspension designed and patented by Edmund Rumpler in 1903.

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T-34

The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.

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Tank

A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.

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Tilting train

A tilting train is a train that has a mechanism enabling increased speed on regular rail tracks.

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Tire

A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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Torque tube

A torque tube system is a drive shaft technology, often used in automobiles with a front engine and rear drive.

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Torsion bar suspension

A front VW Beetle suspension cross-section A torsion bar suspension, also known as a torsion spring suspension (not to be confused with a torsion beam rear suspension), is a general term for any vehicle suspension that uses a torsion bar as its main weight-bearing spring.

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Track (rail transport)

The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.

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Trailing-arm suspension

A trailing-arm suspension, sometimes referred as trailing-link is a vehicle suspension design in which one or more arms (or "links") are connected between (and perpendicular to and forward of) the axle and a pivot point (located on the chassis of a motor vehicle).

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Triumph TR3

The Triumph TR3 is a British sports car produced between 1955 and 1962 by the Standard-Triumph Motor Company of Coventry, England.

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Tuned mass damper

A tuned mass damper, also known as a harmonic absorber or seismic damper, is a device mounted in structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations.

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Twist-beam rear suspension

The twist-beam rear suspension (also torsion-beam axle or deformable torsion beam) is a type of automobile suspension based on a large H or C shaped member.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Universal joint

A universal joint (universal coupling, U-joint, Cardan joint, Spicer or Hardy Spicer joint, or Hooke's joint) is a joint or coupling connecting rigid rods whose axes are inclined to each other, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion.

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Unsprung mass

In a ground vehicle with a suspension, the unsprung mass (or the unsprung weight) is the mass of the suspension, wheels or tracks (as applicable), and other components directly connected to them, rather than supported by the suspension (the mass of the body and other components supported by the suspension is the sprung mass).

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Vehicle

A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.

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Washboarding

Washboarding or corrugation is the formation of periodic, transverse ripples in the surface of gravel and dirt roads.

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Watt's linkage

Watt's linkage (also known as the parallel linkage) is a type of mechanical linkage invented by James Watt (19 January 1736 – 25 August 1819) in which the central moving point of the linkage is constrained to travel on an approximation to a straight line.

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Wheel

A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

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World Rally Championship

The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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4-poster

A 4-poster or four poster automotive test system is specifically designed for the testing of vehicles (cars, trucks).

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7 post shaker

The 7 post shaker is a piece of test equipment used to perform technical analysis on race cars.

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Automotive suspension, Car suspension, Interconnected suspension systems, Rear suspension, Suspension (mechanical), Suspension (mechanics), Suspension (vehicles), Suspension System, Suspension geometry, Suspension system, Suspension travel, Vehicle suspension.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle)

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